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TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society 

FOR 

1904. 



TRANSACTIONS 

r ■ 

CF THE 

Bristol ano (Blouceetevsbi 
HvcbaeoloQtcal Society 

FOR 
1904. 

Edited by Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A. 
VOL. XXVII. 



BRISTOL : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY J. W. ARROWSMITH QUA\ STREET' 



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statement made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are 
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and 
the Editor, the Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., F.S.A., Banweli Vicarage, 
Somerset, for the Notices of Books. 



1396888 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOL. XXVII. 



J 



Proceedings at the Annual Spring Meeting at Bredon, 
Strensham, and Pershore . . ... 

Proceedings at the Annual Summer Meeting at 
Hereford . . . . . . . 

The Early Connection Between the Churches of 
Gloucester and Hereford . 



Effigies of Bristol . . 
The Church and Monastery of Abbey Dore 
Bristol Cathedral : The Choir Screen . 
The Date of Wansdyke . . 

The Painswick or Ifold Villa . 



On Some Gloucestershire Manuscripts now in Hereford 
Cathedral Library .... 

The Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol 

Heraldry Read at the Bredon Meeting . 

Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral . 

Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1903 . 

The Old Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol 

The Bristol Hotwells ...... 



Page 



x 5 

45 
5i 
117 
127 
131 
156 

172 
221 

275 
289 

327 
340 
352 



Notices of Recent Archaeological and Historical 

Publications ........ 211, 354 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 



Bredon Church — From the South . . . ' . . 4 

., North Porch ...... 4 

,, Reade Monument . . . . 4 

,, Interior ....... 4 

Strensham — Russell Monuments ..... 12 

,, Rood Screen . . . . . . . 12 

Pershore Abbey — Interior . . . . . . . 12 

- ExTERfoR . . . . . 14 

Hereford Cathedral — From N.W. . . . . . 17 

,, North Transept .... 20 

,, ,, South .... 21 

,, ,, Ground Plan . . . . . 24 

,, ,, Reproduction of West Front . 24 

,, ,, ,, Presbytery . 24. 

Old Map of Hereford .... . . . . 24 

Kilpeck Church — From S.W. 74 

,, South Doorway . . . - . 24 

Ludlow Church — Interior 24 

,, Windows in St. John's Chapel . . 24 

Hereford Cathedral — Lady Chapel . . . . 26 

,, ,, ,, ,, Arch in Vestibule 26 

Ewias Harold Church . . . . . . . 30 

Abbey Dore — Exterior . 32 

,, Ground Plan . . . . .' . 32 

Madley Church . . 34 



viii List of Illustrations. 



Page 

Ludlow Castle — The Keep 40 

,, State Apartments ..... 4a 

,, Interior of Great Hall ... 40 

,, West Door of Chapel .... 40 

Leominster — Cucking Stool 43 

Bristol Cathedral — Choir Screen . . . . . 128 

Ifold Villa — Plan of the Farm 156 

„ Villa 156 

Articles Found 158, 160 

,, Flue Tile s Stamped R.P.G 159 

,, Column and Cap . . . . . . . 161 

,, Mosaic Pavement 162 

,, General View ........ 164 

,, Hypocausts . . . . . . 166, 167 

Gloucester Cathedral — 

Effigy of Abbot Serlo . . . . . . 291 

,, John Jones . . . ,. . . 317 

Abraham and Gertrude Blackleech . 319 

Objects Found in Bristol, 1903. Plate I. 329 

,, - ,, Plate II. . . . 330 

,, ,, Plate III. . . . 331 

Three Kings Inn, Thomas Street, Bristol . . . 337 

Ancient Chimney-pieces, Bristol 338 

Old Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol — 

Ground Plan 341 

Old Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol — 

Four Bosses . . . 350 

Two Views of the Hotwells . ... . . 352 



PROCEEDINGS 
At the Annual Spring Meeting, 
At Bredon, Strensham, and Pershore, 

Tuesday, June 7th, 7904. 



"This meeting proved to be a most successful and instructive one. 
Bredon, Strensham, and Pershore were visited, and although it is not the 
first time the Society has been there — Bredon being included in the 
programme in 1885 and 1895, and the other two places on the latter date— 
the ground was new to many members. What made the meeting so 
attractive was the arrangement whereby the journey from Bredon to 
Pershore was made by river, an innovation that proved very acceptable. 
The weather was delightfully fine, and the large number of members 
present had a most enjoyable day under the best conditions. The party 
totalled between 160 and 170— a record by about fifty. 

The first place visited was Bredon, and the party enjoyed the walk 
through the picturesque Worcestershire village, with its thatched cottages, 
to the parish church, where the members were received by the Rev. 
G. J. Saywell (curate), in the absence of the Rev. H. G. Cavendish-Brown 
(rector). 

The. monastery of St. Peter at Bredon was founded by Eanulf, grand- 
father of King Offa, probably about 716, and in 731 Tatwin, a priest of 

2 , 

~Vol. XXVII. 



2 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



the minster, became Archbishop of Canterbury. Bede calls him " a man 
distinguished for religion and prudence, and notably well instructed in 
sacred literature." He is also remarkable as being the first Mercian who 
sat in the throne of St. Augustine, and his elevation no doubt marks the 
growing influence of Mercia under Ethelbald. His successor, Cuthbert, 
was also a Mercian, translated from Hereford. In 772 King Offa granted 
to the minster the land of eight manentes at Evenlode after the death of 
the thegn Ridda, his wife Bucga, and their daughter Heaburg. 1 On 
September 22nd 780, he granted to Bredon land at Wsersetfelda, Coftun, 
and Wreodanhal, with apparently an use to the Bishop of Worcester : 
"hi usum episcopi Weogernensis cecclesice maneat." 2 This would seem to 
mark an early connection between the cathedral and the, lesser minster,, 
unless, indeed, it marks the compromise of a dispute between the two 
churches concerning the property. On the same day, however, Offa 
granted thirty -five hides to Bredon absolutely — five at Teddington on the 
Carent, and ten each at Washbourne, Codeswell (Cutsdean), and Norton 
on the Tyrl. 3 In 781, as a part of the great dispute between King Offa 
and Bishop Heathored, which led to the surrender of the Minster of Bath 
by the bishop, Offa had laid claim to twelve cassates at Bredon, but there 
is nothing to show which they were or what was the nature of the king's 
claim. 15 On Christmas Day, 841, Berhtulf, King of the Mercians, granted 
to Abbot Eanmund and the family at Bredon freedom from the service 
called fcestingmcn — probably the entertainment and forwarding on their 
journey of royal messengers or travellers — in return for a precious silver 
dish, 120 mancnsses of pure gold, and the chanting of 1,200 psalters and 
120 masses for the welfare of the king and his realm. Again, in 844 or 84S 
Berhtulf granted to the same abbot and his family freedom from the 
services called cum feormc and eafor, also from the service of providing 
food for the hawks or horses of the king or his huntsmen and servants ; 
except that when messengers for the king came from over the sea, or from 
the West Saxons or Northumbrians, if they came before midday dinner 
must be provided for them, if they came after the ninth hour they must be 
entertained for the night. Other privileges were granted by Humberht, 
prince of the Tonsets.- 15 In return the family at Bredon granted to the 
king 180 mancusses of pure gold and the land of fifteen manentes at 
Stanleghe and Bellanford. After this we hear no more of Bredon 
as an independent minster; probably it was disorganised during the 
roubles of the Danish invasions, and it became a possession of the 
cathedral at Worcester. It remained with the Mother Church till 
after the consecration of Edwin Sandys to the See on December 21st, 
1559, when Queen Elizabeth retained Bredon, Bishop's Cleeve, Bishop's. 

1 K. C. D., cxx. ; C. S., 209, 210. 2 K. C. D., cxxxviii. ; C. S., 234. 

3 K. CD., cxl.; (J. S., 236. 4 K. C. D., cxliii. ; C. S., 241. 

6 K. C.'D., cclzi. ; C.S.,454. 



Bredon. 



3 



Wyke, Knight Wyke, and Henbury, giving in return in the fourth 
year of her reign some impropriations and tenths of quite inadequate 
value. 1 

The only existing relic of the Saxon monastery is a portion of a 
beautiful interlaced cross, which was found in the churchyard and placed 
in the chancel. 

The church consists of a lofty nave with north porch, Early English 
south aisle, and Decorated north aisle. A tower has been inserted between 
the nave and the chancel. It has a transitional Norman arch on the west 
and an Early English arch on the east. There are no traces of transepts ; 
the tower was evidently an afterthought. The western end of the nave is 
especially interesting, as, with the exception of the west window, inserted 
in the fifteenth century, it retains all its original Norman work. The 
three doorways on the north, west, and south, with their chevron 
mouldings, are beautiful examples of that style. 

The west front is flanked by square turrets with pyramidal caps, 
the angles of the upper stages being enriched with mouldings. The 
roof of the porch is groined with diagonal ribs springing from shafts 
in the angles. Over this is a parvise, to which there is apparently 
no access. 

The corbel table of the nave is continued round the porch, proving it 
to be of the same date as the rest of the building, say about 1150. The 
windows are plain, being splayed deeply on the inside. 

The first change took place apparently early in the thirteenth century, 
when the south wall of the nave was taken down as far as the north and 
south doorways, an Early English arcade of two arches was inserted in its 
place and a south chapel was constructed, having a triplet window at the 
east end, four couplets of trefoil-headed lancets on the south, and a couplet 
with quatrefoil head ai the west end. This last window is now blocked by 
the fine Jacobean monument of Giles Reade, his wife, and eight children. 
On the south side there are a trefoil-headed piscina and three sculptured 
slabs in arched recesses —one representing two human arms rising from a 
shield and bearing a heart is especially worthy of notice. In the north- 
east angle is the door leading to the rood-loft staircase. The Perpendicular 
rood-loft itself was ruthlessly destroyed some seventy years ago. A 
drawing of one of the panels is given in the third volume of Reports and 
Papers of the Associated Architectural Societies, 1855, P- 334- 

At the close of the thirteenth century a chapel was built on the north 
side of the nave and an arcade of two arches was constructed, as on the 
opposite side, with a central octagonal shaft and two responds. The 
capitals are very poor when compared with the Early English caps 
opposite. The windows are Geometrical. 

1 Dugdale, Mots. Aug., i. 578. 



4 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



The Early English tower of two stages has a graceful spire, which 
forms a delightful feature in the view from the river or opposite shore. It 
stands between the nave and chancel, without transepts. There are some 
forty churches in Gloucestershire similarly constructed, for example 
Brockworth, Beckford, Leckhampton, and Ozleworth. It is possible that 
when the church was first built there was an apse where the tower now 
stands, or a short choir with a chancel beyond. 

The chancel is Early Geometrical, and was, it would seem, built in the 
reign of Edward I. Under the eaves is a -cornice, with a ball ornament 
and the heads and shoulders of human figures in the hollow moulding. 
In a buttress on the north side has been inserted what seems to be a very 
beautiful piscina with ball-flower ornaments of somewhat later date than 
the chancel itself, perhaps about 1318. The east window is of four lights 
with geometrical tracery. Nash says that in the six side windows of the 
chancel are the arms of Tateshall, Beauchamp, Vesey, Copeley, Botely, 
Eaton, &c. r These families, we may suppose, contributed to the building 
■of the chancel. On the north side is a Decorated founder's tomb, or 
Easter sepulchre, and an aumbry; and on the south wall is a piscina with 
a low window behind it. To the west of this are three sedilia. Placed 
upright against the south wall is a most interesting and beautiful 
Edwardian monument, illustrated in our Transactions, vol. x., p. 159. It 
was found lying on its face in the chancel. Next to this is a fifteenth- 
century tomb with the three miniature recumbent figures of a man, his 
wife, and his child. On the floor is a large slab with an inscription in 
memory of John Prideaux, Bishop of Worcester, 1641 — 1650. He was 
deprived of his income and home by the Puritans, and, taking refuge with 
his son-in-law at Bredon, existed on an allowance of 4s. 6d. a week until 
his death on July 29th, 1650, at the age of 72 ! 

The collection of heraldic encaustic tiles on the front of the chancel 
steps is perhaps one of the finest in England. It is described by the 
Rev. A. S. Porter, a great authority on tiles, in a report of the Worcester 
Diocesan Architectural Society, Reports and Papers, vol. xix., pp. 149-160. 
They have been carefully drawn by Mr. Roland Paul, who kindly sent me 
tracing of one about which I had some difficulty. Nash, in his History of 
Worcestershire, says that in his time were painted on the east wall of the 
chancel— on one side the arms of Mortimer, and on the other side ten 
bezants quartering Cornwall with a prince's crown. 

The tiles show that they were given by one of the Mortimers, probably 
Roger, third Earl of March, 1331-1360, during the episcopacy of John de 
Trillick, Bishop of Hereford 1344-1360. Trillick had been rector of Bredon 
from 1300 to 1339, and in all probability the chancel was beautified under 
his superintendence. He did not forget Bredon when he was raised to the 
1 History of Worcestershire 1781, vol. i., 131. < 




Neininger, Phot. 

NORTH PORCH, BREDON. 




Neininger, Phot. 

READE MONUMENT, BREDON. 




Nei /ringer, Phot. 

5T. GILES' CHURCH, BREDON. 



Bredon. 



5 



episcopal dignity, and it was through his influence that his all-powerful 
neighbours at Wigmore, Richard's Castle and Hanley Castle ordered these 
tiles to be made and presented them to Bredon Church. 

It is possible to connect most of them with the Mortimer family, or 
with the more or less powerful families wft'h whom the Mortimers inter- 
married in the reign of the third Edward. They deserve more careful 
attention than has ever been given to them, and should furnish matter for 
a substantive paper in our Transactions. 

In the churchyard are a coped tomb and a recumbent cross profusely 
enriched with the ball-flower ornament. The church has been described 
in our Transactions, vol. x., pp. 159, 160, and vol. xix., pp. 19, 20; in 
Brandon's Parish Churches, vol. ii , p. 51 ; in the AvchcBological Journal, 
vol. iv., p. 105; and in the Reports of the Worcester Diocesan Archi- 
tectural Society, as above. 

Nash mentions many other coats of arms which have unfortunately 
been lost since his time. 

The Society is indebted to Mr. Neininger, of King Street, Gloucester, 
for the photographs of Bredon. 

After a short service, 

The Rev. Canon Bazeley gave a description of the church, founded 
on the notes which he had written for the programme, and which are 
given above. After alluding to the early history of the monastery which 
had stood on the same site, he called attention to the features which, he 
said, deserved careful examination by those present : a beautiful interlaced 
cross, perhaps of Saxon workmanship ; the twelfth-century tower without 
transepts ; the Mortimer heraldic tiles on the rising of the chancel steps, 
on which he promised a joint paper by Mr. Were and himself; the fine 
Jacobaean monument of Giles Reade and the sculptured slabs in the 
south chapel, especially the carving, which represented two human arms- 
protruding from a shield and holding a heart; the monuments in the 
chancel, especially the beautiful thirteenth-century tomb, of which a 
drawing was given in the tenth volume of this Society's Transactions ; the 
fifteenth-century tomb, with miniature figures of a man, his wife and child; 
and the floor-slab over the tomb of John Prideaux, the unfortunate Bishop 
of Worcester, who was deprived of his bishopric and his means of 
livelihood by the Puritans and died almost a pauper at Bredon. 

Mr. Were gave some interesting particulars with regard to the tiles> 
which numbered about seventy, and included several varieties of the 
Mortimer arms and also those of Ferrers, Trillick, and Elmbrugg, the 
latter family coming from an adjoining manor. 

Before quitting Bredon a visit was paid to the mediaeval tythe barn, an 
unusually fine specimen, dating from the fifteenth century. It consists of 
a nave and two aisles, and is 130 feet in length, the nave being twenty 



6 



Transactions for the Year 1904 = 



feet in width and the aisles eight feet six inches in width. The roof is of 
one span, and there is a noteworthy stone chimney. 

Much as the company enjoyed the visit to the interesting church at 
Bredon, there was a greater treat in store for them. Passing through the 
meadows, they found awaiting them at the riverside two fine steamers, the 
River Queen and the Jubilee, which were to take them the fourteen miles' 
journey to Pershore, calling at Strensham on the way. The sun shone 
brilliantly, but the heat was never oppressive, as a cooling wind was 
blowing. The scenery that was unfolded as the steamers proceeded along 
the winding river delighted everybody. Luncheon was served on board to 
parties of twenty, and the holders of the early-issued tickets were able to 
partake of their meal by the time Strensham was reached. 

Canon Bazeley described the church which stands in a picturesque 
situation, overlooking the fertile Avon Valley, and commanding fine views 
of Bredon Hill and the Malvern range. 

Strensham appears in the form Strengesho in King Edgar's Confirmation 
Charter of 972 to Pershore Abbey. It is said that the manor was given 
to the Abbey of Westminster by Edward the Confessor, and that early in 
the reign of Henry III. it was held of the abbot by Hugh de Fokington. 
Strensham nowhere appears by name in Domesday, and as it does not 
appear in the Augmentation Roll among the estates of Westminster, it was 
no doubt not a possession of the abbey at the time of the Dissolution. In 
1292 Sir . Roger de la Ware was patron of the church of Strensham. 
Before the end of the thirteenth century the Russells, said to be a family 
of Norman origin, took up their residence at Strensham, and James Russell 
presented a kinsman to the living in 1300. 1 This confirms a statement on 
the monument of Francis Russell, the last male possessor of that name, 
who died in 1705, that his race had held the manor for more than 
400 years. 

There are traces of an earlier church in the east wall of the chancel, 
the lower part of which contains numerous fragments of thirteenth-century 
moulding, very similar to those which are found in the church at Matson. 
It was probably built in the earlier years of the reign of Henry III. by the 
Abbot of Westminster. The present building has been left untouched by 
the nineteenth-century restorer, and is rich in brass and marble monuments, 
paintings on panels, encaustic tiles, and sixteenth-century woodwork. 
There are numerous heraldic coats, principally of the Russells and the 
families with whom they intermarried. There are also some hatchments 
of the Taylor family, who have possessed the manor for many years past. 
The following sketch pedigree of the Russells will, it is hoped, assist our 
members in their archaeological researches : — 

1 Bishop Giffaid's Register. 



Strensham. 



7 



James Russell, living at Strensham in 1272, 

Patron of the Living in 1300 = Jane 

. 1 

Agnes (2) = Nicholas = (1) Alice Gryndon 

Patron 1349. Patron 1312, 1318, i#z8 



Sir Robert = Catherine Vampage 
Patron 1361. 



Elizabeth (1) = Sir John, d. 1405 = (3) Agnes Planches 
Margaret (2; Patron 1376, 1388, 
1394, 1402. Brass, 



I 

William == Agnes Hodington, co-heiress of the Casseys 
and Cookeseys. 



Robert = Elizabeth Throcmorton 
I Patron 1409, 1414. 



Robert = Johanna Delabere 
Patron 1434 I 



Patron 1482, 1500 ; d. 1502 
Brass 



Robert Elizabeth Baynham 



Brass. 



Patron 1549 ; d. 1556. 

Monument. 



Sir John = Edith Umpton 



d. 1562. 



Prances Cholmondeley == Sir Thomas = Margaret Ligon 
Knt. 1569. 

Sir John Elizabeth Sheldon 



Sir Thomas = Elizabeth Spencer 



d. 1632. 

Monument. 



d. 1618. 



Sir William, Bart. = Frances Read 
d. 1669. 
Monument. 



Sir Francis = 


= Anne Litton 


d. 1705. 




Monument. 





(1) Anne 
Wife of Guise, Lygon 
and Every, d. 1734. 
Monument. 



Mary 
Wife of T. Jones, 



Elizabeth = W. Dansey. 
Lady of Strensham 



Anne Dansey d. 1754. 
Monument. 

1 The Heralds' Visitation says that Sir Robert was a son of Nicholas, but the inscription 
on the brass says "nlius Thomas." 



8 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



There are ten monuments of the Russell family : — 

1. The brass of a man in late fourteenth-century armour, c. 1375, the 
earliest in Worcestershire: IRobeitUS IRllSSell, ftlillS Z\)Om& IRUSSell 

quonoam oomtnus oe Stren^sbam cujus anime propicietur 
2>eus. 

2. The brass of a knight in armour : 1blC jacet SobanneS IRllSSell, 

cbivaler, oomtnus oe Strensbam, qui obtit apuD Xetber^nbam in 
comitatu Soutb folck ultimo Me niensis ^anuaiij anno 2)omim 
mccccv. ©rate pro animabus oictt 3obanms et Blisabetba:, 
/Iftargarita: et Bgnetts ujorum suarum quarum animabus pro* 
picietut Deus. Bmen. 

3 and 4. In the vestry, as Mr. Davis found them in 1883, are the 
brasses of an esquire in the armour of the time of Henry VII. and of a 
lady ; the heads of both are separated from the bodies. Inscription : 

Ifoere l^etb TRobert IRussell of Strensbam ^Esqiuer sometime 
loro of tbis manor, ano BU3abetb bis w^ffe, tbe wbicb IRobert 
oeceaseo tbe ££uj Da\> of June 1502 on vvbose soul 5esus bave 
merc£. 

One shield remains with the paternal arms of Elizabeth Russell, 
daughter of Thomas Baynham, of Clowerwall, Co. Glos. : Gu. a chevron 
sa. bctiveen 3 bulls' heads cabossed arg. armed or. 

The Harleian MS. 1041 tells us that she married secondly Robert 
Throckmorton [Vis. Glou. 1643, p. 14]. Surely these brasses should be 
replaced in the chancel as soon as possible. 

5. Mural brass. A knight, Sir John Russell, kneeling with heraldic 
tabard, and by his side his wife Edith, daughter of Sir Thomas Umpton. 

Below the brass is a tomb with an inscription saying that Sir John died 
1556 and Dame Elizabeth in 1562. 

6. Monument on the south side of the chancel, with recumbent effigies 
of Sir Thomas and Elizabeth, Lady Russell, daughter of William Spencer, 
of Yarnton, Oxon. He died in 1632, and Dame Elizabeth in 1G18. 

7. An oval black marble slab on the opposite wall commemorates Sir 
William Russell, who fought for Charles II. at Worcester, and his wife 
Dame Frances, daughter of Thomas Read, of Barton, Berks. He died 
in 1669. 

8. A pretentious monument with the figure of a lady weeping over 
her dying husband. A long epitaph commemorates Sir Francis Russell, 
who died in 1705, leaving three daughters, co-heiresses. 

9. The adjoining monument commemorates Anne, the eldest daughter 
of the above, who died in 1734. 

10. The mural effigy of his granddaughter Anne Dansey, who died in 
1754. This is in the nave ; all the rest are in the chancel. 

The church appears to have been rebuilt in the fifteenth century. 



Strensham. 



9 



Nash gives the patron saint as St. James, the rector adds St. Philip ; 
Ecton's Thesaurus, 1742, gives the dedication as to St. John Baptist. The 
church stands on a commanding site overlooking the valley of the Avon, 
with delightful views of Bredon Hill and the Malvern range. Its lofty 
western tower may be seen for many miles around, forming a conspicuous 
feature in the landscape. The tower is of three stages, and has a staircase 
turret on the south side. 

The rector states that in the will of Sir John Russell, preserved at 
Lambeth, and dated 1404, there is a clause leaving £20 to widen and 
lengthen the chancel— in other words, to rebuild it. The will (Arundel, 
p. 1, 222b) assigns ^20 to be devoted to the enlarging of the chancel of 
Strensham Church,. in which a tomb is to be erected with a stone {lapis) 
on it, with an inscription containing my name, and those of my wives, 
Elizabeth, Margaret, and Agnes. 1 The east window, which is modern, is 
said to be an exact reproduction of the original window which was 
probably of this date. Several windows are blocked by the Russell 
tombs. 

The nave floor was relaid with Malvern tiles late in the fifteenth- 
century. A set of four bear the arms of John Carpenter, Bishop of 
Worcester, 1444-1476 : Paly of six az. and git.., on a chevron three crosses 
cvoslet, ensigned with a mitre or. Similar tiles may be seen at Worcester and 
Buildwas. There are others with the arms of St. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, 
the imputed arms of Edward the Confessor, the arms of the Berkeleys, 
&c, and single tiles with the head and mane of a lion, &c, belonging to a 
grand set of sixteen, of which a perfect example exists at Tewkesbury. 
The tiles deserve careful study and rearrangement. 

The most interesting feature in the church is the original fifteenth 
century rood-screen, which has been preserved as the front of a western 
singing gallery. Thanks to Dr. Oscar Clark, we are able to give excellent 
photographs of it. We are also greatly indebted to him for illustrations of 
the monuments. The screen is well worthy of a substantive paper, for 
it does not appear that anyone has hitherto described it. 

In the panels are twenty-three coloured figures. Our Lord in glory occu- 
pies the middle panel. On either side of Him are His apostles, apparently 
St. Jude with a book, St. Philip with his crozier, St. Thomas with the builder's 
rule, St. Andrew with the transverse cross, St. John with the cup and 
dragon, St. Peter with the keys, St. Paul with his sword, St. James the 
Great as a Pilgrim of Compostella, St. Bartholomew with the flaying 
knife, St. Matthias with a halberd, St. Matthew with a book, and St. 
James the Less with a club. On our Lord's extreme right are, moreover, 
two Archbishops, one of them, perhaps, St. Thomas of Canterbury, and 

1 C. T. Davis, Monumental Brasses in the Neighbourhood of Evesham, p. 63, on the 
authority of the Rev. T. P. Wadley, of Naunton Beauchamp. 



io 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



the other St. Oswald, Bishop of Worcester 961-992, promoted to York in 
972, St. John the Baptist, a bishop with a wool-comb, perhaps St. Wulstan, 
Bishop of Worcester 1062-1096, or possibly St. Blaise, and St. Edmund, 
King of the East Saxons, with his arrow. On the extreme left are : a 
bishop, perhaps St. Dunstan, Bishop of Worcester 957-960, a king with 
ermine collar and cuffs, sceptre, and a weapon like a spit, perhaps St. 
Edward the Martyr, St. Lawrence with his gridiron, St. Stephen carrying 
two stones— these last two are vested in dalmatics as deacons — and St. 
Anthony with his pig and staff. There is a painting similar to the last in 
the dean's vestry, behind the north choir stalls of Gloucester Cathedral. 

The inventory of church goods (Harl. MS., f. 112), besides giving a list 
of church plate and vestments, says: " Ther was abowte x yeres passed 
iij small belles hangyng in the stepull solde with the whole assent of the 
parecheners, and the money hereof imployd to make seattes and pues in 
the Church, and to repare the Churche." 

We may safely, therefore, infer that the high seats with their linen 
pattern carving belong to the last years of the reign of Henry VIII. 

The barrel roof of the nave was probably erected in the reign of 
William III., as on the middle beam is an angel bearing a shield on which 
are the Russell arms: Arg. a chevron between three crosses croslet fitcMe, 
impaling : ermine, on a chief indented az. S ducal crowns or, the paternal arms 
of the last Lady Russell, a Litton of Knebworth. Besides these, the 
following arms are or were to be seen in the church : Lenthall, Plaunches, 
Hodinton, Cromeley, Cassey, Cookesey, Thurgrim, Umpton, Waldes- 
cheffe, Spenser, and many more. 

The Russells resided near the west end of the church as early as 1283, 
as in that year Sir James Russell had a licence fiom Bishop Giffard to 
erect an oratory in his own house at Strensham.* In the time of 
Richard II. they built on the same site a castellated mansion. This was 
destroyed in the great Civil War. Two moats choked with brambles and 
thickets alone remain to mark the site. 

Samuel Butler, the author of Hudibras, was born at Strensham, and the 
parish register contains the entry of his baptism on February 14th, 161 2. 
His father was churchwarden in 161 1. He owned a small property, still 
known in Nash's time as Butler's tenement. He died on September 25th, 
iGcSo, and was buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 
London. There is a memorial tablet to him on the north wall of 
Strensham Church. 

Embarking again on the steamers, Pershore was reached at about a 
quarter to three, and the party at once proceeded through the meadows to 
the famed Abbey, where they were welcomed by the vicar, the Rev. J. II. 
Bridgwater. 

1 Giffard's Register, f. 166. 

t 



Pershore. 



The Abbey of Pershore was a sister foundation to the great Benedictine 
Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester. 

Two Northumbrian princes, brothers of our first Abbess, Kyneburg, 
and connected with the royal house of Mercia, had lands given them by 
King Ethelred for the foundation and endowment of religious houses in 
the Severn Vale. Osric founded Gloucester in 681, Oswald founded 
Pershore in 689. 

Both monasteries in later Saxon times were occupied by Secular 
Canons, and both before the Norman Conquest were handed over to 
Benedictine monks, Pershore becoming Benedictine under King Edgar in 
969, Foldbriht being the first abbot, while Gloucester did not become 
Benedictine till the time of Cnut, under Abbot Eadric, in 1022. 

As time went on the abbots of both received their mitres and had 
seats in Parliament ; but at the Dissolution their fates were different. 
Gloucester became the seat of a bishopric, and its monastic church was 
preserved for posterity in all its integrity ; the conventual buildings of 
Pershore were ordered to be destroyed by the King's Commissioners, but 
the inhabitants bought the church for their own use. As, however, they 
lacked the funds for keeping it intact, the nave and the chapel of St. 
Eadburgh were taken down as being superfluous ; the north transept 
became ruinous, and fell with a mighty crash in the seventeenth 
century. 

The Lady Chapel in 1846 appeared capable of restoration, and funds 
were forthcoming for the purpose ; but we owe it to one of the most 
celebrated bishops of our time that the work was not carried out. Samuel 
Wilberforce, who was then Dean of Westminster, and as such one of the 
patrons of the church, was invited to visit Pershore and give his opinion 
as to the restoration. In an unhappy moment he recommended that an 
apse should be constructed and the rest of the Lady Chapel removed. 

The Church of the Holy Cross, Pershore, at the present time consists 
of a nave which was originally the choir and presbytery of the Abbey 
Church, a comparatively modern apse, a south transept, and a beautiful 
lantern tower, which once formed the central architectural feature of a 
cruciform church. 

In 1862, when the Archaeological Institute visited Pershore, Mr. E. A. 
Freeman spoke at some length on the church. The gist of his remarks 
is given in the Archcsological Journal, vol. xix., pp. 377, 378. In vol. xx., 
pp. 1 58-171, there is a paper by Mr. Bloxam on the effigy of a cross-legged 
knight with a horn. 

After the visit of this Society to Pershore, in 1885, Sir John Maclean 
collected some excellent notes on the church, which he printed in our 
Transactions, vol. x., pp. 230-237. Opposite page 237 are illustrations of 
the cross-legged effigy and the Newton carving. 



12 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



The nave and transepts were Early Norman, and corresponded closely 
with the naves and transepts of Gloucester and Tewkesbury. The Norman 
choir was destroyed by fire in 1253, an d was rebuilt in the later Early 
English style which prevailed towards the close of Henry III.'s reign. 
The piers have clustered shafts and round caps. There is no distinct 
triforium ; Mr. Freeman says it was thrown into the clerestory. 

The vaulting of the roof was constructed at the end of the thirteenth 
century, and was made to harmonise with the earlier work. The Chapel 
of St. Eadburgh, destroyed at the Dissolution, belonged to this date, and 
also the upper stages of the tower. 

The church was restored under the superintendence of Mr. Gilbert 
Scott, afterwards Sir Gilbert Scott, in 1865. 

Two interesting monuments remain— the effigies of a knight and an 
abbot. The knight wears mail armour with hooded hauberk and sleeveless 
surcoat. His heater-shaped shield is supported by a guige or strap which 
passes over the right shoulder. His sword is on the left side, and his right 
hand, which is uncovered, grasps a horn. 

"We are reminded at once of the tomb of John Wyrral, at Newland, in 
the Forest of Dean ; but the knight is not a forester or chief ranger. He 
holds his land by tenure of cornage, i.e. of blowing a horn on the approach 
of his lord's foes. The date of the effigy is probably about the same as 
that of Robert, Dake of Normandy's effigy in Gloucester Cathedral, the 
latter part of Henry III.'s reign or the middle of the thirteenth century. 

The ecclesiastical effigy is supposed to represent Abbot Edmund Hart 
or William Compton. Above this effigy is some excellent oak carving with 
an inscription to Abbot Newton. 

The photograph of the interior is by Dr. Oscar Clark; that of the 
exterior has been lent by Mr. W. Dowty. 

Mr. Francis B. Andrews, A.R.I.B.A., gave an interesting account of 
Pershore Abbey, which, he said, was one of the earlier, if not the earliest, 
foundations in Worcestershire, and, in common with most other monastic 
institutions, had to undergo many difficult and trying experiences, which 
recurred again and again, particularly during the turbulent times of its 
earlier years. The frequency with which buildings were damaged by fire, 
the ravages of successive invaders, and the rapacity of those with whom 
might and right were synonymous terms had so far obscured the early 
history of the monastery and its affairs as to make a continuous account 
of its existence practically impossible. The two dates as to the original 
foundation, which had almost equal claims to rectitude, were 681 and 689. 
It was founded by Oswald, the nephew of Ethelred I., King of Mercia, 
who, following the example of his brother Osric, who had founded 
Gloucester in 681, instituted at Pershore a house for secular or missionary 
clergy, and as he was so largely assisted in his efforts by his royal uncle,, 



# ■ 




Dr. Oscar Clark, Phot. 



RUSSELL MONUMENTS, STRENSHAM. 




Dr. Oscav Clark, Phot. 

PANELS OF ROOD SCREEN, STRENSHAM. 



. Oscar Clark, Phot, 

ABBEY CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS, PERSIIORE. 



Pershore. 



*3 



doubt probably arose as to whether the king was not the actual founder 
himself. In 976 the monastery was seized by the Mercian Duke Delfere, 
and considerably damaged. His son, Oddo, earnestly deprecating the 
wickedness of his father, took a vow of celibacy, lest any son of his should 
ever be guilty of a like sin. Not content with this, he and others helped 
to re-build and repair the monastery, and on his death, in 1056, Oddo was 
buried in the Lady Chapel. The lead coffin containing his remains was 
dug up in 1259, and an inscription in Latin put on it by the monks, who 
revered his memory. The existing work of the south transept, the earliest 
now remaining, was attributed by some to Oddo. King Edgar in 972 
granted a charter to the monastery, and at one time it had possessions as 
far north as Redditch ; but these possessions were subsequently much 
reduced to enrich the monks of Westminster. The monastery often 
suffered from fires in the early days, two of the most disastrous being in 
1223 and 1288. It was after the latter fire that the present vaulting of the 
choir and south transept was executed, and the lantern constructed on the 
arches of the crossing that remained standing. The remaining fragments 
of the church of Pershore Abbey exhibited examples of each period of 
mediaeval architecture, from Early Norman down to the latest develop- 
ment of Gothic. If but the Norman nave still stood, Pershore would be 
able to claim examples of three periods, practically successive, of special 
remark and magnificence. The Norman work yet existing was in the 
transept crossing. It was of early date ; possibly parts of the transept 
were even pre-Norman. Early English work of the first quarter of the 
thirteenth century was represented in the choir arcade and superstructure, 
and exhibited a specimen of considerable rarity and beauty, so much so that 
no example at all comparable to it existed in the country, nor was one to be 
easily produced elsewhere that would better exhibit the detail of the period. 
The chief instance of Decorated work (fourteenth century) was to be found 
in the lantern tower, an example difficult, if at all possible, to equal, and 
certainly to excel, in all England. Apart altogether from its intrinsic 
beauty and rarity, there was a most remarkable and noteworthy incident 
connected with the lantern tower : it was in the distinct analogy existing 
between it and that of the cathedral of Salisbury. Mr. Andrews 
drew attention to the monuments in the church, the most important and 
the oldest being that of a Knight Templar. The effigy showed a knight of 
thirteenth-century date, and was now placed in a large stone coffin of later 
date. The hauberk in which the figure is attired is short-sleeved and 
hooded^ and the lappel is unlaced at the neck and thrown back, showing 
the method of fastening. It was suggested that the horn held in the right 
hand of the effigy showed that the knight held his land by cornage tenure, 
or horn geld. Other items of interest in the church were a fine chest of 
early fifteenth or late fourteenth-century date, and some fourteenth and 



14 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



fifteenth-century tiles dug up in 1862 from the site of the north transept. 
The Norman font was of extreme interest. The original bowl was in the 
grounds of The Nash at Kempsey, near Worcester, and Mr. Andrews said 
he should like to see it back in the church. 

The return journey was commenced at four o'clock, and the party for 
Bristol reached their destination about eight o'clock. 

The success of the day was largely due to the excellent arrangements 
made by Mr. F. W. Godfrey, jun., the hon. local secretary, and the able 
addresses of the Rev. Canon Bazeley, whose "notes," printed in the 
official programme, again gave the members much valuable information 
with regard to the churches inspected. 



Lent by Mr. W. Dowty. 

PERSHORE ABBEY. 



PROCEEDINGS 
At the Annual Summer Meeting, 
At Hereford, 
July 12th, 13th and 14th, 1904. 



Since meetings have been held at or near all the places of archaeological 
interest in the two counties which form the proper district of our Society, 
it was determined this year to visit places in the neighbouring shire of 
Hereford which are connected in one way or another historically with 
Gloucester. It was wise of the Council to negative the suggestion made 
for the Gloucester meeting held last year that a day should be taken out 
for visiting Hereford. No doubt that excursion to the city on the Wye 
would have been singularly attractive, but upon consideration it was 
thought the claims of Herefordshire deserved that an entire summer 
meeting should be devoted to a portion of the county rather than a rush 
made through the capital in one day. 

Hereford at the time of the Roman invasion was occupied by a brave 
Iberian people called Silures, whose territory extended as far south as the 
banks of the Severn. 

For many years after the occupation of the Cotteswolds and Severn 
Vale by the Saxons the land on either side of the Wye preserved its 
independence. The bishops who ruled over it were Welsh and not 
English, and the Huiccian bishops who ruled the Severn land on the east 
side of the river made no claim to jurisdiction over the Forest of Dean. 

If, after the Mercian victories in 779, the Welsh were driven from the 
right bank of Severn to beyond the Wye, and Offa's famous dyke settled 
their limits for ever, if Shropshire and Herefordshire and the Forest of 
Dean became English thenceforth by the immigration and settlement of a 
people of Huiccian blood, the bond of union between North and South 
was still maintained. It was not until a bishop was given to Gloucester, 
in 1541, that the Forest deanery was taken from the diocese of Hereford; 
and this deanery was only annexed to the Archdeaconry of Gloucester by 
Order in Council, dated October 5th, 1836, Ecton in his Thesaurus, published 



i6 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



in 1742, states that the Forest Deanery still belonged to the Archdeacon of 
Hereford for the summer visitation, though it was visited in the winter 
half-year by the Bishop of Gloucester's Chancellor. 

It would be interesting to trace the connection which existed between 
the two counties as years rolled on. But it is only possible to attempt, 
and that very briefly, to point out some bonds of union between the Abbey, 
now the Cathedral, of Gloucester and the diocese of Hereford. Some such 
attempt is needed to show why we selected the land of the Wye for our 
Annual Meeting, and Hereford, Kilpeck, Ewias Harold, Ludlow and 
Leominster as the special objects of our pilgrimage. 

The consecration in 1100 of Abbot Serlo's new conventual church at 
Gloucester, the foundation stone of which had been laid eleven years 
previously by Robert of Losinga, himself a great builder at Hereford, 
seems to have created a deep feeling of enthusiasm for church work, not 
only amongst the great. Norman landowners of the Severn Vale, but also 
amongst the nobles and chieftains who occupied the Welsh marches. 

The Abbey of St. Peter soon became as rich and powerful as it bad 
been impoverished and of no account under the rule of Serlo's predecessors. 

Harold, lord of Ewias Harold in 1100, gave St. Michael's Church, the 
Chapel of St. Nicholas in his castle, and many other churches to the 
monks of Gloucester, so that there might be in Ewias for ever congregations 
of Christians serving God. 1 

The neighbouring lords of Ewias Lacy were yet more generous donors 
to Gloucester. Walter de Lacy had been Earl William's lieutenant, and 
he it was probably who built the castle of Hereford. After the disgrace of 
Earl Roger, the Conqueror bestowed a vast fief on Walter de Lacy ; and 
in 1080 the latter gave to the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, the lands of 
Le Dene. This was done in the king's presence and with his approval at 
Berkeley, and then Walter de Lacy and Ermeline, his wife, dedicated to 
God and St. Peter Walter their little son of seven. He grew up under 
the care of the monks, assumed the cowl, and at the age of 57 became 
abbot. In 1085 Walter de Lacy was building the church of St. Peter at 
Hereford, and he fell from the scaffolding when the church was well-nigh 
completed, and was killed. His body was brought to Gloucester and 
buried in the abbey. In 1100 his son, Hugh de Lacy, gave the church of 
St. Peter's, Hereford, with its prebends, to St. Peter's, Gloucester, and it 
was transformed into St. Guthlac's Priory. 2 

In 1 134 the Priory of Kilpeck was given as a cell to St. Peter's, 
Gloucester, by Hugh, son of William fitz Norman. 3 

In 1 1 55 the canons of Bromfield, near Ludlow, in Shropshire, "gave 
themselves and their church " to the monks of Gloucester. Thus it came. 



1 Hist, ct Cart. St. Pet. Glouc, i. 76. 
2 Idem, i. 85, &c. 3 Idem, i. 91. 




From Messrs. G, Bell & Sons' Guide to the Cathedral. 

HEREFORD CATHEDRAL FROM THE N.W. 



Annual Summer Meeting. 



17 



to pass that of the six dependent priories of St. Peter's, four were in the 

; diocese of Hereford. 

Every thoughtful visitor to St. Peter's at Leominster who knows St. 
Peter's Minster at Gloucester will be struck by the likeness of the great 
west window and the ball-flower adornment of*-the southern range of 
windows in the Herefordshire church to the same features in the cathedral 

• at Gloucester. 

In the list of Gloucester abbots many Herefordshire names appear : 
De Lacy, Foliot, Carbonel, Gamage, Wygmore, &c. ; and two abbots at 
least, Gilbert Foliot and Reginald Boulers, were promoted to the See of 
Hereford. St. Guthlac's stood at the head of the dependent priories, and 
several of its priors became abbots. 

The map of Hereford which, thanks to the kind services of Dr. Cecil 
Moore, the able and courteous secretary of the Woolhope Field Club, we 
ihave been able to reproduce, gives a very clear idea of what Hereford has 
been in days gone by. 

Leland, who visited Hereford towards the end of the reign of 
Henry VIII., relates the following information about the city at that time. 
The donjon of the Castle was high and very strong, having in the outer 
ward ten towers forma semi-circulari, and one great tower in the inner ward, 
Some think that Harold founded it in the time of the Confessor, but others 
that the De Lacys and De Bohuns were its builders. There was once a 
fair chapel of St. Cuthbert with prebends, but one of the Lacys translated 
them to St. Peter's in Hereford, erected a priory of monks there, and gave 
it to Gloucester. The city had six gates, named Wye, Frere, Inne, 
Wigmarch, Bishop's Street and St. Andrew's Gates. The walls were very 
high, and well maintained by the citizens. There were four parish 
churches, St. Peter's, St. Nicholas', All Hallowes', and St. John's. , The 
Cathedral, founded by Milfrid, was rebuilt by Bishops Lorengo and 
Keinelme. The bridge over the Wye had great arches, of stone. The 
college of Grey Friars was founded by Sir William Pembruge. The 
church of St. Martin was in Wyegate suburbs. There was a lazar house 
dedicated to St. Giles. The Black Friars had a house without Wigmarch 
or North Gate. The Templars, and after them the Knights of St. John, 
had a preceptory here. The Priory of St. Guthlac, which before was in 
St. Peter's Church, was translated by Hugh de Lacy to without the Bishop's 
Gate. The body of one Bernard Quarre, a prior of St. Peter's, slain at 
the altar, was removed to St. Guthlac's. 

On arriving at Hereford the Society was received at the Town Hall by 
the Mayor and Corporation of Hereford. The spacious assembly-room in 
■the recently-opened building was much admired by the visitors. 

In welcoming the Society, the Mayor (Aid. H. C. Beddoe) said he could 
assure them that the announcement of the Society coming to Hereford 

Vol. XXVII. 



i8 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



caused a great deal of pleasure to many of the citizens, because for some 
time past several of them had been interested in archaeology, and he 
thought he might say they would find a number of objects of interest in 
the old city, although of late years many buildings had been done away 
with. At the same time, there were portions of buildings which would 
interest the antiquary. As they knew, a large castle existed in Hereford, 
but that ceased to exist at the time of the Commonwealth. The stones 
appeared to have been used as a sort of quarry, for people went to them 
and took them away for building. They used to have a fine timber 
building used as a market house. It was, however, disfigured by the 
upper portion being taken away. The remainder was plastered up without 
any architectural beauty whatever. The pillars which supported it, and 
some of the main beams, were all that remained. Fifty years ago, after 
the passing of the Improvement Act, the remains were removed, and they 
had no alternative, as it interfered with the traffic. Some persons thought 
the structure might have be m re-erected in another part of the city, but as 
the greater part of what was old had been taken away, the result must 
have been to have fresh work and a fresh building. Other old houses had 
been re-modelled, and they would have to go to the back of these to find 
out the character of their construction. He glanced at the Cathedral, 
which would be described specially at that meeting. Before sitting down, 
he said that he had received a letter from his brother, Dr. John Beddoe, 
who stated that he was one of the founders of the Bristol and Gloucester- 
shire Society, was chairman of the Organising Committee, one of the vice- 
presidents, and a past president. 

Mr. F. A. Hyett (President) acknowledged the hearty welcome afforded 
by the Mayor of Hereford. He also thanked the committee, who had 
made careful arrangements for the reception of the Society. As to the 
visit to Hereford, he might say their Society was nearly thirty years old, 
and had visited almost every village which had any object of antiquarian 
interest in the county of Gloucester, and the most important places were 
visited three or four times. Hereford was rich in ancient monuments with 
historical associations, though whether Hereford was more ancient than 
Gloucester he would not admit, except there was good evidence of the fact. 
There was one phase of civic life to which Gloucester must yield the palm 
to Hereford. In the great struggle for civic independence, which began in 
the reign of Stephen, if not earlier, and lasted down to the reign of 
Richard III., Hereford took a more pronounced part than Gloucester. 
There was more decided exertion made in the Eastern Counties, but in the 
Mid-West there was no more sturdy champion of municipal independence 
than Hereford. He adverted to the fine structure in which they were 
assembled, and especially to the splendid hall in which they were 
received. 

i 



Report of the Council. 



19 



Canon Bazeley (the Hon. General Secretary) read the report as 
follows : — - 

The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 
present the following report for the year ending July 12th, 1904 : — 

"There are at present 440 annual members, 9T life members, and 3 
honorary members on the Society's list, giving a total strength of 534 
members. The income of the Society for the year ending December 31st, 
1903, including a balance of £215 18s. 6d. at the Society's bankers on 
[anuary 1st, 1903, was ^416 17s. 2d., and the expenditure for the same 
period was /208 13s. yd., leaving a balance in hand on the 31st of Decem- 
ber, 1903, of ^208 3s. yd. From this balance should be deducted the cost 
of the Society's Transactions for 1903, the first part of which is in the 
members' hands, and the second part is in progress. Besides this balance, 
the Society has a funded ' capital of ^832 3s. 8d. Consols, and £~loo on 
deposit at their bankers. 

' ' The Council would point out that as the Transactions are only issued 
to those who have paid their subscription for the respective year, it gives 
a great deal of unnecessary trouble to the Treasurer and Secretary if the 
subscriptions are not paid before the Transactions are ready for issue. At 
the present time there are eight subscriptions in arrear for 1902 and thirty- 
one for 1903. If the members would fill up the form sent to them on 
election asking their bankers to pay their subscriptions on the 1st of 
January in each year a vast amount of correspondence would be avoided. 

"The Society has held two Annual Meetings since the presentation of 
the last report : at Gloucester, under the Presidency of F. A. Hyett, Esq., 
on July 14th — 16th, 1903 ; and at Bredon on June 7th, 1904. 

"The proceedings at Gloucester are duly chronicled in Vol. xxvi., 
part i., and those at Bredon, Strensham, and Pershore will appear in 
Vol. xxvii. 

' ' The Spring Meeting of this year broke the record for all previous, 
meetings as regards the members present, no less than 170 having taken 
part in the excursion. 

" In October, 1903, much to the regret of every member of the Council, 
Sir Brook Kay, who had endeared himself to the whole Society by his 
courtesy and kindness, resigned the Presidency of Council. Mr. F. F, 
Fox, F.S.A., was elected President in his room. 

" The Council are glad to report that the list of Gloucestershire Church 
Plate, with the exception of the Bristol Diocese, is at last completed ; and 
it has been arranged that Mr. Osborne, of Gloucester, shall print it. The 
thanks of the Society are due to the Rev. J. T. Evans, Rector of Stow-on- 
the-Wold, who has so industriously completed the work commenced several 
years ago. As was then promised, the work, when printed, will be issued 
free to present subscribing members who also paid their subscriptions for 



20 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



1894-5 and 1895-6, and only received one volume of Transactions for those 
two years. A prospectus of the work, inviting subscriptions, will be sent 
to the other members. 

" The list of Gloucestershire Effigies is being printed from time to time 
in the Society's Transactions. There are yet districts from which no satis- 
factory report has been received. 

" The Council, in consideration of Mrs: Royce's munificent donation of 
the late Rev. David Royce's archseological library to this Society, have 
purchased the remaining copies of Mr. Royce's important work, the 
Winchcombe Landboc, and so have relieved the executors of Mrs. Royce from 
any further trouble and pecuniary loss in this matter. It is hoped that all 
who possess the first volume will lose no time in applying to the Treasurer 
for the second, which completes the work ; and that the members who have 
not already done so will subscribe for Vols. i. and ii. Prospectuses will 
be sent to members on application to the General Secretary. 

" The Council have done their best, in conjunction with the Cotteswold 
Field Club and the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments, to 
save the remaining portion of the old city wall of Gloucester at the South 
Gate from destruction ; but it is feared that their exertions will prove to be 
in vain. It would be well if the citizens of Gloucester would endeavour to 
prevent such memorials of the past being irrevocably lost to them. 

"The Society's collection of Magic-Lantern Slides, illustrating the 
antiquities of Bristol and Gloucestershire, has been steadily increasing, 
thanks to donations and purchases. A list of subjects and donors with 
regulations for the loan of the slides will be issued to members, and the 
Council hopes that the collection may be of considerable use to the 
members during the forthcoming winter. 

"There has been a very important movement in the two principal 
centres of the Society's work, Gloucester and Bristol, during the past 
winter. A series of evening meetings has been held at Bristol in the 
rooms of the Literary and Scientific Club, and at Gloucester at the Guild- 
hall. These meetings have been well attended, have awakened consider- 
able interest in local archaeology, and have provided papers for the 
Transactions. The Council fully hopes that they will be continued at 
Bristol and Gloucester, and that similar meetings will be arranged for at 
Cheltenham, Stroud, Tewkesbury, Cirencester and elsewhere during the 
winter of 1904-5. 

"The Council has learned with pleasure that a fund is being raised to 
commemorate the good work of the late Mr. Tom Collins of Tewkesbury, 
in preserving and restoring many interesting ancient buildings, which 
otherwise might have lost all their historic interest. The Secretary, on 
behalf of the Council, has had an opportunity of publicly expressing 
approval and of taking part in the movement. 



From Messrs. G. Bell & Sons' Guide to the Cathedral. 

NORTH TRANSEPT WITH CANTILUPE SHRINE. 



i 



] 



Hereford. 



21 



" The Council deeply regrets the loss through death of Mr. Latimer 
and Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley. A memoir of Mr. Latimer appears in Vol. xxvi. r 
part i. ; and Mr. F. F. Tuckett has prepared for part ii. an account of the 
invaluable services which Mrs. Bagnall- Oakeley has rendered to this 
Society and to archaeology generally. Her loss seems to be irreparable ; 
but the Council appeal to the members, especially to the ladies who have 
joined the Society, to follow her example in making a study of ancient 
and mediaeval costume, church needlework, and the treatment of sacred 
subjects in scripture and painting. 

' ' The Council has held six meetings during the last year, three at 
Gloucester and three at Bristol ; and again desire to express their obliga- 
tions to the Lord Mayor and Corporation of Bristol for the use of the old 
Council Chamber. 

" The Council desire to nominate Mr. Christopher Bowly and the Rev. 
E. R. Dowdeswell as Vice-Presidents of the Society for Cirencester and 
Tewkesbury, the President of Council, the Vice-Presidents, the General 
Treasurer, the General Secretary, the Secretary for Bristol, and the Local 
Secretaries for re-election. The following members of Council retire by 
rotation, but are eligible for re-election: the Revs. J. M. Hall and Canon 
Ellacombe, Messrs. G. S. Blakeway, H. Medland, C. H. Dancey and R. Hall 
Warren and Dr. Alfred Harvey." 

On the motion of Mr. W. Crooke, seconded by Col. Rogers, the 
report was accepted. 

Dr. Griffiths then proposed, the Rev. S. Bartleet seconded, and it 
was agreed to, that the retiring members of the Council be re-elected. 

Mr. G. B. Witts proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Hyett, the retiring 
President, for his services during 1903-4, and at the present meeting. 

The resolution was cordially adopted. 

Mr. Hyett briefly responded, and then introduced the President for 
1904-5, the Very Rev. the Hon. J. W. Leigh, D.D., Dean of Hereford. 
He remarked that it seemed a little anomalous for a Gloucester man to 
introduce to Hereford the Dean of the Cathedral. He had pleasure in 
performing that duty, however, on account of the distinguished position he 
held in the city and for his personal qualifications, and the considerable 
reputation he had obtained as an archaeologist. Further, he was told that 
the Dean was a Gloucestershire man. 

The Dean of Hereford, who was received with applause, said he 
need hardly tell them how very highly he appreciated the great honour 
that had been conferred upon him of being President of that honourable 
Society. He scarcely could have expected such an honour to be conferred 
upon him, and he could only say that he hoped to show his appreciation 
of the honour by trying to follow in the steps of their late President, 
Mr. Hyett. It was quite true he was a Gloucestershire man, for he 



22 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



lived the greater part of his young life near Stow-on-the-Wold. They had 
had the municipal side of the connection between Gloucester and Hereford 
brought before them, and it was quite needless for him to dwell upon that 
side of the question. Another connecting-link occurred to him, and that 
was their most excellent Mayor had for his worthy brother Dr. Beddoe, 
who belonged to that Society. 

The Very Reverend President then proceeded to deliver his Address 
to the Society, which is printed in this part of the Transactions. 

On the motion of Mr. Hyett, thanks were voted to the Dean for his 
address and welcome. 

The Dean of Hereford, after acknowledging the vote of thanks, said 
in their collection they had the best library of chained books in existence. 
They had 200 MSS all chained and complete in the bookcases where they 
were originally placed. 

After lunch, members found their way to the Cathedral Green, where 
they were met by their President, who most kindly and carefully conducted 
them first round the outside, and then through the interior, of the sacred 
building. Canon Bazeley had prepared the following notes for the 
official programme : — 

Hereford Cathedral, like the mitred Abbey of Winchcombe in our own 
county, had its origin in the murder of a king. /Ethelbert, King of the 
East Anglians, had been promised iEthelthryth, daughter of Offa, in 
marriage ; but when he came into the borderland of the Wye to claim her 
for his bride be was treacherously murdered by his intended father-in-law 
at Sutton Walls, in Herefordshire, or, as some say, at Littledean, the 
church at which place is dedicated to St. Ethelbert. The Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle says, " This year, 792, Offa, King of the Mercians, commanded 
the head of King iEthelbert to be struck off." 

Another chronicle tells us that in 825 Milfrid, viceroy under Egbert, 
King of the Mercians, built a church of stone at Hereford, then known as 
Fernley, where ^Ethelbert had been buried, and dedicated it to his memory. 

In less than 200 years Milfrid's church had become ruinous, and 
Athelstan, Bishop of Hereford, 1012-1056, rebuilt it from its foundations-. 

A few years later, in 1055, yElfgar, Earl of Chester, and Gryffyd, King 
of South Wales, warring against Ralph, Earl of Hereford, took the city, 
destroyed the cathedral, and slew seven of the canons. Bishop Athelstan, 
blind and broken-hearted, died in the following year at Bosbury. No 
traces are to be found in the present Cathedral of Milfrid's or Athelstan's 
churches. 

The first Norman bishop, Robert of Losinga, who was consecrated in 
1079, began to build a third cathedral. William of Malmesbury has 
puzzled students by asserting that it was built "of a rounded form" (in 
tereti schemate) "in imitation of the basilica at Aix la Chapelle." ^low 



Hereford. 



2 3 



■Charlemagne's church, which has long since perished, was polygonal or 
round, like the Church of St. Vitale at Ravenna, built in 550 by the 
Emperor Justinian, or the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 
If Bishop Robert's church was ever of this form ft has utterly disappeared. 
It is possible, however, that William of Malmesbury only meant that it 
had semi-circular eastern apses. Robert's church was continued by his 
.successors, Gerard, Reynelm, Geoffry and Richard, and completed by 
Robert de Betun, 1131-1148. Of this church we have remaining seven 
bays of the nave, the presbytery arcades up to the sills of the clerestory 
windows and the south transept. Robert de. Losinga's effigy, carved 200 
years after his death, holds a model of a church after the manner of a 
founder. 

It was this bishop who in- 1089 laid the first stone of our own Cathedral 
at Gloucester, whilst Gerard, on July 23rd, 1100, took part in the conse- 
cration of the part which Abbot Serlo had then completed. The Norman 
cathedral of Hereford, as Robert de Betun left it, was a cruciform, 
Romanesque church, with nave, nave aisles, central tower with choir 
below, transepts and presbytery with north and south aisles. The 
south transept alone retains for the most part its original character. 
The nave had eight bays with massive round pillars to which shafts 
were attached on the north and south sides. The presbytery had three 
arches on each side, supported by piers with pilasters on their inner face 
to support the vaulting. It was terminated by a semi-circular apse, as 
were also the presbytery aisles : there was no ambulatory as at Gloucester 
and Tewkesbury. 

The great glory of Bishop Betun' s cathedral was the west front, of which 
Sir Gilbert Scott gave an imaginary drawing in the Archaological Journal, 
vol. xxxiv., p. 329. This building remained unchanged till the end of 
the twelfth century, when Norman architecture was passing rapidly into 
the style known as Early English. William de Vere, bishop, 1186-1199, 
has the credit for altering the east end, converting the three apses into an 
eastern aisle with a range of chapels, and thus creating an ambulatory or 
continuous walk round the presbytery. We found a similar arrangement 
at Abbey Dore. De Vere's work is a beautiful example of Transitional or 
semi-Norman, retaining much of the earlier Romanesque decoration, but 
possessing also the deeply undercut conventional foliage of the first pointed. 
It is of the same date as the chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathaea, Glaston- 
bury. The two arches which connect the vestibule of the Lady Chapel 
with the eastern transepts are very beautiful examples of Transitional 
work, having shafts and capitals of an Early English character and 
pointed arches, while the soffits are decorated with Norman mouldings. 

Hereford Cathedral is rich in thirteenth and early fourteenth-century 
architecture, but few changes were made in the later style, known as 



2 4 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



Perpendicular. The central tower is thought to have been rebuilt by- 
Giles de Braose, 1200-1215, but it had to be again rebuilt later on. The 
Lady Chapel, which is raised on a crypt, was added to the eastern aisle 
of De Vere about 1220-1230. There is no historical evidence as to its date, 
but the work belongs to the earlier period of Early English. It was 
probably in course of construction at the very time that the monks of 
Gloucester were building their first Lady Chapel with the help of Ralph 
de Wilington and his wife Olympias. 

We read in the Histoiy of St. Peter's Monastery, Gloucester, that early in the 
thirteenth century there lived a monk who was a great architect, Helias of 
Hereford by name. He is said to have erected a tower (probably an 
Early English spire), to have constructed the monks' stalls, and to have 
made an aqueduct from Gloucester Abbey. The spire has long since been 
superseded by our beautiful fifteenth -century tower, but one of Helias' 
stalls remains in the presbytery ; and the cover of a well-house carved 
in the form of a massive recumbent cross still lies near the spring on 
Mattesdune (Matson), from whence he led the water to St. Peter's. 

It is more than probable that in the Lady Chapel of Hereford we see 
the chef-d'oeuvre of this local genius. The History records his death on 
Nov. 9th, 1237. It * s * ne only obituary notice of an architect the MS. 
contains. 

A few years later it became necessary to restore the clerestory and 
replace the vaulting of the presbytery. The late Early English windows 
with their plate tracery were inserted about the middle of the thirteenth 
century, in the earlier years of the rule of Peter d'Acquablanca, bishop 
1240-1268. 

We now reach the period when Early English was passing into 
Decorated. The north transept appears to have been transformed about 
1270. This work is generally attributed to Peter d'Acquablanca because 
of the position of his tomb. The beautiful canopy work of the latter is 
very similar to the triforium in the eastern wall of the transept, so much 
so that we must consider them to be the conception of the same master 
mind. / 

But the strange and unworthy career of Bishop d'Acquablanca makes 
it improbable that he could find time for such laudable efforts. It is better 
to attribute both the transept and the tomb to John d'Acquablanca, the 
Bishop's nephew, who was made Dean of Hereford by his uncle, and 
survived him many years. The Dean's effigy lies on the floor of the 
transept in front of the Bishop's tomb. 

On the death of Peter d'Acquablanca in 1268, he was succeeded as 
bishop by John le Breton, who ruled the diocese for seven years. 

Thomas de Cantilupe, bishop 1275-1282, was Lord Chancellor of 
England, and a man of fervent piety. Thirty-eight years after his death; 

i 



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t 



HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

Imaginary Reproduction of West Front by Sir Gilbert Scott, 




From the Archaeological Journal. 

HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 

Imaginary Reproduction of Presbytery by Sir Gilbert Scott. 




Guy Chilto-i, Phot. 

KILPECK CHURCH FROM S.W. 




SOUTH DOORWAY, KILPECK. 



LAWRENCE'S CHURCH, LUDLOW. 



I 

I 




R. W. Dugdale, Phot. 



WINDOWS IN THE CHAPEL OF ST. JOHN. 



Hereford. 



25" 



in Italy, at Monte Fiascone, on August 25th, 1282, he was canonised by 
the Pope, being the last Englishman canonised before the Reformation ; 
and his shrine, which was moved from the Chapel of St. John in the 
Eastern aisle of the north transept to the Lady Chapel and back again 
more than once, became one of the most popular resorts of mediaeval 
pilgrims. His paternal arms were adopted as the arms of the see. 
Cantilupe's successor, Richard de Swinfield, whose household accounts 
have been printed by the Camden Society, was one of the greatest of 
Hereford's bishop builders. The Transitional inner north porch, the 
aisles of the nave, the aisles of the presbytery, and the Cantilupe shrine 
all belong to his reign. 

All the windows in the north-east transept and on both sides of the 
presbytery and nave appear to have been inserted at this time. The work 
for some reason was arrested at the east end of the south aisle of the 
presbytery, and the south-east transept was not transformed until later on. 

Swinfield died in 1316, and was succeeded by Adam de Orleton, 
1317-1327. We learn from a bull of Pope John XXII., dated 1320, that 
parts of the church which had been recently constructed on unsound 
ancient foundations were in danger of falling ; and the Dean and Chapter 
had so impoverished themselves over the canonisation of Cantilupe that 
they were unable, without extraneous aid, to prevent the threatened ruin. 
It would seem that the tower and north transept were giving way. The 
Decorated tower, surcharged with the ball-flower ornament, belongs to this 
date. In style it agrees with the beautiful south aisle of Gloucester 
Cathedral, which was built by Abbot Thokey about 1318, and with parts of 
the fine parish church of Badgeworth, in Gloucestershire. 

The later Decorated work of the Cathedral consists of the stalls and 
throne the presbytery and the souh-eastern chapel. 

The chapter house, of which very little remains, was built before 
1375, for it contained a monument erected at that date. To the same 
period we may ascribe the series of episcopal monuments in the south 
aisle of the presbytery and elsewhere. 

The later Perpendicular work consists of the vaulting of the south transept 
by Bishop Travenant, who died in 1404, Bishop Stanbury's chantry chapel 
adjoining the north aisle of the presbytery, 1474, Bishop Audley's chapel 
of the south side of the Lady Chapel, c. 1500, and Bishop Booth's 
beautiful addition to the north porch with a chamber over it, 1519. 

In 1786 a terrible catastrophe occurred — the west tower fell, on the 
evening of Easter Monday, April 17th, destroying the Norman nave with 
its west end. James Wyatt, who had carried on his work of vandalism 
at Salisbury, had a free hand given him to continue it at Hereford. He 
removed all the Norman work above the arcades of the nave, substituting 
a triforium, clerestory and vaulting of his own invention, shortened the: 



■26 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



Cathedral by one bay, and built a western facade. The fallen tower was 
80 ft. broad and 135 ft. high ; its basement was Norman, with an upper 
story of the date of Edward III., and additions of the time of Henry VI. 
At this time also the leaded spire 9! the central tower, 245 ft. high, was 
removed. 

Much real repair was executed in the nineteenth century under the 
direction of Cottingham 1 and Sir Gilbert Scott ; and this year, 1904, 
Vv'yatt's west front has been greatly improved, thanks to the energy and 
good taste of our President, the Dean of Hereford. 

Such is briefly the architectural history of the Cathedral. 

We entered the sacred building through Bishop Booth's porch, 1520, 
and the fine Early Decorated doorways of Bishop Swinfield, 1300. The 
fine Norman piers of the nave, surmounted by Wyatt's eighteenth-century 
Gothic, at once arrest attention. Opposite the entrance is the effigy of 
Sir Richard Pembridge, 1375, who fought at Poictiers. He wears the 
Garter on his left leg ; the right leg is a restoration. On the right is a 
Norman font with figures of the Apostles, sadly mutilated, within arched 
recesses, and four demi-griffins at the base. In the north aisle near the 
entrance is the monument of Bishop Booth, 1535. It was usual to bury 
great ecclesiastics near the work which had been accomplished through 
their efforts. 

About forty bishops are buried at Hereford, more than in any other 
English cathedral. 

Most noteworthy of all the monumental remains are the shrine of 
St. Thomas Cantilupe, c. 1300, and the fine canopied tomb of Bishop 
d'Aquablanca in the late thirteenth-century north transept. The warriors 
carved on the lower part of Cantilupe's shrine have led some writers to 
ascribe it to yEthelred, the martyred king of East Anglia. The warriors, 
however, are Knight Templars, for Cantilupe was their Provincial 
Grand Master in England. The heraldic bearings on the shields of the 
knights have completely disappeared. The matrix of a brass remains on 
the slab, and on the right of the Bishop's mitre may be seen the leopard's 
head inverted jessant de lys of the Cantilupes. 

In the north transept are the effigies of Bishop Westfayling, 1602, 
resting on its side, and Bishop Charlton, Treasurer of England, 1329, 
and a bust of Bishop Field, 1C36. 

The beautiful chantry chapel known as Bishop Stanbury's, in the 
north aisle of the presbytery, does not contain his tomb, but the monument 
of Bishop Richard de Capella, 11 20- n 27. 

In this aisle in the north wall are the tomb of Bishop Hugh de 
Mapenore, consecrated at Gloucester December 4th, 1216, and the first 

1 See A Statement of the Condition ami Circumstances of the Cathedral Church of 
Hc-cford, by Dean Mereicether, 1842, with very interesting illustrations. j 



From Messrs. G. Bell & Sons' Guide to the Cathedral. 
TRANSITIONAL ARCH IN VESTIBULE OF LADY CHAPEL. 




Hereford. 



27 



of a series of attributive effigies sculptured early in the fourteenth century, 
Geoffrey de Cliva, who died February 2nd, 11 19. On the other side in 
two bays of the presbytery are Bishop Bennet, who died in 1617, and 
Bishop Stanbury, 1474. Beyond Stanbury's Chapel is an effigy assigned 
to Bishop Reynelm who died in 11 15. 

In the north-east transept is the tomb of Bishop Swinfield, 1316, 
marking the place where his great work of restoration began, but his 
effigy is lost. There is another assigned to Bishop Godwin, 1633. 

The vestibule of the Lady Chapel contains in the south wall an 
interesting tomb with an effigy of Dean Berew, 1446-1462. In the hollow 
of the arch moulding are sixteen boars with rue leaves in their mouths, 
a "rebus "of Berew. 

The Lady Chapel, built at a time when the Early English style was at 
its highest state of perfection, was twice restored in the nineteenth 
century : first by Cottingham, who saved the east wall from falling into 
ruins, and later on by Sir Gilbert Scott. 

On the north side are the tombs of a knight, called Humphry de 
Bohun, but now thought to be Peter, Baron de Grandisson, 1358, and Joan 
de Bohun, Lady of Kilpec, 1327. Traces may be seen of shields bearing 
the arms of De Bohun and Plonknett. 

On the south side is the chantry chapel of Bishop Audley. He was 
translated to Salisbury in 1502, and was buried there. The badges of 
Edward IV. may be seen in the windows of the upper stages, suggesting 
an earlier date, or removal from some other part of the Cathedral. 

In the south-east transept are the monuments of Bishop Lewis Cherleton, 
1369, Bishop Lindsell, 1634, Bishop Coke, 1646, and Bishop Gilbert 
Ironside, 1701. It is not generally known that Dr. Ironside's widow spent 
her last days at Matson, near Gloucester, and was buried in 1735. 

In the south wall of the south aisle of the presbytery are the attribu- 
tive effigies of four early bishops, Robert de Melun, 1167, Robert 
de Betun, 1148, Hugh Foliot, 1234, and William de Vere, 1199. On the 
north side are the tombs of Bishop de Losinga, 1095, and Bishop 
Mayo, 15 1 6. 

In the presbytery are the effigies of Bishop Giles de Braose, 1216, and 
King iEthelbert, also the brass of Bishop Trilleck, 1360, sometime Rector 
of Bredon, in Worcestershire. The reredos and the sculpture on the 
spandrel of the central pier are comparatively modern. 

In the south transept is the effigy of the fourteenth-century restorer, 
Bishop Travenant, without head or hands. There is also a fine altar tomb 
with effigies of Sir Alexander Denton of Hillesden, Bucks, his wife and 
infant child. 

Amongst the many precious possessions of the Cathedral is the map of 
Ihe world, discovered under the floor of Bishop Audley's Chapel, and now 



28 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



preserved in the south aisle of the presbytery. It appears to have been, 
designed about 1315 by Richard of Haldingham. 

In the Library are many MSS. and early printed books, and a reliquary 
of oak and Limoges enamel with the representation of the martyrdom of 
St. Thomas a Becket and his entombment. 

An excellent guide to the Cathedral, by Mr. A. H. Fisher, has been 
published by Messrs. Bell & Sons. The Society is indebted to Messrs. 
Bell for their kind loan of illustrations for use in the programme. Much 
valuable information may be obtained from the papers by Sir Gilbert 
Scott and Mr. Bloxam in the Archaological Journal, vol. xxxiv.. pp. 323 
and 406, and the papers by Mr. Gordon M. Hills and Mr. Haines in the 
Journal of the Archaological Association, vol. xxvii., pp. 46 and 85. Our 
best thanks are due to the Executive Committee of the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute, who have kindly allowed us to reproduce three plates 
from Sir Gilbert Scott's paper. 

After Evensong, the Lord Bishop of Hereford and Mrs. Percival most 
kindly received the members in the Palace Gardens and entertained them 
at afternoon tea. It was a very great pleasure to the members who 
remembered the Bishop during the sixteen years of his Head Mastership 
of Clifton College to have the opportunity of meeting him once again in 
his beautiful home at Hereford. 

In the afternoon, and again in the evening, members visited the 
Cathedral Library, and were very much interested in the chained books, the 
charters and seals, and the reliquary representing the martyrdom of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury ; they were also very much pleased with the 
reverent care with which these venerable relics of the past are preserved. 
In the evening the Rev. S. E. Bartleet read in the Cloister Garth to the 
members sitting at his feet — till it was too dark to read any more — some 
very interesting notes on St. Guthlac's Priory. After tea at the Palace 
also Mr. H. Cecil Moore, secretary of the Woolhope Field Club, had 
most kindly acted as guide to the churches of St. Peter's and All Saints' 
and other places of interest in the city. 

On Wednesday, punctually at a quarter past nine, the members started 
in beautiful weather for a most enjoyable day's excursion, and a pleasant 
drive brought them to the church of St. David, Kilpeck, which has been 
described by Mr. G. R. Lewis in a richly illustrated book, published in 1842, 
six years before the restoration by Cottingham. This church probably 
dates from the middle of the twelfth century; but although it is distinctly 
Romanesque in style, its ornamental carving is full of Celtic feeling, as we 
might expect from the proximity of the parish to the marches of Wales. 
It is indeed in the English Diocese of Hereford, but in the Deanery of 
Irchingfield, or Archenfield, the district between Wye and Monnow ; and 
this region has distinct Welsh affinities. The chronicles record that 



KlLPECK. 



2 9 



about 918 a band of sea-robbers plundering along the Severn shores took 
Cameleac, Bishop of Ircingfeld, prisoner, and that King Edward ransomed 
him for /40. Cameleac was Bishop of Llandaff. In Domesday (f. 179), 
Arcenfelde appears as a definite district, and its customs are stated at 
length immediately after those of the city of Hereford. Among the 
•customs was this, that in an expedition against an enemy the men of 
Arcenfelde formed the vanguard on the outward march and the rear- 
guard on the return. And it is quite possible that Bishop Cameleac was 
engaged in military duty of this kind when he was captured. The majority 
of the place-names of the Deanery are still Welsh rather than English. 

The church consisted of a nave with south porch and western bell- 
turret, a chancel and a semi-circular apse as at Moccas. The whole 
building is replete with grotesque carvings, especially the south doorway, 
the chancel arch, and the corbel table. It was most carefully rebuilt in 
1848, each stone being numbered before removal, and replaced in its old 
position. 

On the chancel arch are figures nearly liie size of ecclesiastics bearing 
such emblems as a book, bell, chalice, paten, key, cross, asperge or 
sprinkler, &c, &c, and apparently the hands and feet are marked with the 
stigmata or sacred nail wounds. These figures may be compared with 
those on the west front of Dorchester Cathedral and at Salisbury Abbey. 

In the south wall of the chancel are an Early English window and 
priests' doorway, both inserted in the thirteenth century. The vaulted roof 
•of the apse and the arch of the deeply-splayed east window are ornamented 
with Norman zigzag moulding. In the chancel is a holy water stoup with 
four pairs of arms clasped round it, and four serpents with their heads 
pointed away from it at the foot, representing evil spirits cast out. 

The Norman font, composed of local conglomerate, consists of a shallow 
bowl, a central pedestal, four detached shafts with capitals and a circular 
base. There are several fonts of this character in Herefordshire. 

The arch of the fine south doorway, of which, thanks to Mr. Guy 
Chilton, we are able to give an illustration, has medallions, grotesque 
masks, and zigzag moulding. The tympanum contains a representation 
of the Tree of Life. On each side of the doorway is a figure of the old 
serpent, and between it and the entrance on the west side are two figures 
of Christian warriors, one holding an axe and the other a spear in the right 
hand, while with the left hand each grasps the Tree of Life. The outer 
circle above the arch contains figures of birds on the west side and fishes 
on the east, representing the powers of the water and air. 

The corbel table, which runs round the building under the eaves, con- 
tains seventy-four designs of such subjects as a lamb, the signs of the 
Zodiac, heads of men and animals, &c. 

Outside the west wall three blind gurgoyles carved to represent 



3° 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



dragons, project three feet from the wall plate. They are thought to have 
been inserted for the support of an external gallery or the roof of a western 
porch or narthex. 

On the south side of the church stood Kilpeck Priory, which was 
founded by Hugh Fitz Norman in 1134, and given, as a cell, to St. Peter's 
Abbey, Gloucester, together with the advowson of the parish church, and 
the little chapel of St. Mary in his castle. It was dissolved in 1422-1448. 

In 1284 William de Shrivenham, Prior of Kilpeck, was summoned to 
Gloucester to take part in the election of an abbot, and on that occasion 
John de Gamage, Prior of St. Guthlac's Priory, Hereford, which also 
belonged to St. Peter's Abbe}-, was elected. 

After thoroughly examining the church the party proceeded to the site 
of Kilpeck Castle. 

We learn from Domesday that a thane called Cadiand held Kilpeck in 
the time of the Confessor. William Fitz Norman held it 1087. His son 
Hugh is said to have, built the church, priory, and castle, and to have 
richly endowed the priory with lands. He was followed by his son, 
Henry de Kilpeck, about 1154. John de Kilpeck purchased a barony in 
1193, and left a son, Hugh, who died about 1240, leaving a son, John, the 
last baron of Kilpeck. He had two daughters, coheiresses: one of .them, 
Isabella, married William Waleran, and had Kilpeck as her share of the 
patrimony. Her heirs died out in the second generation, and Kilpeck 
came to Joan, wife of Edward de Bohun. Her tomb is in the Lady Chapel 
of Hereford Cathedral. She died in 1327, and the manor of Kilpeck passed 
to the Butlers, Earls of Ormund. That family sold it in 1545 to the Pyes. 
William Pye garrisoned Kilpeck Castle for Charles I. It was taken by the 
Parliamentary troops and destroyed. One of the Pyes held the title of 
Baron of Kilpeck, and followed James II. into exile. 

The chapel of St. Mary in the castle was served by the Benedictine 
Monks of the Priory. 

The castle stands on the west of the church, on rather higher ground. 
The mound was crowned by a shell keep, two fragments of which remain, 
and surrounded by a deep ditch. Outside this enclosure is a court or ward 
of a horse-shoe shape, also protected by a ditch. Beyond this there is a 
second and much larger area defended by a scarp ; this was probably used 
as safe pasturage for cattle in troublous times. These earthworks seem to 
be all of one date, but to the north is another large enclosure which is 
probably of British origin. 

The castle is described in Mr. G. T. Clark's Medieval Military Architec- 
ture, vol. ii. , p. 162. 

When the Gloucester Cathedral Society visited Kilpeck in 1884 a 
copper -plate portrait of one of the Monington family, engraved by 
Faithorne in the reign of Charles I., which had been found in the precincts 



Kindly lent by Messrs. Jakeman & Carver. 

CHURCH OF ST. MICHAEL, EWIAS HAROLD. 



Ewias Harold. 



3i 



of the castle, was bought by Mr. H. W. Bruton, of Gloucester, and by his 
kind permission it was used to illustrate the Cathedral Records. A descrip- 
tion of the plate by the Honorary Secretary appears with the portrait in 
vol. ii., p. 168, of that work. 

A short drive brought the company to the foot of the mound on which 
the castle of Ewias Harold formerly stood. 

When William the Conqueror returned to Normandy, six months after 
his victory at Hastings, he constituted William fitz Osbern, whom he had 
created Earl of Hereford, one of the guardians of his newly acquired king- 
dom. He it was who built the castle of Ewias Harold on the site of a 
Saxon stronghold. The Norman castle has vanished ; not a stone of it 
remains in its place above ground, but the English buvh still exists, and the 
ditch which the Norman builders dug to strengthen the position. 

At the time of the Great Survey, 1086, Alured, of Marlborough, held 
the castle of the king; in*noo it had passed into the hands of Harold^ 
son of Ralph the Earl of Hereford, who had fled before Aelfgar and 
Gryffyd, when they harried this borderland and attacked Hereford in 1055. 
Harold was of royal descent, for he was a great grandson of King iEthelred 
and a great nephew of the Confessor. It was he who gave his name to the 
castle. 

Harold and his descendants were liberal donors to the monks of St. 
Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, and it was on their behalf that Harold founded 
and his son Robert, who succeeded him, built a priory on land adjoining 
the castle. 

Robert fitz Harold fought bravely against the Welsh in the time of 
Henry I., and he is mentioned in the Gesta Stephani. 

He founded, as we shall see, the Cistercian Abbey of Dore, and his 
recumbent effigy still remains there to mark the place of his burial. His 
brother, John fitz Harold, was the progenitor of the family who built and 
held Sudeley Castle, and of the Tracys who lived at Toddington until our 
own times. 1 

Robert II., Lord of Ewias, had a dispute with the Abbot of Gloucester 
concerning Ewias Priory ; we know little of him besides. He had no son, 
and his daughter and sole heiress married Robert of Tregoz, who thence- 
forth became Lord of Ewias. Their son and heir was slain at Evesham. 
After a while the Tregoz family also died out in the male line, and the 
heiress, Clarice de Tregoz, married Roger de la Warr. The De la Warrs 
held Ewias for many generations. 

The castle, which has been ably described by the late Mr. G. T. Clark, 
in his Medieval Military Architecture, vol. ii., p. 39, stood on the tump which 
we visited. A Norman keep superseded the English buvh with its stockade, 
and a curtain or wall connected it with a lower court in which were the 
1 See Mrs. Dent's Annals of Winchcombe and Sudeley, p. 73. 



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Chapel of St. Nicholas and other buildings. The main entrance flanked 
by two towers was on the south side. The castle was described by the 
Vicar, who has written an excellent history of the parish. 1 

The Priory of Ewias ranks first in date amongst the six dependent cells 
of the great Benedictine Abbey of Gloucester, and its foundation and 
endowment appear to have been the outcome of the enthusiasm awakened 
by the dedication of Abbot Serlo's new church in 1100. 

Harold gave to the monks of St. Peter's the tithes of his demesne, the 
parish church of St. Michael's, Ewias, and also the churches of Eton Foy, 
Kentchurch, and Burnham. In return for these gifts the abbot undertook 
to provide a chaplain for the chapel of St. Nicholas in the castle, and to 
find a priest to serve the parish church and sing masses for the repose of 
the souls of the donor and his family. Early in the twelfth century a 
conventual church was built for the use of the monks at Ewias, and 
dedicated to St. James and St. Bartholomew. 

The Register of Abbot Frocester, B, contains eighty charters relating 
to Ewias Harold, the richest collection of the kind in the possession of the 
Dean and Chapter of Gloucester. Copies of these are preserved in the 
British Museum, and Mr. Bannister has given a careful epitome of them 
in his History of Ewias Harold, pp. 48-60. They cover the whole period of 
the history of the priory, from its foundation in 1100 to its dissolution, or 
absorption into the abbey property and withdrawal of the monks in 1358. 

After lunch, which was served under the shade of a beech tree in 
the grounds of the vicarage at Ewias Harold, the parish church of 
St. Michael was visited. A building stood on its site in 1100, but what 
we see at present belongs to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 2 It 
consists of a thirteenth-century western tower, massive and low, with a 
staircase turret; a fourteenth-century nave, much restored, with a modern 
porch ; and a chancel. In the north wall of the chancel in an arched 
recess lies the effigy of a lady holding in her hands a casket or cup in the 
shape of a human heart. This figure is supposed to represent Clarissa 
Tregoz, who married Roger de la Warr. When at the restoration of the 
church in 1865 the effigy was moved, a cavity was found in a. stone about 
five inches in diameter, containing the scanty remains of a metal vessel, 
which had probably once held a heart. Whether the lady's body was 
buried elsewhere and her heart only was sent to the home of her child- 
hood for burial, or whether the heart was that of her husband, Roger de la 
Warr, we cannot tell. 

In the churchyard was once a chapel dedicated to the Holy Rood, but 
no traces of it remain. 

1 The Rev. A. T. Bannisters History of Ezuias Harold. Jakeman and Carver, 
Hereford, 1902. 

3 We are indebted to the Rev. A. T. Bannister and to Messrs. Jakeman & Carver, 
Hereford, for the loan of the blocks of Ewias Harold and Abbey Dore Churches. 



i 



Abbey Dore. 



33 



The tower formerly stood apart from the church. It was no doubt 
used as a fortress in the times of border raids ; the battering at the base 
should be noticed. 

Abbey Dore was the next point of interest, and many of the visitors 
found their way thither by a pleasant walk over Ewias Harold Common. 
The abbey derives its name from the stream whicfi 'flows hard by. Leland 
says, "The Brook of Dour runneth by the Abbey of Dour." Dyr was the 
ancient British word for water. The monks, who loved to play on words, 
called it the Abbey of val d'or. We have a " Golden Valley " in Glouces- 
tershire. 

Abbey Dore was founded as a Cistercian house by Robert fitz Harold, 
Lord of Ewias, in 1147; and it received gifts of lands from the Alans, 
Cliffords, Plonknetts, and other neighbouring proprietors. Very little is 
known of its history Perhaps it had none, except when the Welsh were 
making forays into Herefordshire. The monks abode in peace, forgotten 
or ignored. At the Dissolution the site of the abbey was granted to Lord 
Scudamore, and the church, stripped of its lead, quickly became ruinous 
like other Cistercian abbeys. But in 163 1 a descendant of the grantee, 
Viscount Scudamore, a fervent churchman, who had been induced by 
Archbishop Laud to restore the tithes which he held to their proper use, 
determined to repair the eastern part of the church and fit it for Divine 
service. The church was consecrated on Palm Sunday, March 30th, 1634, 
by the Bishop of St. David's, according to an order drawn up by Dr. 
Wren, afterwards Bishop of Ely. The high altar is the ancient altar of 
the church, which after having been used for the salting of meat and 
making of cheese, was recovered by Lord Scudamore and restored to its 
sacred purpose. 1 

The conventual church of St. Mary, Abbey Dore, when completed in the 
thirteenth century, was cruciform, consisting of a nave with aisles, a choir 
with transepts and four transeptal chapels, a presbytery with north and 
south aisles, and an eastern annex with five chapels. All that remains of 
the nave is one whole bay and the pier of another. The arch opening into 
the nave from the crossing has been walled up since 1631. The other 
arches opening into the choir and transepts remain. The choir has three 
bays on each side with lancet windows. The earlier style of architecture 
is that which prevailed in the time of Henry II. — Transitional Norman. 
It has for the most part the square Norman abacus, Norman capitals 
exhibiting imitations of the Ionic volute and Corinthian acanthus but 
pointed arches with dog-tooth ornamentation. The eastern aisle is later. 
It w is probably an afterthought, but it quickly superseded the previous 
arrangement, i.e. choir and aisles with shallow apses. The white monks 
of Abbey Dore, like the canons of Hereford, were anxious to have an 
1 Archceological Journal, xxxiv. 491. 

4 

Vol. XXVII. 



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ambulatory for processions, and also additional chapels where masses 
might be said for the souls of generous donors. So they took down their 
newly-built apses, and constructed the eastern annex as we now see it. 
Similar changes were being made in other Cistercian houses — Fountains,. 
Lyland, &c. The change of style in the beautiful clustered columns and 
capitals at the eastern end will be seen at once. It is still Transitional, 
but the foliage is of an Early English character, and the abacus is no 
longer square. The change was probably made in the reign of King John. 

There are three instances where Cistercian churches or conventual 
buildings have been used as parish churches, and in every case only a 
portion has been preserved — the nave at Margam, the refectory or f rater 
at Beaulieu, and all but the nave and nave aisles here at Abbey Dore. The 
Austin Canons' Church of Brinkburne in Northumberland has also been 
restored to the service of God from the condition of roofless ruin which 
Turner drew. 

In 1260 Bishop Peter d'Acquablanca invited the faithful to contribute 
towards the building of the "sumptuous church of Dore," and his 
successor the saintly Cantiiupe, consecrated the new work, at the risk of 
his life, owing to the armed opposition and interference of the Welsh. 
Mr. Blashill, in his paper on "The Architectural History of Abbey Dore," 
Journal of the British Archcsological Association, vol. xli. , pp. 363-371, thinks 
that the nave had been only partly built in the twelfth century and was 
completed at this time. The tower stands in the angle between the choir 
and south transept. It has been generally attributed to Viscount Scuda- 
more, but Mr. Blashill thinks that it was built by the monks not long 
before the Dissolution. The original vaulting of the aisles remains, but 
the vaulting of the choir and transepts had fallen in. Lord Scudamore 
replaced it with wooden roofs, he also inserted new glass in the windows,, 
and provided a chancel screen. 

The conventual buildings, of which very little remains, were on the 
north side of the church, as at Tintern and Gloucester. The thirteenth 
century chapter house was twelve-sided, inside and out, with a clustered 
column in the centre to support the vaulting, and should be compared with 
that at Margam. 

The heart of John de Breton : Bishop of Hereford, 1269-1275, was 
buried at Dore. A diminutive effigy in relief and an incised inscription 
mark the spot. Two military effigies, with surcoats, swords, and shields, 
have been attributed to Robert fitz Harold, the founder, and Sir Roger de 
Clifford. 

No one should visit Abbsy Dore without feeling respect and gratitude 
for the conscientious nobleman who restored it. It was not here alone that 
he tried to undo by restitution the sacrilege of Reformation times. He 
also gave the tithes of Llanthony Priory, Gloucester, to the Rectory of 



i 



Madley. 



35 



Hempsted. Moreover, he built the parsonage house at Hempsted at the 
cost of /700. We may venture to alter slightly the superscription over its 
porch and say — 

"Whoe'er doth dwell at Abbey Dore ja 0~y g\ f~% gr 

Thank God for Viscount Scu,damore." *| t,i*jf frlScjC 

A very interesting paper by Mr. Roland W. Paul, F.S.A., on the work 
of restoration which has been recently carried on under his care, was read 
by the Rev. A. Phillipps, Vicar of Abbey Dore. By the kindness of Mr. 
Paul the paper will be printed in the Transactions . 

After a long and somewhat dusty drive, a refreshing tea, which the 
members found ready for them on the shady lawn of the vicarage at 
Madley, proved to be very welcome. The following description of the 
church of St. Mary, which was next visited, is taken from Murray's Guide 
to Herefordshire : — 

" Madley Church is one of the largest in the diocese ; the entire length 
being 170 ft. by 68 ft. wide. It is also architecturally one of the finest in 
Herefordshire, and consists of a nave and aisles, with a large chapel 
annexed to the South aisle, a handsome tower at the West end, and a chancel 
with a crypt underneath. It is principally of Decorated work, having a 
polygonal apse with windows of peculiar character over a fine octagonal 
crypt, with a central shaft and good groining, reached by two staircases 
on each side of the chancel, but altered in the fourteenth century, 
when the vaulted roof and central shaft replaced the original work. The 
windows, mostly of two lights, have the Early English and Decorated styles 
much intermixed. The west portion of the nave is of late Norman, with 
cushion capitals scalloped out in an unusual way. The shafts of some of 
the piers are ornamented longitudinally with a small projecting rib of the 
Decorated style. The fine Early English embattled tower is surmounted 
by a high turret called 'Jacob's Chair.' In the chancel are remains of 
stalls with desks and misereres. On the right of the altar are sedilia of 
Decorated character, ornamented with the ball-flower. This font is 
unusually large, hollowed out of a large block of 'plum-pudding' stone. 
The bells were brought in 1538 from the dissolved abbey of Dore." 

The following account of the growth of this church is compiled from 
valuable notes made by Mr. A. T. Hancocks : — 

"I. — The first period of building in Madley Church consists of the 
N orman church, which was composed of a nave with no aisles, choir and 
chancel, north and south transepts, with probably a central tower. As 
was usual in the cruciform plan of building, the choir started from the 
crossing of the transepts. Probably beyond this the chancel was slightly 
narrower. 

"H.— The first alteration in the building of the church was in the 
thirteenth century, when it was much enlarged. North and south aides 



36 



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were added, the old Norman walls, north and south, were pulled down, 
and in their place the present nave piers were erected. . . . Four small 
windows were inserted in the east portion of the north aisle, also in the 
west portion, and on the other side of the church to correspond. The 
former north transept, much reduced in size by the addition of the north 
aisle, was turned into a north porch. The piers at the base of the tower 
are good examples of Transitional work. 

" III. — The last period of building shows the addition of a curvilineal 
chancel with ten windows, some of which show they belong to the 
curvilineal period by the presence of the ogee curve, and others contain 
more geometrical tracery. A good curvilineal window was inserted in the 
south aisle — or, rather, at the east end of the Chilston Chapel, which was 
at this time added to the former south aisle. The east portion of the 
north aisle was raised several feet, and the original small windows 
replaced by larger ones. The windows in the south side of the Chilston 
Chapel were also inserted, to match those of the north aisle. In the 
fifteenth century the battlements of the tower were built, and the upper 
portion of the north porch was rebuilt in Perpendicular times. A fine 
window of the Perpendicular period was also placed in the south aisle. 

" The font has been restored from the remains of the old Norman font; 
and the old rood screen was cut up to make a family pew, which is now at 
the east end of the north aisle." 

The supports of the rood-beam are still to be seen on either side of the 
chancel arch. 

Madley and Lulham appear in Domesday as possessions of the canons 
of Hereford; and it is claimed that at an earlier time St. Dubritius was 
born in this district, where three churches — those of Whitchurch, Hent- 
land, and Ballingham — are dedicated in his name. 

In the evening the Mayor of Hereford, Alderman H. C. Beddoe, most 
kindly and hospitably received the members of the Society at the Townhall, 
where the city regalia and plate, the charters and seals, and a most 
interesting collection of pictures and documents illustrative of the history 
of the city and district had been gathered together for their inspection. 

On Thursday morning members went by railway to Ludlow, which is 
not mentioned in Domesday under that name, though Ludecote, a small 
estate containing about 360 registered acres held of Earl Roger by Ralph 
the Cook and Thochi. may represent it in part. " Lud " is supposed 
by Mr. Eyton to be equivalent to our "lode," and to mean a -'ford." 
"Low" in Shropshire and the adjoining counties means a burial mound 
or tumulus. The " low " which gave its name to Ludlow occupied the site 
of the parish church. 

On reaching Ludlow the members without delay made their way to the 
castle, and spent the morning in a careful examination of the ruins under 



Ludlow. 



37 



the guidance of Canon Bazeley and Mr. Charles Fortey. The castle is 
supposed to have been built within ten years of the Great Survey, about 
1086 — 1096, by Roger de Lacy, as under-lord of Osberne fitz Richard. In 
1088 De Lacy rebelled against William RufSs, and- died in exile, but his- 
possessions passed to his more loyal brother Hugh, who died childless. 
Henry I. granted Ludlow to Payn fitz John, who was slain by the Welsh in 
1 136, leaving no issue. Stephen appointed as castellan Joyce de Dinan,. 
a Norman knight, who rebelled against him. Accompanied by Prince 
Henry of Scotland, Stephen laid siege to the castle, and when the prince 
had been caught by a grappling-iron thrown from the walls the king 
rescued him with his own arm. It was about this time that Hugh de 
Mortimer is said to have been held prisoner by Joyce in the tower called 
by his name. 

Henry II. restored Ludlow to the De Lacys, and they held it until the 
family died out in the male branch in the time of Henry III. 

Peter de Genville held it early in the reign of Edward I., and his 
heiress married Roger de Mortimer, Earl of March, who in 1316 was joint 
lord with Theobald de Vernon, grandson of John de Vere and Margaret 
de Lacy. 

The Mortimers held the castle for five generations, and Roger de 
Mortimer entertained Edward III. here soon after the murder of 
Edward II. Roger, the fourth earl, obtained the De Lacy moiety by 
exchange. 

On the death of Edward, the fifth earl, without issue, Ludlow Castle 
and the earldom of March came to Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, 
and he transmitted it to his son, Edward IV. In 1472 Edward IV. sent 
his sons to live at Ludlow Castle, under the protection of the Council of 
Wales. They remained there till 1483, when they were removed to London, 
and a few months later were murdered in the Tower of London. 

Henry VII. sent Prince Arthur here in i486, and he himself was a 
frequent visitor till the untimely death of the young prince in 1502. 

Ludlow Castle, though in a ruinous state, continued to be the seat of 
the Council of Wales, under a president who in those days was usually a 
bishop. In 1559 Queen Elizabeth appointed Sir Henry Sidney as lord 
president, and he held the office twenty-seven years. He built the Tudor 
gatehouse in 1581 and the bridge leading to it. 

In 1 63 1 the presidency became vacant through the death of the Earl of 
Northampton, and it is stated by Clive and others that Sir John Bridgeman, 
of Prinknash Park, near Gloucester, acted as president until 1633, when 
John, Earl of Bridgewater, was appointed. But the duties of president 
seem to have been performed by the Council, of which Sir John Bridgeman, 
as Chief Justice of Chester, was chairman. Milton's masque of Comus was 
performed in the great hall of Ludlow Castle in 1634, and Lord Brackley 



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and Mr. Thomas Egerton, the two sons of the lord president, with their 
sister, the Lady Alice Egerton, took the principal parts. Sir John Bridgeman 
died at Ludlow Castle in February, 1637-8, and was buried in the north 
choir chapel of Ludlow Church. 1 

Butler, of whom we heard at Strensham, is said to have lived in the 
gatehouse, and to have written there part of his Hudibras. At the restora- 
tion he became secretary to Richard, Earl of Carbury, Lord President, 
who made him steward of Ludlow Castle, and as the first part of Hudibras 
was published in 1663 the tradition is no doubt correct. 

Ludlow Castle was surrendered in 1646 to the Parliamentary General, 
Sir William Brereton, and the Court of the Marches was suppressed. It 
was restored in 1661, but finally abolished in 1689. The castle was 
occupied by a governor for a while, but in the time of George I. the lead 
was stripped from the roofs, and the building quickly became ruinous. 
When Buck wrote, in 1774, some of the apartments were entire, but they 
have been roofless for more than a century. The Powis family have held 
the freehold since 181 1. 

The castle stands on a rocky promontory, 100 feet high, overlooking 
the waters-meet of the Corve and Teme. Two sides are protected by 
the natural cliff, and at a radius of about 200 feet from the north-west 
extremity a deep ditch has been constructed from cliff to cliff. This 
encloses the middle and inner courts. 

The outer court lies to the south and east of the inner ward on its town 
side. The outer ward was protected by a ditch, now filled in, and by a 
strong wall or curtain. The town was also walled, and its walls abutted 
on the castle. We entered the outer court through the gatehouse, which 
has a range of Tudor stabling on its south side, and one square Norman 
tower on its north. 

The gatehouse is a semi-circular tower, bearing the name of Mortimer. 
We then crossed the outer court, and, passing through a doorway in the 
south-west corner, found ourselves outside the castle walls, near the south- 
west angle where the wall branches off southwards towards the bridge. 

Proceeding northwards we examined the castle in detail. Mortimer's 
tower, half round in plan and Early English in date, has a basement and 
three upper floors. There is a well stair in the north-east angle, and just 
below the parapet is a row of corbels to support a wooden gallery. There 
are additions and insertions of later date. 

Next to this is the bakehouse tower, at the junction of the inner and 
outer courts. Then we came to the Norman postern tower, with a postern 
door in its northern face. It marks the junction of the middle and inner 
wards. At the north-west angle is a lofty group of towers containing the 
buttery. The curtain beyond forms the north side of the great hall and 
1 History of Prinknash Park, by W. Bazeley, 1890, p. 23. 

i 



Ludlow. 



39 



•state apartments. Then projects the garderobe tower, which really forms 
part of the private apartments. Last of all, at the north-east angle, is a fine 
tower of Norman date which in all probability, was the original keep. 
The north curtain of the outer court has bgen removed, and a private 
residence is being constructed on the edge of the cliff. 

We then passed a small Norman flanking tower and re-entered the 
outer court. The bridge by which entrance is given to the middle ward 
was probably constructed in later times. 

The lofty building on the left has been called the keep, but it was the 
great inner gatehouse. Recent excavations have made it plain that the 
drawbridge and main entrance were west of the present bridge. 

The Tudor building on the right was erected for the members of the 
council by Sir Henry Sidney, for it bears his arms. It was, no doubt, the 
official residence of Sir John Bridgeman, Chief Justice of Chester from 
1625 to 1638. 

As we passed into the inner court, before ascending the newell staircase 
of the so-called keep, we saw clearly that the lower basement was a 
Norman arcaded slype, or passage, with four bays on either side, and a 
covered passage in the wall with two doors, of which Mr. G. T. Clark 
overlooked the use. It was evidently intended for admission when it was 
unnecessary to fling open the heavy doors. 

The north wall and much else of this building is of a later date than 
Norman. The lower steps of the staircase leading up to the first floor are 
now outside the building, which was reduced in width from north to south 
in the thirteenth century. Final alterations were made in the Tudor 
period. The inner ward has the bakehouse tower on the south-west, the 
postern tower on the north-west, and a deep well. 

We passed again into the middle ward, and found on our right remains 
of the great kitchen, built against the curtain which divides the two 
courts. The great pile of buildings on the north contain, in order, the 
butteries (below) and the apartments said to have been occupied by 
Prince Arthur (above). The great hall, a noble apartment, 60 feet long, 
30 feet broad, and 35 feet high, occupied the first floor of the next building. 
It was approached by a broad external staircase, and had three long, 
narrow windows on its north and south sides. In the west end were two 
buttery doors, and at the north-west corner a door opened into a well 
staircase. At the east end were the raised dais and minstrels' gallery. 
The central south window was converted into a Tudor fireplace. 

This hall has witnessed many historic scenes. Many of our kings and 
princes have joined here in the wild revelries of earlier times. Here the 
young Egertons presented Milton's Comns in 1634. Next to the great hall, 
and projecting beyond it into the court, are the state apartments, with 
grand fireplaces and doorways of various styles— Decorated, Perpendicular 



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and Tudor. The space between these apartments and the corner tower 
was probably appropriated to the servants below and to state bedrooms 
above. The north-eastern tower is of Norman date, and its sides form 
parts of the north and east curtains. 

The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, is a most remarkable 
feature of the castle. It stands out in the middle of the ward. All that 
remains of it above ground is the circular nave, 28 feet in diameter inside, 
with a wall 4 feet thick. The west entrance and the chancel arch are 
richly ornamented with chevron and double billet mouldings. The 
fourteen arches of the inner arcade, which are alternately chevron moulded 
and beaded, have cushion-shaped capitals. Above the arcade was a timber 
gallery resting on twelve corbels. There were three windows, one only of 
which was ornamented. It is evident that a gallery of two stages was 
constructed to connect the domestic apartments with the chapel, the upper 
stage of which opened into the gallery of the chapel. 

The chancel, as shown by recent excavations, has been altered more 
than once. Originally it consisted of a small rectangular apse; then it 
was lengthened by the addition of a polygonal apse, and last of all was 
carried eastwards to the curtain which formed its eastern end. In later 
times, certainly, it had no east window. The chancel was standing in the 
time of Charles II., and had two Tudor windows in its north wall and 
windows in the roof. Joyce de Dinan is said to have built this chapel ; it 
is about his date — 1136. 

The only other circular churches in England are the Temple Church, 
1127, and those of Cambridge, Northampton, Maplestead, 'and Dover. 
The foundations of the last alone remain. The foundations also of an 
oval church exist under the nave of the Templars' Church of the Holy 
Cross at Bristol. 

In front of the chapel are the foundations of a fountain, said to have 
been prepared as a surprise for Queen Elizabeth by Sir Henry Sidney. 

Ludlow Castle is described in Medieval Military Architecture, vol. ii., 
P- 273- 

The Society is much indebted to one of our members, Mr. R. W. 
Dugdale, who kindly took the beautiful photographs which have been 
reproduced for this description. 

After lunch members repaired to the parish church, where they were 
most courteously received by the rector, the Rev. E. Clayton, Prebendary 
of Hereford, who explained in detail the various points of interest in the 
sacred building. This noble church, which is dedicated to St. Lawrence, 
consists of a nave of six bays, with north and south aisles, a central lantern 
tower, transepts, and a chancel, a Lady Chapel on the south side, and St. 
John's Chapel on the north. The church is of Norman foundation, and 
many traces of the original work remain — for example, a Norman capital 



1 




[ >f r 2 i[ ) i o? 



GREAT 



HALL, 




WEST DOOR OF CHAPEL. 



Ludlow. 



4i 



from the nave. The church appears to have been transformed at various 
dates. The nave aisles were raised in height and Early English windows 
were inserted in the middle of the thirteenth century. The south transept 
is Geometrical, about 1280. The north aisle of the nave, which is 
Decorated, was re-constructed early in the fourteenth century, whilst the 
north transept, with its Flamboyant east and west windows, is, perhaps, as 
late as 1330. Towards the close of the fourteenth century the nave piers 
were rebuilt and the lofty tower erected, support being obtained by 
flinging four half-arches as flying buttresses from the tower to the east and 
west ends of the transepts. Most of the windows belong to this and 
subsequent periods. 

The massive rood-loft still exists, as well as the stairs. There are also 
screens in both transepts. The late fourteenth - century stalls have 
remarkable grotesque carving. The hind ducally collared and chained, 
the badge of Richard II., as painted on the pillars near Edward II. 's tomb 
in Gloucester Cathedral, gives us their date. The east window contains 
the legend of St. Lawrence, the patron saint of the church. 

There is a singular opening in the east wall of the chancel, lighted by 
a low fourteenth-century window. The heart of Arthur, Prince of Wales, 
was buried in the chancel, but the casket in which it was enshrined is said 
to have been stolen by a sexton in 1748. 

The restored reredos contains the figures of apostles, evangelists, and 
angels and scenes in our Lord's life and ministry. 

In the Chapel of St. John, which was a chantry chapel of the Palmers' 
Guild, are four windows filled with original glass. The first contains 
representations of the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, the Annuncia- 
tion, St. Katherine of Alexandria, St. Anthony and St. Christopher, and 
the Lord's Prayer. The second and third windows contain the Twelve 
Apostles, with their symbols, each reciting a portion of the Apostles' 
Creed. Rays of light pouring down upon their heads from above 
symbolise Divine inspiration. 

The east window depicts a legend of St. John the Evangelist, the saint 
to whom this aisle is dedicated. Pilgrims are leaving for the Holy Land, 
King Edward the Confessor gives them his ring by way of alms. They 
meet St. John disguised as a beggar, to whom they give the ring. They 
receive it back from him, and return it to the king. They receive a charter 
from the king, perhaps founding their Palmers' Guild. Then there is a 
service of thanksgiving in some minster, the men of Ludlow give them a 
loving welcome home, and a festival is held to celebrate their pilgrimage 
and safe return. On the south side of this chapel, testing on an altar 
tomb, are the effigies of Sir John Bridgeman, of Prinknash Park, 
Gloucestershire, and his lady. They are evidently carved by the same 
hand as the Blackleach effigies in the south transept of Gloucester 



4 2 



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Cathedral. From the vast number of aumbreys, or cupboards for sacred 
vessels, and piscinas, we may gather that this noble church contained many 
altars, and that there were many chantry priests. Near the west end of 
the north aisle of the nave there are two recessed tombs conjoined, 
with three kneeling places for mourners. To the east of the church 
is the reader's house, a beautiful example of Renaissance domestic 
architecture. 

A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to Prebendary Clayton for the 
kindly interest he had taken in our visit. On leaving the church some of 
the members devoted the rest of the afternoon to the examination of 
objects of interest in Ludlow, while a large party went on to Leominster. 

On arriving at Leominster a visit was first paid to the old Butter Cross, 
which was set up by John Abel in 1633, but which has been removed from 
its old site and erected at the Grange, where it is used as a dwelling-house. 
It is a very interesting specimen of Herefordshire timber work. The 
members then made their way to the church which gives its name to the 
town. This noble old English minster is said to have been founded 
probably about 660, by Merewald, son of Penda, King of the Mercians, 
who ruled over the Western Hecani or men of Herefordshire. In later 
times it was a house of nuns ; for in 1046 Swegen, son of Earl Godwin, and 
Earl of Hereford, sent for Eadgifu, Abbess of Leominster, and after keeping 
her with him awhile, sent her home. He then strove to marry her, but 
this was forbidden, and he fled the country. In later days we hear of 
Hakon, son of Swegen, who may have been the child of Eadgifu, and who 
it is not unlikely was that Hakon, son of an earl, who, the Worcester 
Chronicle tells us, perished after a plundering expedition against St. Peter's 
Minster at York in 1076. If this were so, he died before his mother ; for 
■ a. pathetic little entry in Domesday seems to show us the former Abbess 
of Leominster living out a sad old age of poverty and disgrace. Among 
the entries concerning the lands of the minster is this : ' ' Abbatissa tenet 
Fencote & ipsa tenuit tempore Regis Edwardi. Ibi i hida libera & iiii 
villani cum ii carucis." The Abbess holds Fencote, and she held it in King 
Edward's time. Here is one hide quit of geld, and four villeins with two teams. 
(D.B., f. 180.) This was fully forty years after Earl Swegen, returning 
from his triumphant expedition into South Wales, called the Abbess of 
Leominster to him and brought ruin on her and on her house. The Lady 
Edith — to her disgrace be it told — had profited by her brother's fault, and 
held the lands of the minster for her life. In Domesday they appear as a 
possession of the king, rated at eighty hides and valued at £120, of which 
amount half went to the support of the nuns. The story that Earl Godwin 
procured the destruction of the minster at Berkeley by means similar to 
those which ruined Leominster is destitute of any foundation of historical 
evidence, and rests in the first instance on the writings of Walter Mapes, 



$f ■ 



CLICKING STOOL IN LEOMINSTER CHURCH. 

Length : '23 feet 6 inches. 



By the kind permission of the Council 
of the Archaeological Institute. 



Leominster. 



43 



who is last heard of in 1208. Henry I. laid the first stone of his abbey at 
Reading in 1121, and by his foundation charter, granted in 1125, he bestowed 
upon it, among other things, the possessions of Leominster, which abbey, 
he says, had been destroyed on account of^misconduct ; the grant had 
been confirmed, so far as Leominster was concerned, by Richard, Bishop 
of Hereford, in a charter dated 11 23. Till the Dissolution Leominster 
-continued to be a cell of Reading Abbey ; but even so it did not lose all its 
ancient dignity, for it was the wealthiest cell in the kingdom, its estates 
being valued in 1536 at £660 16s. 8d. The Priory was a small building to 
the north-east of the minster; its site was afterwards occupied by the 
Poorhouse. 

The church, measuring 125 feet by 108 feet, gives in the interior a 
general effect of breadth and space, and affords a curious instance of 
growth by lateral extension. On the north is a Norman nave (1113— 1148), 
with St. Anthony's aisle on the north side, and a western tower of two 
storeys, surmounted by two more storeys of Perpendicular date. Early 
in the thirteenth century the south aisle of the Norman church was removed, 
and a noble Early English nave was built, which was consecrated in 1239 ; 
its later west window recalls the style of the great west window at 
Gloucester Cathedral. Finally, another nave was added in the Decorated 
style to the south of the one consecrated in 1239, with beautiful windows 
ornamented with ball-flowers and three sedilia. In the north aisle of the 
Norman church is preserved the ancient ducking stool. It consisted of a 
seat at the end of a long pole, balanced on a stand with wheels ; the 
offender was placed in the seat, the machine was run to the water's edge, 
and the ducking could be administered till a cure was effected. 

Mr. Carrington gave the following information concerning the 
Leominster stool in the Archcsological Journal, xv. 77, 78. The cucking 
stool at Leominster is "movable and on four wheels, the chair is at the end 
of a beam, and is worked on the see-saw principle; and I was told by 
Mr. Dickens, the registrar of births and deaths, that he recollected a 
woman called Jenny Pipes, but whose real name was Crump, who was 
ducked at Leominster in the year 1809, and who died at a very advanced 
age ; and he also recollected Sarah Leeke being placed in the chair, and 
wheeled round the town, about the year 1817, but she could not be ducked 
because the water was too low. Mr. Dickens also stated that the persons 
ducked were immersed at three different parts of the town, twice in the 
river Lug and once in a pond ; and that when the machine was wheeled 
through the town, the woman in the chair at the end of the beam was 
nearly as high as the first floor windows of the houses ; and I have been 
told that the tomb of the person called Jenny Pipes is near the great west 
door of Leominster Church." 

After viewing this warning against excessive garrulity, the members 



44 



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made their way to Hereford and thence to their homes, having spent 
together three very pleasant and, it is to be hoped, very profitable days. 

Lack of time, unfortunately prevented the holding of the usual meeting 
for passing votes of thanks to those who had contributed to the usefulness 
and enjoyment of the meeting, and for the consideration of places of 
meeting in 1905. But none the less did the members who attended the 
meeting acknowledge their deep debt of gratitude to the Mayor and 
Mayoress of Hereford for the use of the Guildhall, and for their courteous 
welcome. To the Lord Bishop of Hereford and Mrs. Percival, and to the 
Mayor of Hereford, for their generous hospitality. To the Dean and 
Chapter of Hereford, and to the clergy of the various churches which 
were visited for allowing the members to see their interesting churches. 
To the owners of Ludlow Castle, the old Butter Cross at Leominster, and 
other ancient and interesting houses which were visited by the members. 
To H. Cecil Moore, Esq., M.D., Miss M. Armitage, and the members of 
the Local Committee, for the excellent way in which the arrangements 
for the meeting were carried out ; and particularly to Miss M. Bull, the 
Rev. Canon Williams, and Mr. Langton Brown, for kind help with regard 
to the Cathedral Library, and for information concerning books relating to 
Gloucester contained therein. To the General Secretary for the admirable 
programme which he had prepared and for his success in carrying out the 
programme, and also to the gentlemen who so kindly provided the 
instructive series of photographs with which the programme was illustrated. 
The selection of places of meeting in 1905 will be brought under the 
consideration of the Council. 



THE EARLY CONNECTION BETWEEN THE 
CHURCHES OF GLOUCESTER AND HEREFORD. 



By The Hon. and Very Rev, JAMES WENTWORTH LEIGH, 
D.D., F.S.A., Dean of Hereford, 

President of the Society. 

I need scarcely say how greatly I appreciate the honour 
you have conferred upon me by electing me President of 
the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for 
the ensuing year, and I trust that I may not prove myself 
unworthy of the position. I can, I think, claim to be a 
Gloucestershire man, having spent many of my younger 
years at Adlestrop in that county, and my family having 
been connected with that place for upwards of 300 years. I 
would first desire, on the part of the cathedral body, and also 
on the part of the Woolhope Field Club, to add our hearty 
welcome to that of the Mayor and Corporation on the 
occasion of your visit to this ancient city. 

You will find many subjects of great interest which are 
closely connected with the two Dioceses of Gloucester and 
Hereford, but as some of these subjects will be touched 
upon by those well qualified to speak concerning them, it 
will not be necessary for me to enter at any length into 
particulars with regard to those places which will be brought 
under your notice during your visit, I refer especially to 
St. Guthlac's Priory, Abbey Dore, Madley, Kilpeck, Ewias 
Harold. I would rather wish to confine my remarks to the 
connection between the Abbots of Gloucester and the 
Bishops of Hereford, and to refer to certain manuscripts 
in our ancient chained library, and a few records from the 
archives of the Dean and Chapter bearing upon this subject. 

In passing, I may mention that an admirable history of 
Ewias Harold, its Castle and Priory, has been written by 
the Vicar, the Rev. A. T. Bannister, and that the Rev. 
R. Hyatt Warner, Vicar of Almeley, is writing two articles in 



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the Diocesan Messenger on St. Guthlac's Without-the- Walls, 
Hereford, the first part of which appears in the number 
for July, and the second part is to appear in September. 
I will give one brief extract : " It is not easy to fix the date 
or origin of St. Guthlac's or to say how the Lincolnshire 
saint came to be honoured in Herefordshire. Guthlac 
belonged to an old family of the Kingdom of Mercia, in which 
kingdom Croyland and Hereford were both comprised, and it 
is quite conceivable that the Hereford community may have 
been originally an offshoot of the Lincolnshire brotherhood 
which grew up in memory of the famous hermit. Among the 
valuable MSS. in Belmont Priory there is one containing 
1 extract from an ancient roll beginning with the foundation 
of the Abbey of St. Peter of Gloucester in 687 and ending 
1263, now in the archives of the Dean and Chapter of 
Gloucester concerning grants made to St. Peter's Abbey, 
Gloucester, and to St. Guthlac's Priory in Plereford in 
a.d. 1 143.'" 

At the time of William the Conqueror the ancient Abbey 
of Gloucester had lost much of its original greatness, and 
was reduced to two monks and eight boys. William the 
Conqueror appointed Serlo as abbot, who raised the abbey to 
a condition of wealth and splendour, so that in 1100 there 
were more than 100 monks. As distant farms and manors 
were bestowed, the monks served different churches, so that 
after a time in the distant manors "cells" or small priories 
were established to which a few monks were sent, and among 
these attached to the Abbey of Gloucester were six dependent 
houses at Hereford, Bromfield, Ewias, Stanley, Kilpeck and 
Ogmore. 

The first stone of the Abbey Church of St. Peter, 
Gloucester, was laid in 1089 by Robert, Bishop of Hereford, 
who was the builder of the earliest part of Hereford Cathedral. 
St. Peter's was eleven years in building, and the dedication 
took place in 1100, when four bishops and many nobles were 
present. The Bishop of Hereford was the first to make a 
grant of lands to the abbey, and his example was followed 



Churches of Gloucester and Hereford. 



47' 



by Harold of Ewias, who endowed the monks of Gloucester 
with lands at Kentchurch. The Cistercian Abbey of Dore 
was founded by Robert FitzHarold of Ewias 1147. 

Among the most distinguished names connected with 
Gloucester and Hereford is that of Gilbert Ffolliot, who was 
appointed by King Stephen at the desire of Milo the 
Constable to be Abbot of St. Peter's, Gloucester, having 
been called from the monastery of Clugny, where he was 
a monk. He was consecrated 1139 by Robert de Bethune, . 
Bishop of Hereford, who had formerly been a prior of 
Llanthony. In the same year the army of the Empress 
under Milo, who had deserted the side of Stephen, again 
attacked Hereford, seized the cathedral, and used it as a 
fortress from which to besiege the castle. The clergy were 
driven out and the interior of the church was used as a 
stable, the tower being utilised as a platform from which 
to hurl missiles. Meanwhile there had been continued 
assaults on Gloucester made by the Welsh, who had robbed 
the possessions of the monks of St. Peter's. Later on the 
King, being greatly enraged on account of the desertion of 
his followers under Milo, vented his wrath against the abbot, 
Gilbert, who being in great straits made an urgent appeal for 
assistance to the powerful Bishop of Lincoln, entreating him 
to use his influence in appeasing the King's anger. "You 
are so placed by the Lord," he says, " as to be a ready 
source of help to those who are beneath you, and so what the 
City of Gloucester cannot obtain by itself or by the aid 
of the Bishop of Hereford, it may yet obtain by the help 
of the Bishop of Lincoln." 

In 1141, when Stephen was made prisoner, the Empress 
became for a time Sovereign of England, and she rewarded 
Milo by making him Earl of Hereford. Bishop Robert de 
Bethune was present at Winchester on the day on which 
Matilda was accepted there by the clergy, and, having 
returned to Hereford, purified the cathedral and restored the 
services ; but his troubles were not yet over, for in order to 
raise money to pay his soldiers, Milo laid a tax on the 



4-8 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

churches in his earldom and included the bishop in its 
assessment. He found, however, a determined opponent in 
Bishop Robert, who boldly resisted his unlawful demands, 
and at last threatened him with excommunication. 

In the midst of all this turmoil the Earl met his death by 
a chance shot at a hunting party near the Abbey of Flaxley, 
in the Forest of Dean, the building of which Bishop Robert 
had assisted only three years before. This powerful enemy 
removed and order somewhat restored m the diocese, Bishop 
Robert resumed his work of piety and munificence, which 
had been interrupted by the civil war, and among them the 
great work of completing the fabric of the cathedral. 

He also removed from its site, as a place unfit for religious 
retirement, the Benedictine Priory of St. Guthlac to a new 
site outside the city wall, under the name of SS. Peter and 
Paul and St. Guthlac, already united to the Church of St. 
Peter Within-the- Walls and subject to the Abbey of 
Gloucester. 

There had been strained relations at one time between 
the bishop and his friend the abbot, due to the delinquencies 
of certain Welshmen in the Diocese of Hereford, but a 
reconciliation took place, and in token of this the bishop 
sent the abbot a present of two fish (salmon, we may 
presume), which the abbot acknowledged at great length, 
saying that the bishop had made him his debtor, because 
the gift is not only sustenance for the body, but also furnishes 
food for the mind. " You have sent me two fish of the same 
kind (one large, one small), both good, all which furnishes 
my inner man with as many dishes as the mind is instructed 
by example." Then follows a long dissertation or preamble. 
The original document is in possession of the Dean and 
Chapter of Hereford. On the death of Robert de Bethune, 
1 148, he was succeeded in the See of Hereford by his great 
friend Gilbert Ffolliot, the abbot, who had formerly been a 
Cluniac monk and prior of Abbeville. . . . He obtained 
from the Pope the restoration to the cathedral of the four 
prebends appropriated by Bishop Robert to the Church 



Churches of". .'Gloucester and .Hereford 49 



of Llanthony Secundus. He was translated to London, 
and his successor at Hereford was Robert of Maledon, a 
prior of Llanthony. He was present at the. famous scene 
between Becket and Henry II,, and<- with Gilbert Ffolliot, 
attempted to take the cross . from 'the Archbishop. Among 
other bishops in some way connected with Gloucester I 
might mention Hugh de Mapenore, who t was consecrated 
at Gloucester 1213 ; Richarde Smufield, consecrated at 
Gloucester 1283 ; and Reginald Boulers, who was an abbot 
of Gloucester 1451, and was afterwards translated to 
Lichfield. ' • 

In 1 541 a great ch-ange was made in the boundaries of the 
Diocese of Hereford by the withdrawal from it of the Forest 
Deanery in order to form part of the new Diocese of 
Gloucester. Such benefices also in Herefordshire as had 
belonged to the Abbey of Gloucester were annexed to the 
new See as part of its endownent. By an omission in the 
Act, however, the jurisdiction neither of the Bishop nor of 
the Archdeacon of Hereford was taken away, and that of the 
bishop remained for some time longer, whilst that of the 
archdeacon was not removed until 1836. 

There are many valuable MSS. among the chained 
volumes in the Cathedral Library which have reference to 
transactions between the Abbey of Gloucester and the See 
of Worcester. A list of these has been made by Mr. Langton 
Brown, our assistant librarian, and is herewith appended. 

Among the archives in the possession of the Dean and 
Chapter is a clearly-written document, 1070, in wonderful 
preservation, being an order from William the Conqueror 
to Wulstan, and it is for restitution to the Abbey of 
Gloucester of certain lands appropriated by Aldred : — ■ 

Translation : "William, King of England, to Wulstan, Bishop 
of Worcester, and William Fitz-Osborn, and all his barons 
and officers of Gloucester and Worcester, greeting. Know 
ye that I have granted, restored and confirmed to God and 
St. Peter of Gloucester, and to Serlo, abbot to the monks of 
the same church, all their lands which Thomas, Archbishop 

5 

Vol. XXVII. 



50 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



of York, held without right, viz. : Leach, Oddington, and 
Standish, with all their appurtenances, as free and unen- 
cumbered, as it has been admitted before me that the same 
lands belonged to the said Church of St. Peter of Gloucester 
from the foundation thereof, and that the same Archbishop 
had no title to these lands. 

" Witnesses : Llanfranc, Archbishop, Geoffrey, Bishop of 
Coutance, and Robert, Earl of Morton." 

[Seal.] 

1162-1171. Complaint from Roger de Berkely to 
Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, as to right of presen- 
tation to St. Leonard's, Stanley : Roger de Berkeley gave to 
the prior and monastery of St. Peter, Gloucester, the 
Church of St. Leonard's, and all pertaining thereto. 

1209. Grant of Robert de Berkeley (son of Maurice) to 
the Church of St. Leonard, Stanley (near Stroud), of his 
woodland at Cowley. 

[Seal of Grantor.] 
1244- 1260. Lease of lands at Ebley under Priory Seal 
of John Abbot of St. Peter's, Gloucester. 



EFFIGIES OF BRISTOL. 

By I. M. ROPER. 

%* The Latin epitaphs are reproduced as they stand. 
(Continued from p. 287, Vol. xxvi Part II.) 



ST. MARY REDCLIFFE CHURCH.— Dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 

1. Military. Knight in armour cross-legged above the 
knee. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. More than life-size, 7 ft. 6 in. long. 

5. The knight is enveloped from head to foot in a complete 
suit of chain mail. A hauberk with long sleeves and mittens 
reaches nearly to the knees, and is cut up in front, the coif or 
hood being of the same piece. Over the mail is worn a long, 
loose flowing surcoat, sleeveless, and girdled with a narrow 
belt or cingulum, and open below it. The legs are covered 
with chausses of mail extending over the feet, with straps for 
the prick spurs. 

The very broad sword belt is loosely buckled over the 
hips, and to it is fastened a long, straight-hilted sword, held 
by the left hand obliquely and in the act of being drawn by 
the right. This is one of the earliest examples of the sword 
being handled by the wearer. Borne upright on the left arm 
is a large heater-shaped shield, the guige or strap passing 
round the right shoulder. 

The eyes are closed, and there is a small moustache. 

Similar armour is shown on the effigy of Sir David de 
Esseby before 1268, Castle Ashby Church, Northampton- 



52 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



shire, and the peculiarity of closed eyes occurs on the effigy 
of Sir Gerald de 1'Isle about 1287, Stowe-nine-churches, in 
the same county. 

6. The head rests on two square pillows, the upper one 
smaller and set diagonally. 

7. The feet rest on a dog lying down. 

8. A plain stone altar-tomb. 

9. There is no inscription. 

(a) Supposed to be Robert II., 3rd Lord Berkeley, 
died 1220, aged 55. 1 

(b) Supposed to be Robert de Were, died 1229. 2 

(c) Tradition assigns the effigy to William Burton. 3 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The features are very much worn. The right elbow 
and half. of the shield have been cutaway. The legs and the 
bottom of the surcoat have been repaired. 

12. Placed on the floor in the north transept ; now at the 
north-east corner ; but in Britton's time at the south-west side. 
The mutilations prove that these were not its original posi- 
tions. The armour shows that the figure belongs to the first 
half of the thirteenth century, which is a time, previous to 
the building of the present church of St. Mary Redcliffe. 

Pryce (History of Bristol, p. 345) suggests that the effigy 
was erected in the Hospital of St. Catherine's, Bedminster, 
Bristol (which was founded by Lord Robert in 1220, and 
where the anniversary , of his death was yearly celebrated), 
whence it was removed to St. Mary Redcliffe Church for 
preservation when St. Catherine's was- dissolved in 1549, and 
became a secular building. 

Smyth (Lives of the Berkeleys, p. 98) states that Lord Robert 
de Berkeley was buried in the north aisle of St. Augustine's 
Monastery, Bristol, " over against the high altar " ; but it was 
customary for the effigy of a founder to be placed in such 
hospitals, notwithstanding the body being buried elsewhere. 

1 Barrett, History of Bristol, p. 583. 
2 Trans. B. andG. Arch. Soc, vol. xv., part i., p. 91, note. 
3 Britton, Essay on Redcliffe Church, p. 17. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



53 



13. Poorly illustrated in "Bristol: Past 'and Present, vol. ii., 
p. 197. 

14. The effigy is in a very worn condition. 

15. (a) Robert, 3rd Lord Berkeley, was born in 1165, and 
as a youth is described as pious and good under the tutelage 
of the Abbot of St. Augustine's, Bristol. After a training in 
arms at the Court of Henry II., he took up his position as 
head of the family, on succeeding his father in 1189, and 
assumed the name of "Berkeley" instead of "Harding." 

In the political struggles with King John he forfeited all 
his estates in 1212, and, on having them restored, he again 
lost them in 12 16. He quickly made his peace, and recovered 
most of them in the next year, on the accession of Henry III. 

After being twice married, he died without issue in 1220. 
His second wife, Luci, survived him, and afterwards married 
Hugh de Gourney, younger brother of Robert de Gourney, 
joint founder of St. Mark's Hospital, Bristol. 1 

(b) Robert de Were was third son of Robert Fitzharding 
and father of Robert de Gaunt. From his father he received 
the manor and lordship of Were, co. Somerset, together 
with divers other manors and lands, the three Hundreds of 
Portbury, Bedminster, and Hareclive in Somerset, which 
Hundreds his son Maurice, being without issue, reconveyed 
to his cousin Thomas, Lord Berke^. This would be the 
branch of the family of Gaunts that held the lordship of 
Stowe, Northamptonshire, from the Conquest to the end of 
the thirteenth century. Robert de Were died 14 Henry III. 
(1229), but the place of his burial is not recorded. 2 

(c) The identity of William Burton is not known. 



1. Ecclesiastical. Priest in plain clerical dress. 

2. Recumbent effigy in relief. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size, 5 ft. 6 in. long. 

3 Smyth, Lives of the Berkeleys, vol. i., pp. 91, 96 and 98. 

2 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xv., part i., p. 91, note by Sir John 
Maclean. 



54 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



5. The figure is dressed in a very full cassock or " tunica 
talaris," reaching nearly to the feet, fastened at the throat 
with three buttons and girdled with a narrow belt buckled in 
front. The sleeves are rather short, and show the tight 
sleeves of an under-garment closely buttoned to the wrist. 

On the feet are low shoes, broad-toed and strapped across 
the instep. The hair is thick and curly, the tonsure small, 
and the face clean shaven. The hands are clasped in prayer. 

6. The head rests on a square, tasselled pillow, set 
diagonally. 

7. The feet, far apart, rest on the slab only. 

8. The slab with effigy in relief appears to have been a 
tombstone of rectangular shape, but Pryce {History of Bristol, 
p. 340) calls it the lid of a coffin, the opening of which he 
describes. 

9. Inscription at the feet of effigy in ancient characters: 



John Lavyngton, died about 141 1. 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The nose is defaced and the slab broken in places. 

12. Placed on the floor of the tower, westward of the 
north porch. 

The tombstone is stated by Dingley {History from Marble, 
Cambrian Society, p. 62, written 1660-85) to be seen "near 
this church in an office belonging to the School-house." 
This building, with chantries, was erected about 1250, in 
the churchyard of St. Mary RedclifTe, as a Chapel of the 
Holy Ghost, and was afterwards given by Queen Elizabeth 
to trustees for use as a free grammar school, being taken 
down in 1762. The tombstone was rediscovered in 1776, 
being dug up under the west window of this chapel. 1 After 
that the tombstone was placed at the south-west end of the 
church, and is shown in that position in Britton's ground 
plan. About 1877 it was removed to its present position. 

13. Described and illustrated by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley in 
3 Archdeacon Norris, Redcliffe Chunk, 1888, pp. 37 and 63. 



J o h e s 




lavyngton. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



55 



Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. ix., part i., p. 70 ; illustrated in 
Bristol : Past and Present, vol. ii., p. 206 ; sketched in Dingley, 
History from Marble, Cambrian Society, p. 62. 

14. The figure is in good condition. 

15. Nothing is known of the history of John Lavyngton, 
except that he was probably chaplain of the Chapel of the 
Holy Ghost, situated in the churchyard ; because this stone 
was dug up under the west window of the Chapel of the 
Holy Ghost in the churchyard in 1776. 



1. Civilian. Mayor in gown of office. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. long. 

5. The figure wears a long supertunic reaching in plain 
folds nearly to the feet, high in the neck, and with long, full 
sleeves, showing the sleeves of an under-garment. Over this 
is worn a mayor's gown, which is closed from right to left 
across the chest, but open down to the feet below the waist. 
The collar is small and turned down, and the pendent sleeves 
are very long, hanging nearly to the bottom of the gown. 
Both garments are edged with fur round the bottom and the 
sleeves. The supertunic is girdled by a narrow belt, to 
which is attached on the right side a plain analace. On the 
left shoulder rests a peculiar-shaped cap, in high favour in 
the middle of the fifteenth century — it is circular in shape, 
like a turban — to which is fastened a straight-folded scarf, 
hanging down two inches below the tunic. On the feet are 
half-boots, cut open in front to show the tongue, and buckled 
across with a strap. The features are well carved and show 
refinement. As they resemble somewhat those on his effigy 
as dean, this is probably an attempted portrait. The face 
is clean shaven and the head bald, with short curly hair at 
the sides. The eyes are open, and the hands are clasped in 
prayer. 

Similar cap is shown on the brass of notary c. 1475, 



56 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

St. Mary Tower Church, Ipswich; on brass of Walter 
Colney, 1479, Lynn; on the brass of Benet, Cirencester 
Church ; and on effigy of so-called " purse bearer," Redcliffe 
Church, Bristol. 

6. Two small angels support the head, which rests 
on two small, square, tasselled pillows, the top one set 
diagonally. 

7. The left foot rests on a small hound (mutilated), 
sitting up, a collar round the neck. The right foot is 
against a block of sculptured stone. 

8. A slab with effigy is placed on the floor in a recessed 
arch. The pointed arch springs from the head of a negro 
on one side and from that of a bearded man on the other, 
its outer edge being curved into three beautiful finials of 
fig-leaves, with a border of the same. The inner edge is 
of plain cusps, and the spandrels pierced with open work. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Known to be William Canynges, junior, died 1474. 

On an altar-tomb beneath an arched testoon, known to be 
connected with this effigy and that of his wife, now in the 
south transept, there is an inscription on a scroll across the 
cornice : 

" Orate pro Aniabus Gulielmi Canngnae quondam 
hujus Villae et Johannae Uxoris ejus." 
On a loose board at the back of the same tomb is the 
following Latin inscription : — 

" Hie inferius tumulatur corpus nobilis, circumspecti 
magnaeque industrial vll, Willi. Canyngs, dudum 
mercatoris et quinquies majoris istius villae et 
postea in ordine sacerdotali per septennium instituti, 
ac Decani de Westbury ; qui in ista ecclesia duas 
Cantarias perpetuas Duorum Capellanorum ; viz. 
Unam in Honorem St. Georgii et alteram in 
Honorem St. Catharinae ac etiam unum clericum 
stabiliri fecit et Mariae Virgini Sacravit cum sua 
Johanna Quorum animabus propitietur Deus. 
Amen." 



Effigies of Bristol. 



57' 



TRANSLATION. 

"Beneath this stone lies entombed the body of William 
Canynges, formerly a famous upright and industrious 
merchant, and five times mayor of this town ; after- 
wards he was in holy orders for the space of seven 
years, and Dean of Westbury. In this church he 
founded two perpetual chantries, with two chaplains 
— one in honour of St. George, the other in honour 
of St. Catharine. He also, together with his wife, 
Johanna, appointed one priest, and consecrated him 
to the service of the Virgin Mary. On whose souls 
may God have mercy. Amen." 1 
In the centre panel on the front of the tomb is painted 

a shield bearing the arms : " Argent three boars' heads 

couped, 2 and i, sable, wreathed or and azure," Canynges. 
On a small shield 

held by a demi- 

angel on the canopy 

is the merchant's 

mark. 

10. There is no 
sign of painting. 

11. The hound 
is mutilated and 
the garments are 
chipped. The nose 
and tops of the 
fingers have been 
restored. merchant mark of william canynges. 

, T St. Mary Redcliffe Church, Bristol. 

12. Now fixed 

in a restored recess in the south aisle, towards the west. 
There is but little doubt that this was the original position 
of the effigy, erected at or before Canynges' death. It 
must have been removed hence and placed, together 
with the effigy of the wife, on a sculptured tomb in the 
south transept, built at seme time in the place previously 
1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 349. 




58 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



occupied by the altar of St. Catherine's Chapel. When 
this tomb was built is unknown, or for what purpose, but 
the figures were lying on it before 1684, as shown by a 
contemporary sketch. The effigies rested on it, on separate 
slabs, till 1877, when they were again put back, each in its 
original recess. 1 

13. Illustrated and described by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, 
Trans. B. and G. Ar:h. Soc, vol. xviii., part ii., plate iv. 

The cap illustrated in Hollis, Monumental Effigies of Great 
Britain, and in Fairholt, Book of Costume, p. 188. 

The tomb illustrated in Skelton, Antiquities of Bristol, 
plate vi. (with effigies), and drawn by J. Hine (without 
effigies). 

14. The effigy is in good condition, but not quite so well 
preserved as that of the wife in adjoining recess. 

15. William Canynges was a very great merchant and 
shipowner at Redcliffe Street, Bristol, being also five times 
mayor and twice member of Parliament. After the Wars of 
the Roses he had to pay in 1461 the heavy fine mentioned in 
another epitaph, either for the city or for himself, having 
been on the Lancastrian side. 

Like his grandfather and others, he took part in re- 
building Redcliffe Church, completing the clerestory and 
roof, besides endowing two chantries and certain charities. 

After the death of his wife he gradually gave up business, 
and became a priest in 1467, being appointed shortly after- 
wards Dean of Westbury-on-Trym College, where he rebuilt 
part of the church and offices. His wife, Joanna, died in 
1460, and before his own death he also lost both his sons 
and three of his grandchildren, the fourth living at Wells. 
He died the end of 1474, and was buried alongside his wife 
in the vault under the south transept of Redcliffe Church, 
Bristol. 2 

1 Ibid., p. 348 ; Dingley, History from Marble (Cambrian Society, 1867), 
p. 61. 

2 Archdeacon Norris, St. Mary Redcliffe Church, 1888. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



59 



U Lady. 

2 Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 5 ft. 8 in. long. 

5. The figure is represented in the costume of a lady of 
the fifteenth century. She wears a straight flowing gown to 
the feet, with long, full sleeves turned back with a narrow, 
straight cuff, to show the sleeves of an under-garment. The 
bodice opens in front over a plain square-cut stomacher laced 
down the centre, and has a plain turned-back collar reaching 
to the waist. The gown is girdled by a rather broad belt, 
fastened in front with an ornamental buckle. Passed through 
the belt on the left side is a strap hanging straight down, 
decorated with a metal end and two raised Tudor roses ; 
attached is a ring, but no sign of a purse or pomander. 

The head is covered with the veil head-dress in full folds 
to the shoulders. On the feet are pointed shoes, just visible 
below the gown. The hands are in the attitude of prayer, 
and have rings on the second, third, and fourth fingers of 
each hand, placed above the second joints. The eyes are 
open and the features are very refined and peaceful. 

6. The head rests on an oblong and a small, round, 
tasselled pillow, supported by two small angels with their 
hands on the top one. 

7. The feet rest against two standing lap-dogs vis-a-vis 
(one mutilated), with collars. 

8. A slab with an effigy is placed on the floor in a recess 
with canopied arch. The pointed arch springs from two 
cherubs, its outer edge being curved into three beautiful 
finials of oak leaves and acorns, with a border of the same. 
The inner edge is of plain cusps and the spandrels pierced 
with open work. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Known to be Joanna, wife of William Canynges, junr., 
died 1460. The effigy at one time rested with that of the 
husband on an altar-tomb with inscriptions. 

10. There is no sign of painting. 



6o 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



11. The garments are a little chipped and the head of 
the outer dog is broken. 

12. Now fixed in a restored recess in the south aisle 
towards the east. See also p. 57. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. In a good state of preservation. 

15. For her life see p, 58. 



1. Ecclesiastical. Member of a collegiate foundation 
attired in choir dress. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Derbyshire marble. 

4. More than life-size, 6 ft. 6 in. long. 

5. The figure is dressed in a long, full cassock, reaching 
to the feet, high in the neck, and with wide sleeves, showing 
the loosely-laced sleeves of an under-garment. Over this is a 
loose, flowing surplice with long, ample sleeves, and above it, 
round the shoulders, an almuce or fur cape ; the two long 
ends, rounded at the bottom, hang straight down the front, 
and the hood lies loosely round the neck. As the choir habit 
of a collegiate was similar to a canon's, all the almuce is 
made of ermine, and the tails are sewn round the edge and 
hang over the surplice. 

The feet are covered with pointed shoes, and the hands 
are clasped in prayer. The head is bald, with a ring of short 
hair above the ears, and no tonsure is shown. The features 
are very marked : a long, aquiline nose ; narrow, projecting 
chin, and high cheek bones ; and since the effigy was carved 
during the lifetime, it is probably a portrait of the dean. 

Similar almuce is shown on the brass of Thomas Butler, 
1494, Great Haseley Church, Oxfordshire. 

6. The head rests on two pillows, the top one square and 
tasselled, and underneath them is a clasped book of the 
Gospels. It is supported by two angels sitting down with 
their heads thrown back and holding the tassels. 

7. The feet rest on the body of a bearded man, appar- 



Effigies of Bristol* 



6i 



ently in great bodily pain. He is clothed in a jerkin, with 
jewelled girdle, tight hose, and twisted scarf round his 
luxuriant hair. 

8. A plain raised stone tomb. ' 

9. Inscription on a wooden board nailed against the 
wall over the effigy.. Britton (Essay on Redcliffe Church, p. 30) 
thinks the first part was most likely translated from William 
Wycestre's Itinerary, and is of much later date than the death 
•of Canynges.. 

The large tonnage given for some of the ships must be 
inaccurate. 1 \. 

The inscription is as follows: — 

Mr. William Cannings ye Richest 
Marchant of ye towne of Bristow ; 
Afterwards chosen 5 times Mayor of 
ye said towne : for ye good of ye Comon 
Wealth of ye same : Hee was in order 
of Priesthood 7 yeares and afterwards 
Deane of Westbury and died ye 7th of 
Novem 1474, which saide towne of 
Westbury, a Colledge (which his Canons) 
and ye said William did main- 
tain by space of 8 yeares 800 
handy crafts men, besides carpen- 
ters and masons, every day 100 men 
Besides King Edward ye 4th day of ye 
said William 3000 marks for his peace. 
To be had in 2470 tonnes of shiping. 

these are ye names of his shiping with their burthens : — 





tonnes 




tonnes 


Ye Mary Canynges 


400 


Ye Mary Batt 


220 


Ye Mary Redclift 


500 


Ye Little Nicholas 


140 


Ye Mary & John 


900 


Ye Margarett 


200 


Ye Galliott 


050 


Ye Katherine of Boston 


022 


Ye Kathrine 


140 


A Ship in Ireland 


IOO 



1 Latimer, Hist, of Soc. Merch. Vent, of Bristol, p. 58. 



62 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



No age nor time can wear out well-woon fame, 
the stones themselves a statly worke doth shew 
from senceles graue we ground may men's good name 
And noble minds by ventrous deeds we know. 
A Lanterne cleere settes forth a candell light 
A worthy act declares a worthy wight, 
the Buildings rare that here you may behold, 
to shrine his Bones deserve a tombe of gold. 
The famous Fabricke that he here hath donne 
Shines in its sphere as glorious as the Sonne. 
What needs more words, ye future World he sought, 
And set ye pompe and pride of this at nought : 
heaven was his aime, let heaven be still his station, 
that leaves such work for others imitation. 

William Canynges, jun., died 1475, aged 74. 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The left arm of the old man under the feet is broken 
off. The nose and hands of the effigy have been restored. 

12. Placed against the wall in the eastern corner of the 
south transept. 

13. Illustrated and described by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley in 
Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. ix., part i., p. 69; photograph 
in The Little Red Book of Bristol, 1900. 

14. The effigy is very well preserved. 

15. William Canynges was Dean of the Secular College 
of the Holy Trinity, established at Westbury-on-Trym, near 
Bristol, from 1468 to 1475. 



1. Civilian. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Diminutive, 4ft. ioin. long. 

5. The figure wears a long supertunic falling in folds to 
the feet, and confined at the waist by a narrow belt ; it is 
high in the neck and has long, full sleeves. Over it is worn 
a rather long cloak, falling over the shoulders and open at 



Effigies of Bristol. 



63 



the sides. Attached to the waist belt on the left side is a 
large purse or gypciere. On the left shoulder rests the 
peculiar-shaped cap or turban of the period, with its straight 
folded scarf hanging down as long as, the tunic. 

The feet are covered with pointed shoes, and the hands 
are clasped in prayer. The hair is cut short across the 
forehead and clubbed in the fashion of the end of the fifteenth 
century. The face is clean shaven and the eyes are open. 

A similar cap is shown on the effigy of William Canynges,. 
1474, in the same church. 

6. The head rests on a square, tasselled pillow, and is 
supported on the right by a large sprawling angel with its 
hands on the pillow and the man's arm. 

7. The feet rest on a dog lying down with its front paws 
on a big bone. 

8. A plain altar-tomb. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Probably a merchant of Bristol, died about 1480. 

The costume and cap are such as were commonly worn 
by civilians at the end of the fifteenth century. From its 
size and its rough carving the effigy seems to have been 
made by a local stone- worker, and would have been an 
attempt at a portrait. 

It has been supposed to represent a purse-bearer or 
dependant of William Canynges, junr., but the reasons 
suggested seem inadequate. The single angel at the head is 
found elsewhere, and, like the dog with the bone at the feet, 
has no special significance. 

10. The effigy shows no sign of paint. 

11. The features are defaced, and the fingers and shoe- 
tops are worn away. 

12. Placed against the wall in the west corner of the 
south transept. 

13. Described by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley in Trans. B. and G. 
Arch. Soc, vol. xviii., part ii., p. 261. 

14. The effigy is very coarsely executed and the angel 
badly carved. The whole is in a very worn condition. 



r 4 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



15. The fact that an effigy was erected to this merchant 
shows a man distinguished by some virtue, but nothing 
positive is known. 

• 1. Civilian. . ' 

t.:., i... Lady.-' \.~ 1$ : nl I • 

■ 2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size. Male 5 ft. 6 in. long ; female 5 ft. 5 in. long. 

5. The man is dressed as a merchant or burgess of the 
latter part of the fifteenth century. He wears a long, full 
supertunic edged with fur, high at the throat, reaching 
nearly to the ankles, and confined at the waist by a plain 
narrow belt. It has very full, large sleeves, turned back at 
the wrists to show the tight-fitting sleeves of an under- 
garment. Over this he wears a sleeveless mantle, also edged 
with fur, open at the sides, and falling in full plain folds, 
back and front, to the bottom of the gown. On the left side 
a strap is passed through the waist belt, and to it is attached 
a tasselled gypciere or bag. 

The feet are covered with pointed shoes, and. the hands 
are clasped in prayer. The hair is closely cropped, the eyes 
are open, and the face is clean shaven. 

The lady is very simply dressed in the prevailing fashion 
of her day. She wears a long-waisted gown, which falls in 
graceful folds over the feet. Above the waist it is tight- 
fitting, and cut low to show a- small straight stomacher. 
It has a wide, turned-back collar, the ends of which are 
concealed by the clasped hands. The gown is girdled by 
a narrow belt, buckled in front, with the short end hanging 
down straight. The sleeves are tight-fitting, extending to 
the wrists, with rather wide cuffs. : Over the shoulders is a 
plain mantle, reaching to the feet. The head-dress consists 
of a veil, falling at the back of the head and confined over 
the forehead by a stiff band, with sides or lappets hiding the 
ears, and is probably the kind of cap worn under the steeple 
headdress. The shoes are hidden by the gown, but they 



Effigies of Bristol. 



appear to be pointed. The hands are clasped in prayer, and 
the eyes are open. 

Similar costume is shown on the effigy of Lady Katherine 
Berkeley, of Uley, 1387, St. Mark's @hapel, Bristol, 

6. The male head rests on two plain pillows — the under 
one large and tasselled, the upper one small and set 
diagonally. Two angels, vis-a-vis and heads thrown back, 
rest their hands on the upper pillow. 

Under the female head are two square, tasselled pillows, 
also supported by two small angels. 

7. The male feet rest on a large dog, lying down, and those 
•of the female on two " small hounds," lying back to back. 

8. A double altar-tomb under a richly-sculptured Gothic 
canopy. Both tombs are of the same style, with only a thin 
stone partition dividing them. Beneath the canopy of the 
first division are two recumbent effigies, and affixed to the 
back of the second is an engraved brass, described by 
Mr. Cecil Davis in Gloucestershire Brasses, p. 69. 

The tombs are flanked by clustered buttresses, the fronts 
being each divided into sixteen narrow trefoil-headed panels. 
The horizontal testoon has similar panels, decorated with 
five foliated arches and finials springing from winged angels 
bearing shields. It is surmounted by a richly-sculptured 
frieze of vine-leaves and fruit, with an open parapet of 
trefoil flowers. The vaulting is slightly arched, having 
square panels with double cusps, ending in five-leaved 
flowers. The back and sides are also panelled, and on the 
former is a shield charged with devices, but without tinctures. 

The arms are: " (Sable) a chevron (ermine) between 
three trefoils slipt (argent)," Mede. 

9. Inscription on a narrow strip of brass, which formerly 
extended the whole length of the tomb, along the front edge 
•of the table-stone, but only a small portion remains : — 

" . . . pdict Thome Mede ac ter maioyl isti ville 
Bristoll q. obiit xx diemes Decebris A. Dm 
mcccclxxv qm anabs pper de' Amen." 
The Mede arms are very roughly scratched at the end. 

6 

Vol. XXVII. 



66 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



Sir Thomas Mede, died 1475, and his wife. 

10. There are no signs of painting. 

11. The garments are chipped, and the hands and 
features much worn. 

12. Erected at the east end of the north aisle of the chanceL 

13. Tomb illustrated in Skelton, Antiquities of Bristol, pi. 33. 

14. The effigies are in a good state of preservation. 

15. Sir Thomas Mede was a wealthy Bristol merchant, 
and held the office of bailiff in 1439 and of sheriff in 1453, 
at which time also he possessed " Mead Place," the family 
country residence in the parish of Wraxall, Somerset. 
Britton states that he was twice mayor of the city, but this 
is a mistake; it was his brother Philip who attained to that 
dignity. 1 



ALL SAINTS' CHURCH, CITY.— Dedicated to 
All Saints. 

1. Civilian. 

2. Effigy, reclining on the right elbow. 

3. White marble. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure is dressed as a country gentleman of the 
early part of the eighteenth century. He wears a cloth coat 
reaching to the thighs, cut square, and without a collar. It 
has buttons to the waist, but the lowest only is fastened, it 
being open from the throat to show within it a loose linen 
shirt and cravat with ends falling in front. The sleeves of 
the coat are long, with a wide open cuff, beyond which the 
shirt shows with a tight-buttoned band. 

Over all is worn a mantle, falling loosely from the 
shoulders in ample folds over the arms and to the knees. 
Stockings reach above the knees, and are fastened below 
with a plain garter, and the high, square shoes are buckled 
across the instep. Pie wears a full, curled peruke falling on 
the shoulders* 

The countenance, with open eyes, is full of expression 

1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 357 ; "Two Bristol Calendars," Trans.. 
B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xix., p. 105. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



67 



and benign ; it is a copy from a painting. The right hand is 
on the breast and the left rests over the left knee. 

6. The right elbow leans on a very full, square cushion, 
adorned round the sides with fancy V/raid and large tassels. 

7. There is nothing at the feet. * 

8. The slab with effigy rests on a high tomb of grey 
granite with an inlaid marble slab in front with an inscription. 
Above is a very lofty shallow canopy of white and black 
marble, with Ionic pillars supporting the decorated and 
pointed architrave, on the top of which recline two cherubs 
with the coat of arms and crest in the centre. The effigy 
was modelled and executed by Rysbrach from an original 
picture by Richardson. On the side of the tomb is scratched 
" Sidnell Bristol fecit 1729." 

A long list of charities is inscribed on the centre panels 
of the canopy. The total amount is ^40,745. 

The arms are: " Argent, two dolphins hauriant respecting 
each other sable, conjoined by their necks with a chain 
pendent or," Colston. 

Crest on wreath: "A dolphin embowed sable." 

9. Inscription on front of tomb : — 
"Edward The Son of William Colston Esq" 

And Sarah His Wife Was Born In This City 
Nov 2nd 1636 Dy'd At Mortlake In Surrey 
Oct nth 1721 And Lyes Buried Near This Monument. " 
Inscription on panels of canopy: — 

THE PUBLIC CHARITIES AND BENEFACTIONS 
GIVEN AND FOUNDED BY EDWARD COLSTON, ESQ. : 

In Bristol. 
On St. Michael's Hill. 
1691 An Almshouse for 12 men & 12 women, 
the chief brother to receive 6 sh. 
ye others 3 sh. per Week, besides Coal etc. 
to a Chaplain £10 per an : The whole 
to be paid by Fee Farm Rents on Estates 
in Northumberland, Cumberland and 
Durham and by some Houses & Lands 
near the House. The charge about 8500 



68 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



In King Street. 
Six Saylors to be maintain'd in the 
Merchants Alms House by a Farm in 
Congersbury, Somerset. The Charge 600 

In Temple Street. 
1696 A School for 40 Boys to be cloath'd 

and taught, endow'd with an Annuity 

out of the Mannor of Tomarhear, Somt : 

an House & Garden for ye Master. Ye Charge 3000 

In College Green. 
1702 To the Rebuilding of Ye Boy's Hospital : 500 
and for 6 Boys to be cloath'd, maintain'd, 
instructed & apprentic'd, a Farm of 
yo£ per an. in Congersbury: The Charge 1500 

In St. Peter s Parish. 
To the Mint Work House 200 
and for placing out poor Children 200 

On St. Augustine's Back. 
1708 An Hospital for a Master, two Ushers 

and a Catechist and for one hundred Boys 

to be instructed, cloath'd, maintain'd 

and apprentic'd. The Charge about io^oo 1 

ioo£ per an. to be given for 12 years 

after his Death, either to those 

who have been apprentic'd from the 

Hospital on St. Augustine's Back 

or for the apprenticing of Boys 

from Temple School by io£ each 1200 

To the several Charity schools 

each io£ per an. given for many years 

whilst He Liv'd & to be Continued 

for 12 years after His Death 

1 Books give this as ^40,000 



Effigies of Bristol. 



69 



To Ye repair & beautifying of Churches 



All Saints 


250 


St. Michael 


5° 


Cathedral 


260 


St. Stephen 


5o 


Clifton 


5o 


Temple 


160 


St. James 


100 


St. Thomas 


5o 


St. Mary Redcliff 


100 


St. Werburgh 


160 



For Reading Prayers at All Sts. every 

Monday & Tuesday morning y£ per an. 140 

For 12 Sermons at Newgate 6£ per an. 120 

For 14 Sermons in Lent 20^ per an. 400 



In London. 

To St. Bartholomew's 2500 

To Christ Church 2000 

To St. Thomas Hospital 500 

To Bethlem 500 
to the New Work-house 

without Bishop's Gate 200 
To the Society 

for propagating the Gospel 300 

To the Company of Mercers 100 — 610a 



In Surrey. 
At Sheen. 
An Almshouse for six poor Men 
built & endow'd. 

At Mortlake. 
For the Education & Cloathing 

of 12 Boys & 12 Girls \$£ per an. 900 
To 85 poor People at his Death 20 sh : each 85 



In Devonshire. 
Towards building a Church 
at Tiverton 



50 



7 o 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



In Lancashire. 
Towards building a Church 

at Manchester 20 

To eighteen Charity Schools 

in several parts of England 

for many years of his Life 

and to be continued for 12 Years 

after his Death go£ per annum 

To the Augmentation 

of sixty small Livings 6000 
This great and pious Benefactor 
was known to have done many 
other excellent Charities and 
what He did in Secret is believed 
to be, not inferior, to what 
He did in Publick. 

Edward Colston, died 1721, aged 84. 

10. There are no signs of painting. 

11. The first finger and thumb of the left hand have 
been restored. 

12. Placed against the east wall of the south aisle. 

13. Tomb illustrated in Barrett, History of Bristol, p. 444, 
and in Bristol : Past and Present, vol. ii., p. 103. 

14. The monument is in excellent condition and well 
looked after. 1 

15. Edward Colston was the celebrated Bristol philan- 
thropist. He was the eldest son of a merchant in Bristol, 
who traded largely with the Levant and Spain. At the age 
of 18 years he was apprenticed in London in 1654 to a 
mercer, taking up his freedom in 1673, ar, d continuing to live 
there. He, however, succeeded to his father's business in 
Bristol and to his brother's, and retained them as a freeman 
of Bristol till about 1689, when he closed his trade there, 
after a dispute with the Corporation, and removed from 

1 A legacy of /100 was left by Robert Langley, Esq., of Waterhouse 
Wilts, to keep the monument in good repair. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



7i 



London to Mortlake to spend the rest of his life. After that 
he devoted his attention to establishing in a suitable form his 
many charities. He was, however, Member of Parliament 
for Bristol from 1710 to 1713. 1 



ST. JAMES' CHURCH.— Dedicated to St. James the Great. 

1. Civilian. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Doulting stone. 

4. Life-size, 5 ft. 10 in. long. 

5. The figure is of a slight and somewhat effeminate 
character, and is clothed in the dress of a civilian of the early 
part of the thirteenth century. He wears a long, plain garment, 
cut low at the neck and reaching to the ankles. It hangs in 
plain folds from a little above the waist, but there is no sign of 
fastening. Rather full sleeves reach to the elbows, whilst the 
sleeves of an under-garment continue to the wrist. The gown 
is confined at the waist by a plain, narrow belt, buckled in 
front, with a loose end hanging down perpendicularly to 
within two inches of the feet. Over the shoulders and arms, 
reaching behind nearly" to the feet, is worn a long, straight 
mantle, secured by a narrow band passing obliquely over the 
breast. The right hand obscures the actual mode of fastening. 
On the top edge of the gown is a large, ornamented brooch 
or fermail. The feet are covered with tight-fitting stockings; 
the hair is long and wavy over the ears and forehead ; the 
eyes are open, and there are slight traces of a beard and 
moustache. The right hand is placed on the breast, and the 
left gathers up the folds of the mantle. On the third finger 
of the left hand is a plain ring. 

6. The head rests on a small, flat pillow. 

7. The feet rest against two small blocks of stone. It is 
not clear if they are parts of a mutilated animal. 

8. The effigy is placed on a slab on a low, plain altar- 

1 Latimer, Annals of Bristol, Seventeenth Century, p. 409. 



72 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



tomb within a plain arched recess. Against the back of the 
recess is a modern brass tablet with an inscription, and above 
a separate wooden shield, emblazoned, " Gules three clarions 
2 and 1 or." 

That the charges were really clarions or Pan-pipes seems 
proved by the arms on a tablet on the north wall of Clapton 
Church, Somerset, where the pipe mouthpiece is distinctly 
sculptured. This coat is similar to the above, with the 
difference of a chevron, and is stated by Mr. F. Were to 
have belonged to the Arthurs of Clapton, who held under 
the Honour of Gloucester, and are thus shown to be con- 
nected with some of the family of Lord de Grenville. 

The clarions have been at times called, in error, Lance- 
rests. 

9. Inscription on brass plate at back of recess : — 

" Within this tomb was interred 
Robert, son of King Henry I., 
Earl or Consul of Gloucester, 

Lord of Bristow, 
And Builder of its Castle, 
The pious & munificent 

Founder of this Church 
And also the Priory of St. James. 
He died xxxi Oct : a.d. mcxlvii 

yEtatis suae lvii or lviii." 

Supposed to be Richard de Grenville, died 1240. 

It seems certain that the above inscription, ascribing 
the figure to Robert, Consul of Gloucester, was placed above 
the tomb under a misapprehension, and there is little doubt 
the effigy represents Richard de Grenville, who is known to 
have been buried in the church. After full investigation, 
Mr. Albert Hartshorne states he has no doubt whatever 
that this is correct, and that the date of the effigy is about 
1230-40. He bases his conclusion on the costume, and more 
particularly upon the character of the figure, there being no 
mistaking it to be of the time named. He further points out 



Effigies of Bristol. 



73 



there is a marked resemblance between this figure and those 
fixed on the north-west corner of the west facade of Weils 
Cathedral, placed there at the same period; also, that the- 
effigy covering the heart of Coeur de Lion (died 1199) in 
Rouen Cathedral is much such another effigy as the present 
one. 

It is interesting to note that the figure is of Doulting 
stone, from the same quarries in Somerset whence were 
taken the materials for the west front of Wells Cathedral, so 
that it may be conjectured the effigy was carved — perhaps 
during Richard de Grenville's lifetime — by some of the artists 
who made the city of Wells so renowned about that time 
for their splendid figure work. If it should be found that 
Richard de Grenville was in some way connected with Wells 
this conjecture would become even more assured. 

The effigy was probably covered up by the new pews 
when the south aisle was built, 1 which would have been 
about 1700. 2 It was rediscovered in 1818, when the pews 
were removed, and was then placed in its present position. 

With regard to the coat of arms mentioned above, Bristol : 
Past and Present, vol. iii., p. 42, states they were probably cut 
on the wooden shield about 1700. Arms with clarions are on* 
the seal of Neath Abbey, founded in 11 29 by Richard de 
Grenville, and they are in use in later centuries and down to 
the present time in the Grenville family. 

The source of the error which led to the effigy being 
ascrioed to Robert of Gloucester On the modern brass tablet 
can only be a matter of conjecture. When the effigy was re- 
discovered in 1818 the authorities of the church undoubtedly 
ascribed it to Robert of Gloucester, and probably did so on 
the authority of an eighteenth-century manuscript quoted by 
Barrett, which is the earliest record known, and supposes 
the tomb to belong to the earl. 

Further weight may have been given in later years to 
this erroneous idea from similar arms with clarions being 

1 Sealy, ArchcBological Magazine, p. 18. 
2 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 179. 



74 



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emblazoned on the surcoat of a portrait of the earl in a 
north-east window of Tewkesbury Abbey of the fourteenth 
century; but it has been suggested they were assigned to 
him there at a later date, as the earliest arms of the family 
known are those on the seal of his son William, being a lion 
statant guardant and not clarions. 

Leiand, in Itinerary, vol. vii., p. 91, states that Robert, 
Consul of Gloucester, was "buryed in the quiere in the 
middle of it in a sepulchre of grey marble set upon six 
pillars of small hethe," of which it may be observed the 
''quiere" would be outside the present church, and that the 
description of the tomb is entirely inapplicable to one bearing 
an effigy. 

Remarks on the effigy will be found in Journal of Brit. 
Arch. Assoc., vol. xxv. (1869), pp. 37, 38, and Trans. B. and G. 
Arch. Soc, vol. iii., p. 388. 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The figure and features are very much worn, but 
only slightly mutilated. It is stated underneath the inscrip- 
tion : 

. u 1 William Watson 

This tomb was repaired Churchwardens. 
a.d. mdcccxix. pet£r Fry 

12. Placed under an arched recess in the east end of the 
south aisle. The effigy was discovered in 1818 hidden behind 
high pews near the belfry door, and was removed to its 
present position. 

13. Illustrated in Hollis, Monumental Effigies of Great 
Britain. 

14. The figure is well preserved. 

15. Richard de Grenville was a descendant of an earlier 
Richard de Grenville, who was an uncle of Mabel, the 
daughter of Robert FitzHamon and wife of Robert the Earl. 

He gave largely of his lands to the mother church of 
Tewkesbury, and was buried in 1240 in St. James' Church, 
Bristol. 1 

1 Annates de Theokesbcria, pp. 107, 108, 118 and 138. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



75 



1. Military. Knight in armour. 
Wife and daughter. 

2. Three kneeling effigies. 

3. Stone. 

4. Diminutive, about two-thirds lrfe-size. 

5. The male figure wears a complete suit of plate armour 
without engraving. The body is encased in a doublet of 
plate having a projecting ridge or tapul, with short tassets 
or jointed tuilles strapped across padded trunk hose. The 
pauldrons are small, the coudes pointed, and the hinged 
vambraces are covered at the wrists by small cuffs. The 
thighs are protected by cuisses with markings imitating 
joints, strapped over "plain hose, the knees by blunt genouil- 
leres, and the legs by hinged jambs, which meet broad-toed 
solerets and rowel spurs. About the throat is a gorget 
resembling a ruff. Round the waist is a narrow belt, buckled 
in front ; hooked to it on the right side is a band, also 
buckled in front and fitted straight across the tassets, 
carrying a sword. 

All parts of the armour have scalloped edges, with 
ornamentation formed by the rivets. The hair is closely 
cropped, with a pointed beard and long moustache. The 
hands are clasped in prayer, the eyes are open, and the 
face is full of expression. 

The costume of the wile is that worn at the end of the 
sixteenth century. She has a moderate farthingale under 
a full, padded gown, which reaches to the feet and is thrown 
open to show a richly-embroidered kirtle. The bodice is 
tight-fitting, with numerous pleats over the whalebone stays, 
with a long-pointed stomacher closely buttoned down the 
front, and round the waist is a narrow girdle, tied in a bow- 
and-end at the extremity of the stomacher. The long, plain 
sleeves are padded, and have small, turn-back cuffs. 

Over the shoulders, falling in full folds, is a small cloak 
with a square yoke, partly concealed by a close ruff round 
the neck. The hair is brushed in a roll from the forehead, 
and dressed with the Paris hood, a coronal of beads, and 



7 6 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



straight veil reaching nearly to the waist. The hands are 
clasped in prayer, the eyes are open, and the face is 
expressive and marked with wrinkles. 

Similar costume is shown on the brass of Aphia Hawkins, 
1605, Fordwich Church, Kent. 

The costume of the daughter is like the mother's ; the 
farthingale, however, is more pronounced, the kirtle plain, 
and the stomacher without buttons. The veil is turned up 
over the hood and coronal, small curls are on the forehead, 
and the face has a very youthful appearance. 

6. 

7. The figures are kneeling on full, square cushions, 
ornamented with an embossed pattern and tassels at the 
corners. A double reading-desk, covered with a fringed 
cloth, separates the male and female figures. Two open 
books are on it. 

8. A mural tomb, with three kneeling effigies, placed in 
a narrow, straight recess raised on a stylobate or basement 
beneath a Corinthian canopy. On the back is a narrow, 
oblong tablet in an ornamented frame, with an inscription. 
The lower part of the tomb is plain, but in the panels to 
right and left are shields with coats of arms, and the whole 
canopy is surmounted by an escutcheon and crest on an 
esquire's helmet with mantling and wreath. 

Arms on the escutcheon : — 

Quarterly 1st and 4th : " Or, in fess France and 
England quarterly within bordure compony argent and 
azure," Somerset. 

2nd : " Party per pale azure and gules three lions 
rampant 2.1. or," Herbert. 

3rd: "Argent a fess and canton gules," Woodville. 

Dexter shieid : — 

Quarterly 1st and 4th : Somerset. 
2nd: Herbert. 

3rd: Woodville [impaling] "Azure, on a fess between 
three bugle-horns sinisterways stringed argent, a hemp- 
hackle gules," Brayne. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



77 



Sinister shield: Arms of Brayne, Brayne. 

Crest: "A panther passant gardant." (Should be argent 
spotted and incensed proper.) 

9. Inscription on the tablet at the back : — 
" Sir Charles Somerset, Knight, the fifth sone of the 
Right Honourable Henry, Earl of Worcester and 
Standard Bearer unto Her Majties Honourable 
Band of Gentlemen Pensioners, who married Erne, 
widow to Giles Morgan, of Newport Esq: daughter 
and co-heyre to Henry Brayne, Esq: by whom he 
had one sole daughter, first married to Ratclyf 
Gerrard Esq: and afterward to Edward Fox Esq: 
He deceased the nth day of March, Anno Dom 
1598, being of the age of 64 years, who lieth here 
entombed, with his wife Erne, who departed Anno 
Dom 1590." 

Latin inscription on a slab beneath the male figure : — 
" Memorie et pietati sacrum 
Carolus hoc parvo, tegitur sub marmore magnus 
Corpore procero, et prelustri stemmate Magnus 
Sed eama virtute, fide (ut fas credere) Maior 
Per zelum caelum scandens, fit Maximus Adde 
Principis ut vivens fuerat vexillifer iste 
Principis ut moriens Christi vexillifer iste." 

TRANSLATION. 

"Sacred to the memory and piety of a great man, 
Charles, who lies interred beneath this small 
monument. He was great both on account of his 
fine form and illustrious family. But he was 
greater still (we may believe) for his fame, virtue 
and honour. And greatest did he become when 
he climbed with ardent desire to Heaven. In 
addition to this, while he lived he was a Standard 
Bearer to the King, and when he died a standard 
bearer to Christ his King." 1 

1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 180. 



78 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



English inscription on a slab beneath the female figure : — 
" My body earth, my breath was borrowed ayre, 
My dated lease expired yeares of strife, 
My soule, with stampe of God, temple of praier, 

Dissolv'd by death mounteth to glorious life; 
Life was but lent conditionall to dye, 
Death made the period of mortalitye, 
And gave me entrance to aeternitye." 

Sir Charles Somerset, died 1598, aged 64. 
Eme, his wife, died 1590. 

Elizabeth, their only daughter, died about 1609. 

10. The effigies are painted black, with all ornamen- 
tations of the armour and gowns gilded ; the features 
flesh-coloured, and the cushions red with gilt scrollwork. 

The tomb is painted in imitation of marble, the Corin- 
thian capitals being gilded. 

11. The sword is broken off; the hands, spurs, and 
edges of the armour are mutilated, and the head-dress of 
the daughter is chipped. The hands have been restored. 

12. Placed at the east end of the north aisle. 

13. Described in Bristol: Past and Present, vol. ii., p. 44. 

14. The effigies are in fair preservation, but neglected. 

15. Little is known of the history of Sir Charles 
Somerset beyond what is related of him in his epitaph, 
which shows that he was a younger son of Henry, Earl 
of Worcester, having been born in 1534. He was knighted 
by Queen Elizabeth between 1570 and 1585. His wife, 
Lady Eme, was the daughter of Henry Brayne, of 
St. James', Bristol, from whom, through the death of her 
brother Robert, in 1570 she inherited the property at 
Staunton, in the Forest of Dean, and Tewkesbury Abbey. 
They had one daughter, Elizabeth, who succeeded to the 
above property. She was twice married, her second 
husband, Edward Fox, being knighted in 1603. 1 

1 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. vii., pp. 237 and 243. 



« 



Effigies of Bristol. 



79 



ST. JOHN BAPTIST CHURCH.— Dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist. 

1. Civilian. Mayor, but not in gdwn of office. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life size, 6 ft. long. 

5. He wears the costume of a franklen or country gentle- 
man at the end of the fourteenth century. A long, full tunic 
closely buttoned in front reaches to the feet, the sleeves being 
long and padded, having ribbed under-sleeves, close fitting 
and fastened with numerous buttons, so as to form a kind of 
mitten over each hand. A thrown-back hood is buttoned 
round the neck, and an inscribed baldrick hangs over both 
shoulders, with an analace in a scabbard ornamented with 
bands suspended from the centre. 

Part of the English inscription on baldrick, as deciphered 
by Mr. Mill Stephenson, F.S.A., is: " Hys sowle and save." 

The feet are apparently covered with plain shoes, but only 
the toes are visible. The hair is parted in front, and arranged 
in luxuriant curls round the ears ; and he has a small 
moustache and short, forked beard of the period. The eyes 
are open^ and the expression is placid. The hands are folded 
in prayer and raised from the body; 

Similar costume is shown on the effigy of Walter Tydde- 
stille, 1385, St. Stephen's Church, Bristol. 

6. The head rests on pillows, the top one set diagonally 
and the corner tasselled. It is supported on either side by a 
large angel, looking upwards, with hands resting on the top 
pillow. 

7. The feet rest on a dog with a long tail and collar. 

8. A high tomb with recumbent effigy placed within a 
depressed and shallow recess, with spandrels bearing the 
monogram " W. F." 

The front, below the soffit of leaves, has seven square 
panals without cusps, each containing a shield charged with, 
devices, except one, which is only painted. 



8o 



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A small shield above the figure carries a merchant's mark, 

which did not belong to 
the Frampton family, as 
proved by Mr. A. E. 
Hudd's examination of 
seals in the possession of 
the church. 

The arms are : — 
On 1st, 3rd, 5th and 
7th shield : " Argent a 
chevron between three 
lion's gambs erect erased 
within bordure, engrailed 
gules," Frampton. 

On 2nd shield: "Gules 
a chevron between nine 
crosses botonny (or may 
be foils), 4.2. 1. 2., or," (?). 
Sable, three fusils in fess conjoined 




MERCHANT MARK (UNIDENTIFIED), 
St. John's Church, Bristol. 



On 4th shield: 
or," (?). 

On 6th shield : " Sable, a dolphin hauriant or," (?). 

The last three have not been identified in spite of the 
good condition of the charges, chiefly owing to the poor 
pedigree known. 

9. The inscription on edge of slab is : 

" Hie Jacet Gualteras Frampton Hujus Ecclesiae 
Fundator qui Obiit Ano Dni mccclxxxviii." 
Walter Frampton, died 1388. 

10. The effigy and tomb are now painted buff, the recess 
pale green, and the spandrels claret with gold letters. 

11. The right hand of outer angel and left arm of inner 
one are broken off. The tomb has been covered with many 
coats of paint. 

12. Placed in a recess in the north wall of the chancel. 
It was originally in the centre of the building. 1 

13. Described and illustrated by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley 

1 William Wyrcestre, p. 208. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



Si 



fin Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xviii., part ii., p. 259. 
Described in Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 246. 

14. The effigy is in a good state of preservation. 

15. Walter Frampton was a "noble merchant" and the 
-second of four men bearing this family name. He was 

Mayor of Bristol in 1357, the year of his father's death, and 
an 1365 and 1374, and was a "Parliament man" for the city 

in 1362 and 1379. His father was buried in an older church 
•of St. John's, and this may have led the son to become the 

founder and rebuilder of the present edifice, in which he also 

endowed a chantry. An incised tomb in the crypt, by some 
■ ascribed to Frampton's parents, must be of a later period, 

because such tombs were erected only after the fifteenth 
•century. 1 



sST. JOHN BAPTIST CHURCH— in the Crypt dedicated 
to the Holy Cross. 

11. Civilian, in gown of office. 
Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. Derbyshire alabaster. 

4. Diminutive. Male, 5ft. long; female, 4ft. 10 in. long. 

5. The male costume is that worn by a merchant in the 
middle of the sixteenth century. It consists of a tunic with 
'full sleeves ending at the wrists in little ruffles. It has a 
small, upright collar, open and turned back in front, showing 
the edge of a vest beneath. A supertunic reaching to the 
feet is over this, cut low round the neck and unfastened at 
the bottom. It has large sleeves closed to the elbows and 
hanging open thence down each side as far as the knees. 
Covering most of the dress is the alderman's gown nearly to 
the feet, plain and sleeveless, open down the sides and 
■fastened on the right shoulder by three buttons in the form 

3 Bristol: Past and Present, vol. ii., p. 148; Barrett, History of Bristol, 
p. 63. 

7 

Vol. XXVII. 



82 



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of roses. The feet (broken) are covered with square-toed 
shoes, low and without heels. The head is bare, with thick 
hair cut across the forehead and hanging long behind. The 
face is clean shaven and the eyes open. The hands are in 
the attitude of prayer. 

The female costume is of the same period, and consists of 
a tight-bodiced gown or surcote, loose below the waist and 
caught up in front to display a full kirtle to the feet. It is 
cut square at the neck to show a pleated partlet, fastened 
with four small buttons and having an ornamented band. 
The sleeves are tucked lengthways and cut open with 
slashs on the outside to show through them the puffs of 
an undersleeve and its ruffles. Round the waist is a 
folded scarf, tied on the left hip in a bow-and-end; through 
it are looped by cords on the right side a penner and a small 
square inkhorn. Over the shoulders is thrown a long mantle,, 
falling in folds to the feet. It is held together across the 
breast by cords passing through eyelet holes and meeting in 
a lozenge-shaped fermail in the centre, the holes being 
surrounded with decorative work. 

On the head is worn a pedimental head-dress with plain 
lappets pinned up at the sides. It is edged with a row of 
small pearls and shows the hair beneath. The hands are 
folded in prayer. 

Similar dress is shown on the effigy of Margaret Talbot, 
1550, Bromsgrove Church, Worcestershire; and of Mary 
Lady Parr, 1546, Horton, Northamptonshire. Similar penner 
and inkhorn are shown on statue of Queen of Sheba, west 
front of Wells Cathedral. 

6. Both heads rest on tasselled pillows, the under ones 
square, the upper oblong. They are supported by two small 
angels, lying somewhat under the top pillows with their 
hands resting on them. 

7. The feet of both figures rest on animals too mutilated 
to be identified. Pryce (History of Bristol, p. 248) thinks they 
represent dolphins, but they appear to be boars. 

8. An altar-tomb with recumbent effigies. In the middle 



Effigies of Bristol. 



of the front is a plain square slab, dividing a row of five boys 
in very full tunics and mantles and kneeling on cushions 
before a lectern from a similar row of six girls, all too 
mutilated to be described. The sides of the tomb are divided 
in early Renaissance style into two panels, each containing 
the figure of an angel with outstretched wings, holding a 
shield without heraldic device. 

9. There is no inscription. 
A merchant and his wife. 

The figures are suggested to be members of the Rowley 
family, because of Chatterton's forgeries, or they may be 
relatives of Walter Frampton (died 1388), who is buried in 
this church ; but there are no signs by which they can be 
identified. 1 

10. The effigies, except the faces, are covered with 
several coats of paint, as customary with alabaster figures, 
the uppermost colour being dull Indian red. The tomb is 
not painted. 

11. The monument generally is much mutilated, and 
there are no traces of restoration. 

On the male figure the hands are missing, whilst the feet 
and animals, with the heads of the angels, are broken. 

On the female the tips of the fingers, the feet, with the 
heads and shoulders of the angels, are missing, and the 
animal at the feet broken. 

12. Placed against the south-east wall of the crypt. 

13. Tomb illustrated in Churches of Bristol (1843), p. 132. 

14. The tomb is very neglected, and the slab on which 
the effigies rest is worn away in the centre. The details of 
the costumes are well executed. 

15. They appear to be effigies of a Bristol merchant, 
who probably held, the office of sheriff, and of his wife. 

1. Civilian. 
Two ladies. 

2. Incised recumbent figures. 

1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 248. 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



3. Derbyshire alabaster slab on a stone tomb. 

4. Diminutive, 4 ft. 3 in. long. 

5. The male figure is dressed as a merchant, in a full 
tunic reaching to the feet, with loose sleeves, and edged with 
•a narrow border of fur. It is open at the throat, showing an 
under-garment, and has a turned-down collar of fur. The 
waist is confined by a girdle, from which hangs in front a 
large, square pouch or gypciere. The feet are covered with 
rather pointed shoes, and the hands are clasped in prayer on 
the breast. The hair falls luxuriantly on the shoulders, and 
is cut low on the forehead ; there is a small moustache. 

The female figures are dressed alike. They wear a tight- 
fitting gown, spreading into ample folds below the waist and 
completely covering the feet. A jewel-studded girdle is 
buckled across the hips on the left side, and the end hangs 
down straight to the feet. The head-dress is the pedimental, 
with long lappets reaching below the shoulders. The hands 
are clasped in prayer. 

Similar female costume is shown on the effigy of Dorothea 
Peckham, 1512, Wrotham, Kent. 

At their feet are the incised figures of six children, about 
ten inches high, now nearly obliterated. 

6. 

7. The male feet rest on a hound, lying down open- 
mouthed, and a collar 
round its neck. 

The feet of the left- 
hand female are alone 
visible, and they seem- 
ingly rest on a dog with 
a long tail. 

8. A low altar-tomb, 
within a square recess, 
with incised figures of a 

MERCHANT MARK (UNIDENTIFIED). 

st. John's crypt, Bristol. man between two women 

on the slab. The front 
is divided into eight arched and bi-cusped panels, each 




Effigies of Bristol. 



85 



containing a shield without heraldic devices. The canopy 
consists of a highly-wrought Tudor arch, the spandrels being 
adorned with foliage and a shield charged with a merchant's 
mark. The same mark is incised on either side of the male 
head. 

A Merchant, his two wives and children. 

9. Inscription at the feet of the figures has become 
illegible through damp and injury, so that identity is 
unknown. 

It must be a family of the early sixteenth century, from 
the costumes, and because incised monuments were first 
introduced about that date. 

10. The slab has been covered with black paint. 

11. The slab and tomb are very much chipped. The 
figures are becoming erased, especially the female ones. The 
lower part of the outside figure is obliterated. 

12. Placed in a recess on the south-west side of the crypt. 

13. No illustration known. 

14. The canopy is in very fair condition, but neglected. 
The figures are very roughly incised. 

15. Figures not identified. 



ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH.— Dedicated to St. Nicholas. 

1. Civilian. Mayor in robe of office. 

2. Half-recumbent effigy, right arm resting on a cushion. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size, 5 ft. 10 in. long. 

5. The figure wears a doublet closely buttoned to the 
waist with full, padded sleeves, ending in small ruffles, and is 
girded with a narrow ribbon tied in a bow-and-end in front. 
The breeches are also padded, and gathered into a band 
above the knees. The tight hose, kept in position by garters, 
are hardly visible, because most of the body is covered by a 
mayor's cloak, open in front and edged with a broad band of 
fur. The sleeves are short, reaching to the elbows, puffed 



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high on the shoulders and edged with fur, and from them fall 
long, pendent ones. 

At the neck is a full, turned-down ruff, and the feet are 
covered with thick-soled boots. The hair is short and curly, 
with a square beard and long moustache. On the cheek is a 
deep cut. The eyes are open and the expression is benign. 

The right hand holds his book, the first finger being 
within it, and the left lightly clasps a pair of alderman's 
gloves. 

Similar costume on effigy of John Barker, 1606, St. Wer- 
burgh's Church, Bristol. 

6. The right arm rests on a large, tasselled cushion. 

7. The feet rest on the slab only. 

8. A high altar-tomb with effigy under a lofty, arched 
canopy, with plain stone background and pinnacles at the 
sides. The front is divided into two panels, the inscription 
being erased. The arch of the canopy is panelled and con- 
tains foliated rosettes, and beneath the pinnacles are decorated 
pilasters. The whole is surmounted by a coat of arms and 
crest on a wreath : "Azure, in base a sea proper, on the last 
a ship of three masts in full sail or, sails and rigging argent, 
in the dexter chief a sun in splendour, in the sinister an 
estoile of the third, on a chief of the fourth a cross gules 
charged with a lion of England," Company of Spanish 
Merchants. 

Crest on wreath, argent and gules : " Two arms embowed 
proper, holding in the hands a globe or charged with cross 
bands." 

Mr. F. Were kindly points out that Papworth gives this 
coat somewhat differently. He adds a dolphin's head 
appearing in the sea and a cross gules on each sail. Mr. 
Were also points out that to the crest Burke's Armory adds 
clouds and omits the charges of cross bands on the globe, 
and he suggests that if they are correctly placed there, they 
may represent the equator and the lines of latitude and 
longitude. The importance of the above Spanish Company 
is further shown by R. Symonds (Diary, Cambrian Society, 



Effigies of Bristol. 



37 



p. 72), where he records that in 1644 he saw the monument 
of another member, Rashleigh by name, of the same Spanish 
Company at Fowey, Cornwall. 

The monument was erected in 1741 in the crypt over the 
place of burial. The arms then inscribed on the shield were 
thought to be those of Whitson, 1 but later investigation 
shows them to be those of the Wynter family, with whom it 
is possible that he was connected by marriage. 

These arms remained till the end of 1901, when they were 
replaced by those given above. 

Meanwhile, in 1821, through the energy of Alderman 
Daniel, a copy of the effigy with the arms, under a very 
elegant canopy in the Perpendicular English style, was 
designed by Mr. T. Clark and placed in the porch under 
the tower of St. Nicholas Church. This monument was 
renovated in 1901 at the expense of the Bristol Charity 
Trustees, and the arms of the Spanish Company were 
inserted on it and on the monument in the crypt. 

9. Inscription on the front of tomb, now erased but 
.reproduced upon the modern monument : — 

".1741. 

In memorie of that greate benefactour 
of this Citie, John Whitson, Merchant 
Twice Mayor & Alderman and four times 
Member of Parliament of' this Citie. 
Who died in the 72 yeare of his Age 
a.d. 1629. 

A worthie pattern to all that come after him." 
John Whitson, died 1629, aged 72. 

10. The gown shows traces of being at one time painted 

red. 

11. The dress is a little chipped. The monument was 
renovated in 1893 at the time of the restoration of the 
crypt. 

12. Placed against the west wail of the north aisle of 

1 See Bristol : Past and Present, vol. i., p. 286. 



88 



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the crypt, which was at one time used as a chapel of the- 
Fraternity of the Holy Ghost. 

13. There is no illustration known. 

14. The effigy is in very good preservation. 

15. Alderman John Whitson was born about 1554 at 
Clearwell in the Forest of Dean, and was apprenticed in 
Bristol to Nicholas Cutt, a wine merchant. Later, he 
married the wealth}- young widow of his master, which led 
to his becoming the greatest merchant in the city. He was 
twice mayor and four times member of Parliament, living in 
costly style, and trading largely abroad. He was likewise 
sheriff and twice master of the Merchant Venturers. Dying 
in 1629 without living issue, he left to the Corporation much, 
property for charity, chief of which was a hospital to bring 
up poor girls, now called the " Red Maids School." The 
year before his death an attempt was made to murder him 
?by stabbing him in the cheek by a man named Callowhill. 
The alderman had given him offence in consequence of an 
award he had decided against him in some dispute. This 
event is commemorated by the scar shown on the effigy. 
The book he holds represents The Aged Christian's Farewell 
to the World, of which he was the author. Amidst much 
pageantry he was buried in the crypt of St. Nicholas Church,, 
where he lies with his three wives and one daughter. 1 



ST. PETER'S CHURCH.— Dedicated to St. Peter. 

1. Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Freestone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. long. 

5. The lady is attired in the costume of the time of 

James I. (1603-25). She wears a very full skirt, reaching to 

the feet, over a moderate farthingale, and thrown open to 

show a kilted kirtle, both being edged with fur. The bodice, 

1 Latimer, Annals of Bristol, Seventeenth Century, p. 103 ; Trans. B. andG. 
Arch. Soc., vol. iii., p. 181. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



89 



reaching only to the waist, is tight fitting and open in front 
with a turnback collar, to show a plain stomacher buttoned 
down the centre. The waist is girdled by a folded band, 
knotted in front, the ends hanging down straight and rounded 
off with metal ornaments. The long plain sleeves are very 
full, ending in small ruffles; and, in addition, long, pendent 
sleeves reach below the knees, cut up on the shoulders with' 
fur trimming, and ornamented below with rosettes and 
strappings of ribbons. At the neck is a round, full ruff, and 
beneath it a double chain necklace and large pendant set 
with jewels. 

On the head she wears the Paris hood with a coronal of 
raised ornaments across it on top, with a straight veil to the 
shoulders. The hair is padded, and rolled high off the 
forehead, having upon it above the ears on either side a 
round jewel. 

The feet are covered with pointed shoes, and the hands 
are clasped in prayer. 

6. The head rests on two very full, oblong cushions, 
with narrow cord and tassels. 

7. The feet rest against a prostate lion, with heavy mane 
and twisted tail. 

8. The tomb is a handsome specimen of the monumental 
art of the seventeenth century. The effigy lies on a richly- 
carved sarcophagus within a spacious Gothic arched canopy, 
which is supported by six fluted pillars from the ground. 
The figures, foliage and tracery upon the spandrels and 
frieze are elaborately finished, as well as the sculptured work 
within the square panel above, bearing the escutcheon and 
crest. 

Higher is a semi-circular arch with a man's bust in relief, 
and on top is a draped figure about 18 in. high, with four 
similar ones standing at intervals on the frieze. The vault is 
plain, but in its centre is placed a large escutcheon ; and 
against the back an inscribed tablet in a handsome sculptured 
frame. Thirteen small shields are arranged on the spandrels, 
frieze and capitals, and a lozenge on the left side. 



90 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



The rounded base of the sarcophagus is ornamented with 
a pattern of escallop shells, and above are richly-carved 
borders of leaves of oak and vine with the fruits. 

At the restoration of the monument in 1901 the charges 
on the escutcheons and shields were found to be engraved, 
and the architect states the tinctures were renewed in exact 
accord with those found beneath the whitewash, which were 
probably placed there at the previous restoring of the tomb 
in 1750. 

The tinctures do not agree with those belonging to the 
families supposed to be quartered, but the following are the 
ones now on the monument : — 

Centre escutcheon. Seventeen quarterings in four rows, 
of which the first two are five each and the others four and 
three respectively. 1 : "Argent, on a chevron azure three 
garbs or," Cradock Newton. 2 : "Azure, a chevron between 
three roses, seeded and barbed or," ? Rhodri Mawr. 3: "Or, 
a lion rampant sable," ? Welsh Coat. 4: "Azure, a lion 
rampant or," ? Welsh Coat. 5: "Argent, a lion rampant 
gules," ? Welsh Coat. 6 : " Azure, two lions passant 
guardant or," ? De la Mare. 7 : " Ermine, three fusils 
in fess sable," Sherborne. 8 : " Or, an eagle displayed 
azure," ? quartering of Sherborne. 9: "Or, four fusils in 
fess sable, over all a bend gules," ? Pennington, to : " Gules, 
a lion rampant or," (?). 11: "Azure, a chevron ermine 
between three escallops argent," ? Chedder. 12 : " Gules, a 
bend between six fleurs-de-lys or," ? Hampton. 13: "Ermine, 
a fess gules," Bitton. 14 : " Gules, a bend between six 
crosses croslet or," Furneaulx. 15: "Azure, on a chevron 
between three holly trees or, an eagle displayed of the first," 
? Candecot. 16: "Paly of six or and gules," ? Gourney. 
17 : " Gules, a saltire humetty fleury at the ends or," (?). 

Escutcheon on vault. Seventeen quarterings, as above. 
Impaling, quarterly 1st and 4th: "Gules, two bars or, in 
chief three escallops azure," ? Clarke. 2nd and 3rd : 
" Gules, three arrows palewise, points downwards or," 
? Clarke. 



i 



Effigies of Bristol. 



91 



Eleven small shields. 1 : Rhodri Mawr (?). 2 : Gourney (?). 
3: Furneaulx. 4: Harptree (?). 5 : Sherborne. 6: Pen- 
nington (?). 7 : Chedder (?). 8 : De la Mere (?). 9 ; Quar- 
tering of Sherborne. 10: Cradock Ne wton. 11 : Furneaulx. 

Two shields on spandrels. Quarterly, 1st and 4th: " Gules, 
two bars or between six escallops, 3 and 3 azure." ? Variation 
of Clarke. 2nd and 3rd: "Gules, three arrows palewise 
points downwards or." 

Lozenge : ? Clarke. 

Crest : On an esquire's helmet with wreath and mant- 
ling. "Moorish king proper crowned or, kneeling and 
delivering up his sword of the first, hilted of the second." 

Motto on one escutcheon: "Virtus qua cuque re emetur 
parvo emetur." 

9. Modern inscription on back bf canopy : — 

"This monument was erected to the Memory of a 
Maiden Lady, an ancestor of the Family of the 
Newtons of Barrs Court in the County of Glou- 
cester about 250 years since." 

Supposed to be Antholin Newton, died after 1600. 

The arms show she was the widow of a Newton connected 
with the Barr's Court family, and belonged herself to the 
Clarkes of Wells, Somerset. The only widow known to 
correspond to these conditions is Antholin, daughter and 
heir of Henry Clarke of Wells, married to John Newton of 
Harptree, Soms., younger brother of Sir Henry Newton of 
Barr's Court (died 1599). 1 

10. The entire monument has been in 1901 thoroughly 
cleaned and redecorated. On the effigy the fur edging 
and some ribbons have been gilded, as well as some 
ornaments on the canopy. Both the escutcheons and the 
separate shields (except two) have been painted in doubtful 
heraldry, as mentioned above. The rest of the stone surface 
is quite clean. Formerly there were traces of gilding beneath 
numerous coats of whitewash. 

1 Arch. Inst, of Great Britain, 1851, p. 239. 



92 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



11. The nose, garments and ruff are slightly chipped. 
Below the inscription it is stated : — 

" Repaired by Mrs. Archer, sister of the late Sir Michael 
Newton, 1750, and again renovated by the Vestry 
of St. Peter's, 1901." 

12. Placed on the floor and against the wall at the east 
end of the south aisle. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. In excellent condition. 

15. No details of the life of Antholin Newton are known, 
beyond what is stated about her in No. 9. 



1. Civilian. Alderman in robe of office. 
Lady. 

2. Kneeling effigies. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The male figure wears his civic cloak over a doublet, 
the sleeves of which only are visible. They are fastened with 
buttons and end in small ruffles. The cloak is long, and falls 
in very full folds from a square-cut collar on the shoulders. 
Two broad lappets of fur extend down the whole length, back 
and front, and two plain, narrow lappets rest on them from 
the shoulders to the waist. The sleeves are very full, reaching 
to the elbow, and edged with fur, and, in addition, outside 
these, narrow pendent ones, also edged with fur, hang to the 
feet. He wears a very full, round ruff. The hair is straight 
and closely cropped, with a long beard and heavy moustache. 
The hands are clasped in prayer. 

The wife wears a very full skirt over a modified farthin- 
gale. Her tight-fitting bodice, having small epaulets, is 
encircled at the waist by a narrow, folded belt, knotted at 
the bottom of a plain and pointed stomacher. The sleeves 
are small, but full, with deep cuffs. From a square-cut collar 
on the shoulders hangs a full mantle to the feet, surmounted 
by a very large, upstanding ruff, fastened in front with bow- 



Effigies of Bristol. 



93 



and-end. The head-dress is the Paris hood without a veil, 
showing the hair rolled high off the forehead and little curls 
on the temples. The cap is edged with a jewelled band. The 
hands are clasped in prayer. 
6. 

7. Both figures are kneeling vis-a-vis on large, square 
cushions, corded and tasselled, and between them is placed 
a substantial double reading-desk with open books and a 
vase on the centre. 

8. A costly monument, 14 ft. high and 12 ft. long, with 
two kneeling effigies occupying two-thirds of the space under 
a canopy, supported by four Corinthian columns. The high 
basement is 5 ft. broad, and divided by pilasters into two 
rows of three panels each. The upper panels bear inscrip- 
tions, and the lower ones merchant's mark and guild badges. 
Above the canopy and heavy entablature are the arms and 
crest of the Bristol Merchant Venturers' Guild ; also three 
figures, 2 ft. high, emblematic of Faith and Charity (two 
alike). Much of the sur- 
face is ornamented with 
rosettes, cherub's heads, 
&c. The third space 
beneath the canopy, 
behind the male figure, 
is filled in with masonry, 
and on its front and side 
surfaces are inscriptions 
concerning descendants 
of the family buried 
between 1637 an< 3 1743. 

The Merchant Ven- 
turers' arms are: — " Barry 
wavy of eight, argent and 
azure, on a bend or, a 
dragon passant wings 
addorsed and tail extended vert, on a chief gules a lion 
passant guardant of the third between two bezants. Sup- 




merchant MARK OF ROBERT 
ALDWORTH, 
St. Peter's Church, Bristol. 



94 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

porters : Dexter — Mermaid in the sea all proper crined or, 
the fins in the middle of the body, supporting with her 
dexter hand an anchor of the second, cabled proper, and in 
her sinister hand a mirror of the first. Sinister — A winged 
satyr proper standing on a mount, vert, winged and legged 
or, holding in his sinister hand a scythe, blade in base 
proper." 

Crest : " On an esquire's helmet with mantling out of 
ducal coronet, a mainmast or, with pennon flying argent 
charged with a cross gules ; on round top a man in armour 
proper, in his dexter arm a truncheon, his sinister supporting 
a curved shield of the second ; issuing from the round top 
six pikes, three on each side of the man, bendways of the 
first, the rigging downwards sable." 

Merchant mark: "Initials entwined, forming the whole 
name Aldworth." 

Guild badges : " Three tuns, for trader in rum ; five sugar 
loaves, for sugar boiler." 

9. Latin inscription on central panel of basement : — 

" Cum sileat ilia statua venerandi senis 
Spectator esto Lector et quis sit, cape 
Mercator euge nobilis varij maris 
Foelix viator, gloriam patriae suae 
Et sublevamen pauperum quaerens magis, 
Quam census auctos aggeres sitiens sui, 
Eoque factus ditior nutu Dei, 
Praetor Praeitor urbis eximius fide 
Et honore plenus ; serviens Christo et Deo 
Ecclesia Anglum (tota quae cordi fuit) 
Ut docuit. Ejus pace finivit diem 
Sterna in astris pace nunc gaudens Dei. 

Aegel." 

translation. 

"Although this statue of the venerable man is silent 
Learn, O Reader and Beholder who he was, 
A famous merchant, a successful voyager through 



Effigies of Bristol. 



Many seas, seeking rather the glory of his country 
And the relief of the poor than thirsting for 
The accumulation of hoards of wealth. 
And, therefore, by the will of God" 

He became richer, an exemplary chief-Magistrate of the cit 
Full of honour and fidelity, serving Christ and God 
According to the teaching of the Church of England 
(Which was dear to his heart), he closed his life in peace 
And now enjoys eternal peace beyond the stars." 1 

In panel under the female, in English : — 

" What riches, grace and nature coulde bestowe 
In her (that's here interred) as streames did flowe 
A second Martha one whose faith did even 
Wing'd with hope and love mount up to heaven, 
Heere sweetelie sleepes her dust, her soule dievine 
Is fledd from hence and now above doth shine ; 
As loathinge earth shoulde longer kept inthrall, 
From Christ, to be with whome is best of all, 
W^here now shee lives in blisse and lefte us heere 
To mourne her losse yet joy to meete her there." 

On back of canopy above the male effigy, in Latin : — 

" Robert Aldworth 
Mercatoris et senatoris 
Bristol M. N.H.M.A. 

Renatus ) I 8 ) 1561. 

f> ; r November \ c \ a 
Denatus j I 6 J 1634. 

Sonabit tuba et mortuus vivam." 
Above the female, in English : — 
D.O. M. S. 

" Martha Aldworth the lovinge & belov'd wife 
Of Robert Aldworth Merchant Adventurer & 
Alderman of this citie of Bristol lyeth heere 
Under interred, to whose pious and everlivinge^ 
Memory, and as a perpetual testimonie of his 
1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 218. 



9 6 



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Dear love and her matchless virtues, her 
Sorrowful surviving husband aforesaide 
Hath dedicated this monument. 

Obiit 2nd die, Maij Ano Dni 1619 
Mtat suae 58.' 

On entablature : — 

" Deu laudate fidem servati 
vigilate orate bene erit." 
Robert Aldworth, died 1634, aged 73. 
Martha, his wife, died 1619, aged 58. 

10. The entire monument has been in 1901 thoroughly 
cleaned and decorated. The figures are not painted, but 
the kneeling cushions are red and all ornamentation on 
the tomb is in red and gold. Formerly the whole of the 
monument was richly embellished with gilt and colour. 

11. There are no mutilations. Inscription on the side 
states : — 

" This monument was beautified at the charge of Mr. 
Thomas Moore, Merchant, 1706, And again reno- 
vated by St. Peter's Vestry 1901.'' 

12. Placed against the east wall of the south aisle. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. In excellent preservation. 

15. Robert Aldworth was born in 1561, and became a 
great oversea merchant and sugar-boiler at St. Peter's House, 
Bristol, which he rebuilt about 1612 for a dwelling-house 
and refinery. As early as 1582 he obtained a grant for 
fitting out a ship to trade to North America and try to find 
the North-west passage, and later he fitted out another 
colonising expedition, even building in Bristol, docks for his 
ships. He was sheriff in 1596, mayor in 1609, three times 
Master of the Merchant Venturers, and alderman from 1614 
till his death. He died without issue, and was buried in 
"his own ile" in St. Peter's Church, having left largely for 
charities in the city. 1 

1 Bristol: Past and Present, vol. i., p. 274, and vol. iii., pp. 298-301; 
Latimer, Annals of Bristol, Seventeenth Century, p. 44, 88, 500. 

i 



Effigies of Bristol. 



97 



1. Civilian. Mayor in robe of office. 
Lady. 

2. Kneeling effigies. 

3. Stone. 

4. Diminutive. 

5. The male figure wears a large cloak edged with fur, 
the sleeves reaching to the elbows, and a full ruff round 
4:he neck. 

The female figure is dressed in the costume of the period : 
a full skirt over a modified farthingale, tight bodice with full, 
padded sleeves, and a ruff round the neck. The hands of 
both figures are raised in prayer. 

6. 

7. Both kneel on square cushions before a double 
reading-desk. 

8. A mural monument with figures, under a narrow, 
arched canopy supported by marble pillars. Beneath is 
a plain tablet with inscription. Pryce [History of Bristol, 
p. 219) states that the arms are above the canopy, but they 
are at present hidden from view by the organ. 

9. Inscription, nearly illegible : — 

" To the Memory of the Worshipfull Mr. George 
Harrington, sometime Mayor and Alderman of 
the Citie, who departed this life the second 
of Januarie, 1639." 

George Harrington, died 1639, and his wife. 

10. The figures are painted in black. 

11. There are no mutilations visible. 

12. Placed against the east wall of the north aisle, but 
almost entirely hidden from view by the wooden case of 
the organ, which was built into the adjoining wall in 1871. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14 The monument is very much neglected. 

15. Little is known of the history of George Harrington 
beyond that he was a brewer in Bristol, and held the offices 
of sheriff in 1604, °f mayor in 1617, and was alderman from 
that time till his death. He was a great benefactor of the 

8 

Vol. XXVII. 



98 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

churches of St. Werburgh and St. Stephen, Bristol. There 
is a portrait of him in the Council Chamber. 1 



1. Male cadaver. 

2. Recumbent. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size, 5 ft. 4 in. long. 

5. The cadaver represents a very starved body, and 
is wrapped in grave-clothes, tied at the head and feet with 
cord and thrown open in front. The right arm rests by the 
side, whilst the left hand holds a portion of the wrap over 
the loins. 

6. There is no pillow beneath the head. 

7. The feet rest on the slab only. 

8. There is no tomb. The slab with effigy rests on 
the floor. 

9. There is no inscription, and it is not known for 
whom the figure was intended. Tradition has it that the 
original was a parish priest, who took a vow to fast forty 
days, but succumbed on the thirty-ninth. This is the 
common fiction where any such memorial remains. 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The figure is worn, but not mutilated. 

12. Placed on the floor at the east end of the south 
aisle. The figure formerly stood in an upright position 
against the south wall. 

13. No illustration is known. 

14. In good preservation and carefully executed. 
*5- 



ST. PHILIP'S CHURCH.— Dedicated to SS. Philip 

and Jacob. 

1. Military. Knight in armour. 

2. Head of an effigy. 

3. Stone. 

1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 220; Beaven, Bristol Lists, p. 293. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



99 



4. Life-size. 

5. The head represents a Norman knight clad in chain 
mail. The hauberk is drawn up beneath the ears and there 
fastened on each side by a cord to the flaps of the coif de 
mailles, which completely covers the head. Beneath the coif 
would be a small skull-cap of iron, which is shown to be held 
in place by a cord entwined amongst the rings above the 
forehead. The strongly-marked features are those of a man 
in the prime of life, and may be a portrait. The eyes are 
open, and a drooping moustache is clearly shown. 

6. 
7- 

8. The head is half built into the wall and rests on a 
plain bracket. it is all that remains of what appears to 
have been a splendid effigy of the early part of the thirteenth 
century. 

9. There is no inscription and nothing to assist in the 
identification. 

10. The head is coated with whitewash. 

11. The nose is chipped. 

12. Placed against the south wall of the north or 
" Kemy's " aisle. 

13. There is no illustration known. 

14. The head is in an excellent state of preservation. 

15. It is not known to whose effigy the head belonged. 



1. Military. Knight m armour. 

2. Portion 01 recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. More than life-size. 

5. The figure is represented in a suit of plate armour 
without any chain, of a style introduced at the beginning 
of the fifteenth century. The body is encased in a metal 
cuirass, with a light skirt of taces strapped together at the 
sides, to which are buckled tuilles, the lower parts now 
broken off. The throat is protected by a gorget, and the 



IOO 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



head by a pointed helmet or salade with raised visor and 
mentonniere, and adorned with a row of conical- shaped 
ornaments. There are small' pauldrons meeting the epau- 
lieres, with hinged brassarts and very large and heavy coudes, 
as well as gauntlets of plate undivided at the fingers with 
pointed cuffs. The legs of the figure have been broken and 
are missing. A narrow belt passes round the waist, and is 
crossed in front in such a way that the ends extend down- 
wards obliquely across the taces to meet another belt coming 
from the back, to which they are fastened by buckles. There 
are no signs of any weapons being attached. Over the gorget 
is a collar of square, open links. The hands are in the 
attitude of prayer. 

Similar armour is shown on the effigy of Sir Thomas 
Berkeley of Uley, 1361, St. Mark's Chapel, Bristol. 

6. The head rests on a small but full, square pillow 
adorned with large tassels. Belonging to the effigy and 
originally placed at the head is a detached stone having upon 
it a coronet carved with strawberry leaves. 

7. Destroyed. 

8. No tomb pertaining to the effigy is known, and the 
broken slab and figure are at present placed on an altar-tomb 
belonging to another family. 

9. There is no inscription, and the effigy has not been 
identified. Barrett [History of Bristol, p. 208) suggests that 
it was Robert, the eldest son of William the Conqueror, 
because he had seen some words to that effect scribbled 
across the drawing of a similar figure. The strawberry 
leaves for the coronet were, however, not used before 
Edward II., 1307-27, and the armour shows the effigy must 
belong to nearly a century later, the jupon having dis- 
appeared, and the skirt of taces come in during the reign of 
Henry V. 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The lower half of the body is gone, and the features 
are defaced. 

12. Placed temporarily on a tomb in the east end of the 



Effigies of Bristol. 



ior 



north aisle. Previously it was "fixed" in the wall at the 
upper end of the north aisle, 1 and afterwards against the wall 
at the west end. 2 

13. No illustration or description known. 

14. The effigy is in a worn condition. 

15. It is not known to whom this monumental effigy 
belongs. 

1. Civilian. Sheriff in robe of office. 

2. Upright effigy, three-quarter length. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure is dressed in a coat closely buttoned down 
the front, the ample sleeves of which reach a little below the 
elbow, with cuffs, cut up, pointed and fastened back by two 
buttons. Underneath are visible the very full linen sleeves 
of a shirt, buttoned tight at a narrow wristband, with full 
cuffs. 

Much of the figure is covered by a civic gown without 
sleeves, falling straight in front with wide bands of fur. At 
the neck is a linen Geneva band with ends, and on the head 
a very large peruke. 

The right hand is lightly laid on the breast, and the left 
rests on a half-open book, standing up endways. 

6. 

7- 

8. A mural monument, with a canopy of the Renaissance 
style, supported by twisted Ionic pillars, standing on corbels 
of acanthus leaves. 

In the centre, the effigy stands in a deeply-recessed oval, 
wreathed with laurel leaves and berries; in the upper corners 
are cherubs, and in the lower cross-bones and Death's-heads 
crowned with laurel. 

Above the canopy is a shield without charges, and beneath 
the figure are an oblong and an oval tablet, the former of 
which alone contains an inscription. 

1 Barrett, History of Bristol, p. 208. 2 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 204. 



102 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



9. Inscription on oblong tablet beneath the figure: — 

" Here lyeth ye Body of Henry Merrett, Esq., sometime 
Sheriff of this City, an Inhabitant of the out Parish, 
to ye Poor of which He was a Benefactor, who 
Departed this life the nth Day of September Ano 
Dom. 1692. In the 71st Yeare of his Age." 

Henry Merrett, died 1692, aged 70. 

10. The features are painted flesh colour, the coat and 
gown a dark blue, and the shirt sleeves white. 

11. The canopy is chipped in places. 

12. Placed against the north wall of the north or 
" Kemy's " aisle. 

13. There is no illustration or description known. 

14. The hands and face are very well sculptured, and 
the whole is in good condition, though neglected. 

15. Nothing is known about Henry Merrett except that 
he was a member of the Bristol Corporation from 1671-84, 
and again from 1688-90; and that he held office as sheriff 
in 1676 with Henry Gleson, and during the mayoralty of 
William Crabb. 1 



ST. STEPHEN'S CHURCH.— Dedicated to St. Stephen 
the Martyr. 

1. Civilian. 
Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size, the female being the longer. 

5. The male figure is clothed in the prevailing dress of 
the higher classes at the end of the fourteenth century. Pie 
wears a cote-hardie with large buttons, tight from the throat 
to the waist, and fuller about the thighs. The sleeves reach 
to the elbows only, and beyond to the wrists are the tight- 
buttoned sleeves of an under-tunic. Over the shoulders he 
wears a "caputium," or small, falling cape, fastened in front 

1 Beaven, Bristol Lists, pp. 224 and 302. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



103 



by one button, with its hood standing up like a loose collar. 
The legs are covered with close-fitting hose, and the feet 
with sandals, high at the heels and strapped across the 
ankles, the markings of the toes being shown. Straight 
across the hips, buckled on the left side, is a broad belt, 
handsomely studded with jewels, the end hanging downwards 
to the knee. To it, on the right side, is attached an analace 
(mutilated). The hair is long and parted in the centre, with 
curls on each side. Only a short moustache is shown, but 
the face is not that of a young man. The hands are raised 
from the body in the attitude of prayer. 

The female costume is of rather earlier date than the 
;male, probably of about 1350. It consists of a long, tight - 
bodiced gown, or surcote, which falls in numerous ample 
folds below the waist, covering the feet. On the hips, in 
front, are two long indentations, intended to represent 
pockets. Over the shoulders and arms is a long cloak, 
fastened across the breast with a cordon. The head is 
covered with the square, reticulated head-dress, beneath 
which the hair appears braided on each side of the cheeks ; 
a wimple encloses the chin, and a veil falls at the back. The 
eyes are open, and the hands are clasped in prayer. 

6. The male head rests on two pillows, the under one 
oblong and the top one square, set diagonally and tasselled. 
The female head rests on one oblong, tasselled pillow. 

7. The male feet are closely bent over a lion (mutilated), 
with its tail thrown over its back. Those of the female rest 
■ against a dog (mutilated), which is almost concealed beneath 
the gown. 

8. A recessed tomb underneath a pure Decorated English 
canopy (restored). The front (original) is divided by but- 
tresses into six shallow niches, which contain three male and 
three female " weepers," about 18 in. high, attired in ordinary 
costume of the same period as the female effigy. The niches 
have trefoiled ogee heads, with crockets and frnials, and 
between them are shields without devices. The tomb is 
surmounted by a large ogee-headed canopy, with large 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



crockets and finials. It is tri-cusped in the middle, with 
two smaller hanging cusps on each side. The moulding of 
the buttresses and canopy is simple fillet and hollow, with 
square flowers at intervals, the whole being a modern- 
restoration. The vault is formed into two compartments by 
a single rib, having a large boss in the centre and terminating 
in floriated corbels. 

9. There is no inscription. 

Supposed to be Edward Blanket and Wife, died 
after 1362. 

It is not known to whom these effigies should be ascribed,, 
but these facts must be considered : — 

(a) The recess seems to show that the figures were 
originally on separate tombs. 

(b) The man must represent a wealthy burgess, because 
of the sumptuary laws of Edward III., and could have had 
no military rank, or would at that period have been repre- 
sented in armour. 

(c) A silver Spanish coin of 1454 was found beneath the 
man's head in 1844. 

Edward Blanket was a Bristol merchant, to whom the 
last two conditions apply. He showed his interest in the 
church by founding a chantry there, and the effigy may 
be reasonably ascribed to him. 1 

10. Both effigies show signs of being at one time 
covered with dull red paint. The figures on the front of 
the tomb retain portions of their original colours. 

11. The head of the lion and edge of the cushion have 
been sawn away, and the analace defaced. When the 
recess was closed up (see No. 12) the projection of the arch, 
the edge of the slab and part of the male's shoulder were 
likewise sawn off, but have been restored, before 1861. 

12. Placed in a recess in the north aisle. The effigies 
were probably in the old church, first mentioned in 1304,. 
and on its rebuilding in 1450-90 were removed into the 

1 The Antiquarian and Architectural Year Book, 1844, p. 114; Pryce,. 
History of Bristol, p. 258. 

t 



Effigies of Bristol. 



present church. It is probable that originally only the 
female effigy was in this recess, which was made deeper 
at a later period, as shown by the masonry and inner arch, 
so that the figure could be pushed further in to make room 
outside for the male effigy on its separate slab and for the 
loose front of a tomb. At such time the ground of the 
recess must have been nearly two feet below the modern 
floor of the church. The recess and its contents were 
concealed by oak wainscoting in 1630, when all the pro- 
jecting canopy outside was cut away. It w T as only exposed 
again when the church was restored in 1844. 

13. Tomb and effigies described in The Antiquarian and 
Architectural Year Booh, 1844, PP- I]C 4 — 12 °- Male effigy 
described by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley in Trans. B. and G. Arch. 
Soc, vol. xviii., part ii., p. 257. Tomb illustrated and 
described in Archaological Journal, vol. iii., p. 82. Water- 
colour drawing of tomb painted in 1844, now in the 
possession of Mr. A. E. Hudd, Bristol. 

14. The effigies are in very good preservation. 

15. Edward Blanket, the eldest of three brothers, was 
largely engaged in the woollen trade in Bristol. The family 
probably derived its name from the white cloth called 
" blankete," known to have been worn in England some 
200 years before this man's death. He founded one of the 
chantries at this church, and was elected a Member of 
Parliament for Bristol in 1362. 2 



1. Civilian. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. long. 

5. He wears a long, full tunic falling in straight folds to 

the feet without an opening in front, and with long, loose 

sleeves and wide cuffs. Below these are visible the ribbed 

sleeves of an under-garment, which extend to the knuckles 

2 Pryce, History of Bristol, pp. 257, 258; Latimer, Hist, of Soc. of 
Merch. Vent, of Bristol, p. 10. 



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Transactions for the Year J904. 



and are closely buttoned on the underside. A hood stands 
up round the neck, and a baldrick marked with bands falls 
from both shoulders, buckled on the left side, and carrying 
in the centre, below the waist, a short, upright analace. The 
feet are covered with pointed shoes, and the hands are raised 
from the body in the attitude of prayer. There is a jewelled 
ring on the third finger of the right hand. The hair is curly 
and luxuriant, the eyes half closed, and the expression 
peaceful and devotional. He has a small moustache and a 
short, forked beard of the period. 

Similar costume is shown on the effigy of Walter 
Frampton, 1388, St. John Baptist Church, Bristol. 

6. The head rests on two square, tasselled pillows, the 
top one set diagonally. 

7. The feet rest on a dog lying down (headless). 

8. The effigy, on its slab, rests on the ground in a recess 
having a plain, ogee-shaped arch. 

9. An illegible inscription is said to be on the edges of 
the slab, but as they are next to the wall it is invisible. 

Ascribed to Walter Tyddestille, or Tyddeley, died 
1385. He was buried in the church, and the dress of his 
period corresponds to that of the effigy. 1 

10. There is no sign of painting. 

11. The left foot is broken off and the head of the dog. 
The analace and beard are mutilated. 

12. Now placed in a recess, second from the east, in the 
wall of the north aisle. It was discovered in 1844, when 
the church was repewed, embedded in the wall of the south 
aisle, which was plainly not its original position ; it had been 
hidden behind some old wainscot, erected about 1630. It 
was transferred and fixed in its present recess in the wall 
of the north aisle, thus bringing its left arm outwards and 
concealing the inscription on the slab. 

13. Described in The Antiquarian and Architectural Year 
Book, 1844, p. 116; illustrated in The Archaological Journal, 
vol. iii., p. 83. 

1 A rch a ol. Journal, vol. iii., p. 83 ; Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 259. 

* 



Effigies of Bristol. 



107 



14. The features and details are well carved and remain 
in good condition, but the figure is neglected and only seen 
with difficulty, through being placed on the ground and 
wedged in by pews. 

15. Walter Tyddestille was one of the bailiffs of Bristol 
in 1377, and by his will desired to be buried in St. Stephen's 
Church, to which he left various charities. 1 



1. Civilian. Mayor in gown of office. 
Lady, with three sons and three daughters. 

2. Incised kneeling figures. 

3. Stone. 

4. Diminutive. Male ift. 3 in.; female ift. 2 in. 

5. The male figure wears a long, sleeveless mayor's 
cloak, trimmed with wide bands of ermine down the front. 
It reaches to the ground over a supertunic, the large, full 
sleeves of which are alone visible, ending in vandycked cuffs. 
Round the neck is a small ruff, and on the head a full, close- 
fitting cap, concealing the ears. He has a small moustache 
and short, round beard. The feet are covered with pointed 
shoes with high heels, and the hands are folded on the 
breast. 

The three sons are dressed in similar costume, including 
the cloak and fur. 

The lady is very simply dressed in a long, flowing gown, 
with exceedingly large pendent sleeves falling from the elbow, 
the forearm being bare. Round the neck she wears a small 
upturned ruff, and on the head a close-fitting cap, covering 
the ears and edged with a frill. The feet and hands are like 
those of the male figure. 

The three daughters are dressed in similar gowns, but 
with falling ruffs and caps with stand-up frills. 

6. 

7. A substantial and ornamented pedestal, with a double 

1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 258. 



io8 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



reading-desk, separates the male and female figures, which 
kneel behind each other on large, square, tasselled cushions. 

8. The figures are 




incised on a square stone 
slab, which is framed in 
stone, painted black to 
imitate marble, with 
raised gilded fleurs-de-lys 
at the corners and in the 
centre of the two sides. 
Above the figures are 
three incised shields, the 
merchant mark of robert centre one having the 

KITCHIN, . ir, 

C( c . , , nu , „ . . , merchant s mark 01 the 

St. Stephen s Church, Bristol. 

initials " R. K." and the 
side ones bearing arms charged in sable. 

" (Argent) on a chevron (gules) between three birds 
(bustards or cormorants) sable as many fleurs-de-lys (or)," 
Variation of Kitchin. 

" (Argent) three crossbows bent, each loaded with a 
three-headed birdbolt sable (a chief vert)," Searchfield. 

9. Deeply incised inscription at the feet of the figures: — 

" Deceased the 5th of September An. Doni 1594 
Robert Kitchin, Alderman & his wiefe, 
Lieth neere this place closed in Earth & Clay ; 
Their Charities alike in Death and Life, 
Who to the Poore gave all their goodes away ; 
Leaving in trust such men to act the same, 
As might with truth perfor(m) their good entent, 
So that the poore indeed and eke in name, 
To lasting Ages in this Citie meant 
And other places of this Kingdom faire 
As Kendall towne & Stuckland field both have ; 
With Bathe the native place of her first ayre, 
The Bountie of their gvyftes they to them gave." 
Robert Kitchin, died 1594, his wife and children. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



109 



10. The stone slab is gilded and the incised figures are 
painted black. 

11. There are no mutilations. 

12. Fixed on the south wall near .the east end. 

Pryce {History of Bristol, p. 259) states it is "over the 
vestry door, at the eastern extremity of the south aisle." 

13. No illustration known. 

14. The tablet is in good condition. 

15. Little is known of the history of Robert Kitchin, 
except that he was a merchant of great wealth and unbounded 
liberality. He was Sheriff of Bristol in 1572 and Mayor 
in 1588. His residence was in Small Street, where he 
entertained the Earls of Leicester and Warwick in 1587. 
By his will he bequeathed the house to be sold and the 
money to be spent amongst the poor of Bristol and Kendal 
in Westmoreland. A portrait of him hangs in the Bristol 
Council Chamber, and amongst the civic plate are two pieces 
presented by him when alderman in 1573. 1 

From the arms on the slab the wife must have belonged 
to the Searchfield family, to which also belonged the Bishop 
of Bristol, 1619-22. 



1. Judicial. 

2. Effigy, lying on the right side. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size, 5 ft. 8 in. long. 

5. The figure is dressed in the legal robes of office (in 
colours). A long, full, red gown falls to the feet in ample 
folds, and is confined at the waist by a folded linen girdle 
with fringed ends ; its long, wide sleeves have fur cuffs, and 
show the small ruffies of an under-garment. Over this is an 
ample cloak falling from the right shoulder, and handsomely 
bordered with fur. 

Round the neck is a ruff, and on the head a close-fitting 
coif and black, flat, diamond-shaped cap. The feet have 
1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 259. 



I IO 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



thick-soled boots or shoes, the toes alone being visible. The 
head rests on the right hand, and in the left is held a scroll. 
The eyes are open, and the face wrinkled and full of 
expression. 

6. The right elbow rests on a large oblong cushion with 
ornamental border. 

7. The feet rest against a clasped book, standing on 
its end. 

8. A large and costly altar - tomb, being a gorgeous 
example of early seventeenth-century work, and carved with 
a variety of devices typical of Death. The effigy reclines 
on it, beneath a canopy supported by two Corinthian pillars. 
At the back are two small niches with figures representing 
Youth and Old Age, and in the centre a slab containing an 
inscription, its framework being adorned with bosses and an 
escutcheon. Above the entablature is another shield with 
the crest. 

On escutcheon : " Sable (should be azure), three leopards' 
faces in pale or," Snygge. 

Impaling : " Per fess gules and vert a fess or between 
three birds' (? griffins) heads erased of the last." 

On shield : Arms of Snygge. 

Crest : On esquire's helmet and wreath, " Hawk rising 
gorged gules." This is not known to be the Snygge crest. 

9. Latin inscription at back of canopy. The original 
inscribed letters have recently been painted over, and now 
appear as follows : — 

" Hie jacet corpus Dni Georgi Snygge equitts ayrati 
Seryietis ad legeml Gazaphylash Regii Baronibus 
Secundi, in dicis prudentissimi huice gregia civitate 
Quondam amemoria qui dum in vivis fuit, pietatem 
Erga Deum devote colvitiostitiam sincere adminis 
Travit bonorum sedulus propugnator vitiorum severs 
Opugnator pauperum et egenorum misericors reiqeiemior 
Extitit obtit non sine civitatis huiuis honorata 
Patriae qui suae adamatae cui prodesse cupiit deside Rio 
Et dolore die undecimo Novembris Anno Saiunis Hostra 



Effigies of Bristol. 



i 1 1 



Millesimo sexcentesimo decimo Septimo et atatis sua 
Septuagesimo tertio secundom Christi adventum et cororis 
Sup beatam gloriosamove, resurrectionlm expectans. 

In sempiternum piae gratudinis 
Testimonium et obsequii char 
Issimo patri debiti monumenim 
Posuit et dicavit tilta Snygge." 

The amended Latin words of this inscription are probably 
as follows : — 

" Hie jacet Corpus Dni Georgi Snygge equitis aurati 
Servietis ad legem, e Gazaphylakii Regii Baronibus 
Secundi, judicis pr-udentissimi huic egregiae civitati 
Quondam a memoria qui dum in vivis fuit, pietatem 
Erga Deum devote coluit, justitiam sincere adminis- 
Travit, bonorum sedulus propugnator, vitiorum severus 
Oppugnator, pauperum et egenorum misericors recuperator 
Exstitit obiit non sine civitatis hujus honoratae 
Patriasque suae animatae cui prodesse cupiit desiderio 
Et dolore die undecimo Novembris Anno salutis nostra 
Millesimo sexcentesimo decimo Septimo et aetatis suae 
Septuagesimo tertio secundum Christi adventum et corporis 
Sui beatam gloriosamque resurrectionem expectans. 

In sempiternum piae gratudinis 
Testimonium et obsequii char- 
Issimo patri debiti monumentum 
Posuit et dicavit Anna 1 Snygge." 

TRANSLATION. 

" Here lies the body of George Snygge, Knt., Sergeant- 
at-law, one of the Barons of the Exchequer, a most 
skilful judge, formerly Recorder of this famous City, 
who in his life time zealously applied himself to the 
worship of God ; he impartially/ administered justice, 
was a diligent promoter of virtue, and a severe 
opposer of vice ; he was always a charitable reliever 
1 May be " Johne." 



112 



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of the poor and needy. He died, to the great loss 
and grief of this his honoured City and much loved 
country (whose interests he had always at heart), 
the nth day of November, 1617, in the 73rd year of 
his age. His loving daughter, Anne Snygge, hath 
erected and dedicated this monument in perpetual 
testimony of her pious gratitude and duty to her 
most dear father." 1 

Latin inscription on front of tomb on panels is illegible, 
but in Barrett, History of Bristol, p. 515, it is given as 
follows : — 

" Conditur hoc tumulo juris lequamque peritus, 
Jus aliis vitas dixerat atque necis ; 
Jus rigidum saevae mortis vitare nequivit, 
Omnia sub leges quae vocat atra suas. 
At vero spolium mors atra reportat opirnum 
Exultans victrix, Io triumpe, canat. 
Eripuit, fateor, miseram mors improba vitam, 
Morbis, aerumnis, auxietate gravem. 
Ast invita refert etiam mors improba vitam, 
Plenam caelesti lumine luce Dei. 
Eripuit veros quos praebet mundus honores, 
Caelestique dedit semper honore frui." 

TRANSLATION. 

" In this tomb lies one who was skilled in the laws and 
ordinances. He administered to others the law of 
life and death, but was himself unable to escape the 
stern decree of the Relentless. Death has indeed 
carried off a rich booty, and, exulting in his victory, 
let him sing, ' Io triumpe!' The tyrant has, I will 
confess, cut short a miserable life oppressed with 
disease, with trouble and anxiety, but, unwillingly, 
he has also brought another life full of celestial light 
in the presence of God. He has snatched away the 
high honours which this world affords, but given in 
1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 260. 

i 



1 



Effigies of Bristol. 



exchange celestial honours which shall endure for 
evermore." 1 

English inscription on front of tomb on pilasters : — 

*' To the Memory of 

Sir Geo. Snigge, Knt. " The remains of his 
Sergeant at law Father Alderman 

one of the Barons Sni ^ e and hls 



of the Exchequer 
Recorder of 



Mother are 
also interred 



Bristol 1592-1604 near this P lace -" 

M.P. for Bristol __ 
1597-1601-1604 

He proclaimed « His ances tors 

King James I. were connected 

at the Civic with this city 

High Cross in for nearly two 

1603 Top of High St. centuries 

Died 1617 aged 73 previous to 

and buried in the his decease." 
Chancel." 

Sir George Snygge, died 1617, aged 73. 

10. The tomb and canopy are painted to represent 
coloured marbles, and the effigy is in natural colours. 

11. There are no mutilations. On the canopy is 
inscribed : — 

"This monument was repair'd att the cost of Thomas 
Hodges Esq: the grandsonn of the afore said 
George Snygge." 

On the front of the tomb : — 

"This monument was again restored January, 1889. 

_ _ _ _.! C.H.Tucker - - 
" M. C. Crofton Rector -g g a y Ce Churchwardens." 

'12. Placed at the east end of the south aisle. The 
monument formerly stood at the eastern end of t;he chancel, 
1 Pryce, History of Bristol, p. 260. 
Q 

Vol. XXVII. 



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where the altar now stands, but was removed to its present 
position at the time the church was repewed in 1733. 1 

13. No description or illustration is known. 

14. In very good condition. 

15. Sir George Snygge was Member of Parliament for 
Cricklade in 1588, and besides what is stated on the monu- 
ment, he is referred to in the Records of Bristol. He was 
paid 6s. 8d. per day as a Member of Parliament for the city, 
and after he resigned that position in 1605 to become Baron 
of the Exchequer, the Corporation used to send him presents 
of wine, and he helped them in 1609 in a lawsuit against the 
Crown. He was knighted in 1604. 2 



ST. WERBURGH'S CHURCH.— Dedicated to 
St. Werburga. 

1. Civilian. Mayor in robe of office. 

2. Half-recumbent effigy, right hand supporting the head. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure wears a doublet, closely buttoned to the 
waist, with padded sleeves ending in wide cuffs, and is 
girdled with an ornamental belt hooked in front. The 
breeches are also padded, and gathered in a band below 
the knees and tied with a folded garter. The legs are 
probably in hose, but they are covered, as well as most 
of the body, with a mayor's cloak, open in front and 
edged with a broad band of fur. The sleeves are short, 
reaching to the elbows, puffed high on the shoulders, and 
edged with fur. There is also a narrow band of fur round 
the bottom. At the neck is a very full, turn-down ruff, and 
the feet are covered with thick, pointed boots. The hair 
is closely cropped, with a peaked beard and rather heavy 

1 Barrett, History of Bristol, p. 514. 

2 Annals of Bristol, Seventeenth Century, pp. 20, 36 ; Beaven, Bristol 
Lists, p. 308. 



Effigies of Bristol. 



moustache. The right hand supports the head, and the 
left clasps a pair of alderman's gloves. 

Similar costume on the effigy of Thomas Machen, 1614, 
Gloucester Cathedral. 

6. The right elbow rests on a large, square, tasselled 
cushion. 

7. The feet rest on the slab only. 

8. A low altar-tomb in a recess under a plain, flat 
testoon, supported by two pillars with Corinthian capitals. 
The front is divided into panels by plain pilasters, and 
at the back is an inscription with a massive stone frame- 
work. Pryce (History of Bristol, p. 254) gives the arms on 
the original tomb, but there are none shown now. 

9. Inscription at back of canopy: — 

" To The Pious Memory 
of John Barker Esquire 
late Mayor & Alderman of this City. 

If Virtue, Learning, Piety and Wit 
Could free from Death, thou hadst not died yet : 
If Zeal or Wisdom could a Man reprieve, 
Thou hadst been spar'd and hadst been yet alive. 
Thou Pious, Prudent, upright wast and Just, 
Thy Virtues live tho' thou art turn'd to dust 
Thy Soul's Immortaliz'd and tow'rs above 
The Reach of envy, nothing 's there but love. 
Where with Ye Saints and Angells thou dost sing 
Sweet Hallelujahs to Thy Glorious King." 
John Barker, died 1606. 

10. The costume of the effigy before removal was 
painted black and red, but now the whole figure is of 
a buff colour. 

11. The nose is mutilated, and the buttons of the 
doublet nearly worn away. The buff paint is peeling oft". 
The tomb and testoon are modern copies. 

12. Placed in a recess at the east end of the north aisle. 
It formerly stood at the west side of the south entrance 



n6 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

of the old church erected in Small Street, Bristol, but was 
removed in 1877, when the church was taken down and 
rebuilt in its present locality. 

13 No illustration or description is known. 

14. The effigy is fairly well preserved, 

15. John Barker was sheriff in 1593 and mayor in 1606, 
dying suddenly at the close of his year of office. In conse- 
quence of a terrible flood in that year, a census of the city 
was taken to ascertain how many persons had to be fed. He 
also took the lead in a dispute with the Bristol Cathedral 
authorities. 1 

1 Bristol; Past and Present, vol. i., p. 273. 



I i 




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fllfar 



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Sca/e of feef 

The Chc/rch & Monastery, /Ib&EyDo^e. . Hereford 



C.F. KELL & SON, PHOTO-I-ITHO. 8.FURNIVAL S T HOLBORN.E.U 



THE CHURCH AND MONASTERY OF ABBEY 
DORE, HEREFORDSHIRE. 



By ROLAND W. PAUL, F.S.A. 

The exact date of the foundation of the Cistercian Abbey 
of Dore is somewhat uncertain, but the generally-received 
date is 1147, its founder having been Robert, Lord of Ewyas, 
grandson of the Conqueror. In the same year Robert 
Fitzhamon, Earl of Gloucester, founded a Cistercian abbey 
at Margam, near Swansea, and in one or two details these 
abbeys have points in common. 

The architectural history of Dore must be chiefly obtained 
from the buildings themselves. In 1260 building operations 
had apparently come to a standstill, and Peter d'Aquablanca, 
the then Bishop of Hereford, issued a letter granting an 
indulgence to all who would contribute to the completion of 
the church. A consecration took place in the time of Bishop 
Cantelupe (1275-82), so that by the end of the thirteenth 
century the building was in all probability complete. Whether 
any subsequent additions were made is uncertain, but judging 
by the work that has been found during the past few years, 
this does not seem probable. 

The abbey was suppressed in 1535, and was afterwards 
granted to John Scudamore ; but it was not until 1633 that 
John, Viscount Scudamore, restored the transepts and presby- 
tery as a parish church, and built the tower now standing in 
the angle formed by the presbytery and south transept. It 
was reconsecrated in 1634. Scudamore inserted some fittings, 
the full extent of which, however, we do not know ; but the 
existing chancel screen is of his date, and some of the wood- 
work of the pews, probably also the west gallery, and the 



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Transactions for the Year 1904. 



south porch. The vaulting having in all probability quite 
disappeared, Scudamore reroofed the church and ceiled it 
with a flat plaster ceiling. 

Beyond some minor additions and alterations — general 
repairs to the roofs and fittings — nothing had been done to 
the church between 1634 and 1895. In that year I made 
some excavations with a view of finding, if possible, the 
extent of the nave and chapter-house, and since that year 
the work of exploration has been continued from time to 
time. The result has been to determine the extent and 
arrangement of the nave, and also the planning of the 
chapter-house and its vestibule. 

Between October, 1901, and June, 1903, the paving of the 
church was taken up and relaid on a bed of concrete ; the 
upper part of the tower, which had become dangerous, was 
made secure, and a system of drainage laid round the exterior. 
During the progress of these works many objects of interest 
were found, and additional light thrown on the arrangement 
of this part of the building. The Presbytery was re-opened 
for Divine Service, June 29th, 1903. 

Apart from the few documents which deal mostly with 
gifts to the church in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
and the confirmation of these gifts by Henry III., the fore- 
going notes constitute practically all that relates to its 
architectural history. 

The church and monastery as originally planned un- 
doubtedly followed the usual Cistercian plan — a long nave 
with narrow aisles, divided in many places by screens of 
wood and stone ; a transept with (in this case) four chapels 
(two in each wing), and an aisleless presbytery. The 
conventual buildings were, as at Tintern and Buildwas, on 
the north side. The cloister court, on the north side of the 
nave, had the sacristy, chapter-house and subvault of the 
dormitory on its eastern side ; the warming-house, refectory 
and kitchen on its north side ; and on the west, separated by 
a "lane" or open court, a range of buildings running north 
and south, probably devoted to the conversi or lay-brethren, 



The Church and Monastery of Abbey Dore. 119 

who here had their own refectory and dormitory, and also a 
separate entrance to the church. 

At a little distance from the church to the north-east was 
probably the infirmary, and the mill-stream (now filled up) 
formed the main drain of the abbey, being diverted from the 
main stream of the Dore above the mill and rejoining it 
further south beyond the monastery. 

The nave was of nine bays, 138 ft. in length and 54 ft. 
in breadth. The columns were circular, 3 ft. 6 in. in diameter, 
with caps of Transitional character, some having Norman, 
others Early English detail, or a combination of the two. 
The arches of the arcade were pointed, and there was 
no triforium, but a clerestory with a single lancet in each 
bay, having a deep inner splay, similar to those in the 
existing church. Colour was in some instances introduced 
to throw the carving on the caps into greater relief. There 
was probably no west door, but there were two doors on the 
north side. The westernmost of these was to give access 
to the church for the conversi, the other was the only direct 
communication between the church and the cloister. The 
structural nave, (that is, everything west of the "crossing") 
was divided transversely into three parts. The first part 
extended from the west wall to the fifth or central bay of 
the arcade ; and here was a stone screen with an altar in 
the centre, flanked by two doorways, the wall being slightly 
thickened behind the altar to carry the reredos. This 
formed the church of the conversi, who approached it 
through the doorway in the north wall already mentioned. 

The aisles of the nave were divided from the centre 
by stone screens placed under the arcades, and pierced 
at intervals for doorways. This arrangement, peculiar to 
Cistercian churches, is still very clearly marked at Tintern, 
Buildwas, and other abbeys of the order ; and at Dore the 
walls were found standing in two bays on the north side, 
about 2 ft. in height. In the central bay, behind the nave 
altar, the side-screen walls were pierced by doorways ; these 
gave admittance to the second division of the nave, which 



120 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

formed a retro-choir 33 ft. in length. The eastern boundary 
of this was the wall of the pulpitum, 5 ft. 6 in. in thickness, 
extending right across the church. Two altars stood against 
it under the arcades, and there would have been a doorway 
in the centre leading into the third division. This third 
division was the choir of the monks, and their stalls were 
returned against it, and probably extended eastward for 
the remaining two bays of the nave and half-way across 
the "crossing." 

The foundations of both altars against the pulpitum were 
discovered, but the central doorway had disappeared and 
the wall was ruined to its foundations. 

We come now to the transepts, and within the walls of the 
existing church. (Viscount Scudamore walled up the west 
arch of the " crossing " and the arches into the nave aisles.) 
The total length of the transepts is 94 ft., their breadth 
is 28 ft. In the north wall are two doorways : the lower one 
leads to the sacristy ; the other one, at a higher level, led to 
the monks' dormitory, and was reached by the " night stairs" 
in the north-west angle of the transept. 

The south transept has a doorway in its south wall, and 
its southern half and the chapel eastward of it were screened 
off from the rest of the church. The mortices for these 
screens still remain. 

On going eastward from the transepts we enter the 
presbytery, and here we find a change in the architecture. 
The westernmost bay of the three is decidedly earlier in 
date than the other two, and the junction of the newer work 
is clearly marked just east of the first wall shaft. The 
section, too, of this wall shaft is of earlier form. 

The greater part, if not the whole, of the portions of the 
building so far described is work of Transitional character, 
the date varying from the first foundation in 1147 to the end 
of the century. We have no record, unfortunately, as to 
whether the presbytery was completed; but judging from 
the general practice of beginning at the east end in order 
to have the high altar in position, and from foundations 



The Church and Monastery of Abbey Dore. 121 



discovered lately, there seems little doubt but that the first 
presbytery coincided with the present one, but it was, of 
course, without aisles. 

We know, however, that benefactors to this church were, 
numerous, and they were members of important families. 
The Plokenets (or Plunkets), of Kilpeck Castle, about five 
miles away; the Cliffords, who had a castle a few miles north 
on the Wye ; the Sitsylts (ancestors of the Cecils) — not to 
mention the descendants of the founder, De Ewyas, and the 
families with which they and the other families became 
connected by marriage — not only gave lands and made other 
bequests to the monastery, but in more than one instance 
were buried within the walls of the church; so that even 
if the presbytery was completed as originally designed, it 
undoubtedly for this reason became necessary to enlarge it. 
To do this the eastern walls of the two inner chapels of the 
transepts were pierced and an aisle or ambulatory was taken 
all round the then existing presbytery. Beyond the eastern 
ambulatory a range of five chapels was built, and the 
existing presbytery was transformed by having its side and 
end walls pierced by arcades. This is what is now seen, 
and it provided great additional accommodation for burials 
and tombs, without necessitating the disturbance of the 
high altar. 

We can now identify the positions of thirteen altars — the 
high altar, five at the east end, two in the south aisle, two in 
the transepts, and three in the nave. Doubtless others 
existed, but no trace of them remains. 

During the repaving of the church we have found what 
are no doubt the original foundation of the presbytery, the 
site of the high altar with its reredos, and the foundations of 
the five altars at the eastern end, with the bases of the 
screen walls that divided the chapels from one another. In 
five places we have found traces and remains of stone graves 
or bases of tombs — two on the north side of the presbytery, 
one on the south side, one in the south aisle, and one in the 
north aisle. There were no remains of tombs in the eastern. 



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chapels, and the few traces of interments found were either 
of later date or had been considerably disturbed. Traces of 
the sedilia were discovered south of the high altar. The 
total length of the church (interior measurement) was, when 
Complete, 238 feet. 

The detail of the building generally is, as we may see, 
very simple, although a good deal of carving appears on the 
caps, some of it of very curious character, exhibiting that 
mixture of Norman detail and Early English foliage so 
characteristic of Transitional work. There are few interiors 
that could surpass in dignity the presbytery of Dore, and 
now that the temporary screens are removed something of 
its original fine effect has been restored to it. 

Of the many important monuments and tombs the church 
must have possessed but few remain, and only slight traces 
have come to light during the progress of the repairs. Two 
mutilated effigies, now under the arches north and south of 
the altar, are said to represent Robert de Ewyas, the founder, 
and Roger de Clifford. A third effigy, small in size, is 
generally considered as having covered a heart burial. 
There are several local instances of heart burial. Bishop 
Aquablanca's heart was sent to his birthplace in Savoy for 
burial, Bishop Cantelupe's to Ashridge, while that of 
Margaret de Clifford was sent to Aconbury in 1260, and that 
of Lady Clarice de la Warr to Ewyas Harold about 1300. 

During the excavations three slabs were found and a few 
fragments of effigies, including a fragment of considerable 
size belonging to the effigy known as that of Roger de 
Clifford, still retaining considerable traces of bright-blue 
colouring on the surcoat, which may possibly have been 
treated heraldically. Considerable fragments have been 
found from time to time in various parts of the site, some 
distance apart, which appear to have all belonged to a very 
beautiful shrine. A large portion of the canopy was found a 
few years ago near the site of the west end, and more recently 
some tracery elaborately coloured and gilt, caps and bases 
with delicate mouldings, and other fragments have been 



The Church and Monastery of Abbey Dore. 123 

unearthed. It was evidently an object of considerable 
sanctity, and special care seems to have been taken to 
thoroughly dismember it. When perfect it appears to 
have been about six feet in length and eighteen inches 
in width. * 

A great quantity of tile paving has been found of 
thirteenth and fourteenth century date ; also a fairly large 
quantity of the grisaille and coloured glass from the windows, 
some of which may be sufficiently sound for re-use. 

The original levels were in almost all instances found, and 
the paving has been relaid at these levels. At Viscount 
Scudamore's restoration it is evident that the debris found on 
the site was roughly levelled, and that the paving was laid 
directly on it. Burials took place in the church until the 
early years of the nineteenth century, and a certain amount 
of disturbance of the soil resulted. Considerable subsidences 
had, however, taken place in recent years, and the church 
was very unhealthy in consequence. 

On taking up the paving it was found that between it and 
the clay level was a considerable thickness of debris, tiles, 
glass, worked stone, rubble, earth, skulls and bones. This 
has all been carefully examined, all the skulls and bones 
re-interred, and, with the other interments, covered with lime 
concrete. The lowering of the paving has exposed the altars 
and screen walls at the east end, and the bases and plinths of 
the columns and responds, adding much to the general effect 
of the interior and restoring its ancient proportions. 

The date of the consecration in Bishop Cantelupe's time 
— in the last quarter of the thirteenth century — implies that 
building was in progress at a later date than anything now 
remaining. The explanation is, I think, that the vaulting had 
not been completed ; and, in fact, during the excavations the 
sections of the vault ribs found and the bosses have all been 
very fully-developed thirteenth-century work, and the three 
large bosses, now at the east end, are distinctly work of 
early fourteenth-century date. 

On the outside of the south transept, at the junction of 



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the south aisle of the nave, is an Early English vaulting 
shaft and cap with very delicate detail. The wall here is 
thinner than on the north side (where the original Norman 
corbel remains), and it is clear that some portion of the south 
aisle was rebuilt, and that the whole of the nave was re- 
vaulted quite at an advanced period in the thirteenth 
century. 

The nave of the church, like the transepts and presbytery, 
was probably lighted entirely by lancets, either single or in 
groups, with perhaps a triplet at the west end. 

The Monastic Buildings. 

From traces of a wall recently discovered the cloister 
appears to have been about 100 feet square. The only 
approach to it from the church was through the large door- 
way in the north-east angle of the nave, of which the lower 
part of the jambs are visible. There are considerable traces 
of destroyed buildings to be seen in the meadow and orchard 
north of the church, but of remains above ground there are 
only the walls of the sacristy north of the transept and a 
fragment of the once twelve-sided chapter-house. 

The sacristy had a barrel vault of stone, and at its west 
end, divided from it by a thin wall and approached only from 
the cloister, was a recess, probably used as a book cupboard. 
There was a double archway here, the cill and jambs rebated 
for doors; the holes for the hinges remain, and part of the 
original paving. The paving of part of the sacristy also is 
still in position. 

The chapter-house must have been very fine when complete. 
It had a diameter of about 43 ft., and was twelve-sided on 
plan. It is slightly later in date than the chapter-house at 
Margam Abbey, near Swansea (which is circular within 
and twelve-sided without). These are the only two 
examples known to have existed in England of twelve-sided 
chapter-houses, although examples having six, eight and ten 
sides exist still in either a perfect or ruined state. The 
original chapter-house at Dore probably projected but little 



The Church and Monastery of Abbey Dore. 125 



beyond the east wall of the sacristy, and would have been 
about 30 ft. square. When, however, in the thirteenth 
century the new chapter-house was built, the early one 
became its vestibule, and the arches between it and the 
cloister, and possibly the whole of 'the vestibule other than 
the side walls, were remodelled, so as to harmonise with the 
extension. The foundations of the entrance to the chapter- 
house have been found, and also some of the foundations on 
its south side. The base of the central column, the springer 
of the vaulting, and one or two of the caps from the interior 
angles have been discovered, and are now among the worked 
stones preserved in the church. 

Recently the west wall of the eastern range of buildings 
has been traced as far as the bed of the stream. The 
existing kitchen garden stands on the site not only of the 
cloister, but of part of the refectory, warming-house, and 
kitchen. From traces recently found, the refectory appears 
to have been about 26 ft. in width. Its length has not so 
far been determined. 

Of the western range, which was, as already stated, 
separated from the cloister by a "lane" or open court, 
only the south wall, near the west front of the church, 
remains above ground, and I am afraid that everything 
has been taken away, even to the foundations. Its width 
was 28 ft., and it extended certainly to the stream and 
perhaps beyond it. 

There is a wall now forming the west boundary of the 
orchard, 120 ft. in length, which is undoubtedly of great age, 
but until the ground generally has been more thoroughly 
examined it is not possible to say what it formed part of. 

At some little distance north-east of the church is the site 
of the infirmary, and there are also traces of the position 
of the fishponds. Of the entrance-gate to the monastery 
there are no remains: it probably stood to the south or 
south-west of, and at some distance from, the church. 

It is hoped that before long it may be possible to repair 
•the roof of the transept of the existing church, which is in 



126 



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a very unsafe condition, and to introduce a system of heating 
the interior during the winter months. This fine fragment 
of mediaeval work, which Viscount Scudamore preserved for 
us in 1634, w ^ then, it is hoped, last for many generations 
to come. It is the only presbytery of a Cistercian monastic 
church at present in use in England for divine worship, and 
has thus an interest apart from the very beautiful detail 
which is to be seen on every side. 



BRISTOL CATHEDRAL: THE CHOIR SCREEN. 



By ROBERT HALL WARREN, F.S.A. 

The re-erection of the fragments of the old organ screen 
forming backs to the sedilia of the choir, both on the 
north and south sides, has again brought into prominence 
the shield bearing the initials and monogram, or merchant's 
mark, of T. W. These shields were originally one on 
each side of the central doorway of the screen, as shown in 
Lyson's Collection of Gloucestershire Antiquities, 1804, plate 98. 

Browne Willis, in his Survey of the Cathedrals (vol. ii., 
p. 763), writing in 1742, says that "Thomas Wright was 
in 1541 appointed Receiver - General for the Chapter at 
their first foundation, and had the ordering of their affairs 
and fitting up this church for a cathedral, and so took 
care to set up his cypher in all parts." Barrett, in his 
History and Antiquities of the City of Bristol, 1789 (p. 291), 
copies this without acknowledgment, and all succeeding 
writers have followed in the same way. Neither Willis 
nor Barrett give their authority for this statement, and the 
late Mr. Latimer assured me that he had searched in vain 
for any confirmation, but could never find his name in any 
contemporary document. 

With no desire to disturb Thomas Wright in his time- 
honoured possession of the receiver-generalship, I must confess 
to some satisfaction in depriving him of any credit attaching 
to the enclosing screens of the choir. It has always been 
a puzzle to me why Thomas Wright, if such a man existed, 
should have been allowed to put his initials so prominently 
on these screens, a distinction more likely to have been 
reserved for the first bishop or dean than for a man 
holding a subordinate office. 



128 



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In the Great Red Book preserved at the Council House, 
Bristol (fo. 235), is the copy of the will of Thomas White, 
merchant, of Bristol, dated September 10th, 1542. After 
commending his soul to God and the Blessed Virgin, he 
bequeaths his " body to be buryed in the Crowdys of Saynt 
Jones Baptist Bristoll." He declares that he is whole of 
mind, but u sehe " of body. It is a long will with many 
legacies ; but it is expressive of his care for the work that 
his first bequest is the screen for the newly - constituted 
cathedral, which he fondly calls " my cathedral church." 

" Also I give and bequethe unto my Cathedrall church 
called the Trynyte of Bristoll the Quere which was sometyme 
in the White ffriers, the which Phelipp Griffyth bought of 
John Nelare, and the said Quere to be sett upp at my coste 
and charge." 

The Bishop Suffragan of Dover was in Bristol in May, 
1538, executing a Royal Commission to make visitation of 
the mendicant orders and to sequestrate the goods and 
ornaments found in their houses. He writes to Cromwell 
that he " had beyn in Brystowe at the White Fryers and also 
in ij howsys of Glowseter, and ther for the gret clamor that 
was for dettes ther, I had men asyngneyd by the mayers 
of both towneys to prise suche as was in thoys iij howsys, 
and solde all and pay d the dettes." 

White at the end of his will directs his executors to find 
an honest priest to say masses for his soul, for the soul of his 
father and mother- and all Christian souls, and he was 
probably the last to found a yearly obit service in the city. 
It is significant of his state that the will made September 10th, 
1542, was proved October 12th of the same year, so that he 
must have been " seke " unto death when he executed it. 

That Thomas White was a person of renown in Bristol is 
shown by the fact that when King Henry VIII. came to 
Thornbury Castle in 1535, Mr. Thomas White, Mr. Nicholas 
Thorne and Mr. Chamberlayne by consent of the Mayor and 
Common Council of the Town on August 20th resorted to 
Thornbury, and there in the name of the said Mayor and 



Bristol Cathedral : The Choir Screen. 



129 



Commonalty "presented unto the kynges high maiestye x fatte 
oxen and xl shepe towardes his moost honorable houshold, and 
to the right excellent Quene Anne oon cuppe with a cover of 
silver overgilt, waiying xxvii unces, with C marks of gold 
within the same cuppe, as a gifte of this the Kynges Toune 
and hir Chambre of Bristowe." 

Thomas White, of Bristol, merchant, paid a rent of two 
shillings yearly for farm of cemetery belonging to the Friars' 
Minors on the west side of the church of the said house 
abutting on a street called Lewens Mede. 1 He was witness 
to the will of Thomas Harte (merchant) in 1541, who shared 
the faith of his friend, and left £10 to a priest of an honest 
conversation to say mass in the " crowdes" of St. John's and 
pray for testator's soul and all Christian souls yearly as long 
-as the said sum of ^20 shall endure. He also left his friend 
Thomas Whyte, Alderman of Bristowe, " twoo Portag." 2 

Here, then, we have no mythical personage, but a man 
whom we know as a Bristol merchant, proud of his cathedral 
church, and no doubt proud of Bristol thereby being elevated 
to the rank of a city, possessing himself of this choir screen 
which formerly had stood in the Church of the White Friars, 
and ordering that the same shall be erected at his cost. It 
would be reasonable to expect that on such a work he would 
be allowed to affix his monogram, and in confirmation of this 
theory it is interesting to note that the "Merchant's mark" 
suits the surname of "White" better than that of "Wright." 
By the " Quere " which he left to the cathedral I presume is 
meant the choir screen, as the whole set of stalls were already 

1 G. E. Weare, The Grey Friars, p. 93. 
2 Bristol Wills, p. 179. 

Note. — Portague— a Portuguese gold coin worth about £3 10s. or 
£4 ios. 

" Hold, Bagot, there 's a Portague to drink." 

Sir John Oldcastle. 

" Yes, I 've a portague I have kept this half-year." 

Ben Jonson, Alch., Act I. Sc. I. 

It was very common in this country, and principally on those parts 
of the coast addicted to smuggling. Bristol did a large trade with 
Portugal so early as the fifteenth century. 

IO 

Vol. XXVII. 



130 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

erected by Abbot Elyot, whose arms and initials with mitre 
and crosier are on them. 

The screen, which thus came from the Carmelites or 
White Friars, on whose site Colston Hall now stands, is in 
general character of older date than Henry' VIII., though 
variations in the workmanship of the details point to some 
patching up to fit its new position. The Royal arms of 
Henry VIII., which are alone on the door leading from the 
south aisle to the retro-choir, are on the organ screen, now at 
the back of the southern sedilia, supplemented by those of 
Prince Edward with the coronet and plume of ostrich feathers 
and the initials P.E., indicating the date of the re-erection of 
the screen to be between 1542 and 1547, the accession of 
Edward VI. The only Renaissance character is that of the 
semicircular arch, which may have been adapted later on 
in 1561, when Queen Elizabeth ordered the tabernacles for 
images in the fronture of th2 rood-loft to be defaced and 
hewn down, " and afterwards to be made a playne wall w th 
morter plast r or otherways and some scriptures to be written 
in the places." Painted figures of the twelve minor prophets 
took the place of the images, and fragments of the word 
Haggai occur on the westernmost panel of the south side as 
the last remaining relic of this change. 



THE DATE OF W'ANSDYKE. 



By the Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A., 
Vicar of Banwell. 

For forty years after the publication of the article on 
" Belgic Ditches" 1 in 1851, by Dr. Guest, his conclusion 
that Wansdyke marked the last frontier of the Belgic 
province was generally accepted ; though it must be con- 
fessed that this acceptance was due rather to the reputation 
of the learned writer than to the cogency of any arguments 
to be found in the article. In 1889 and 1890, however, 
General Pitt Rivers cut sections in the dyke near Devizes, 
and gave his opinion as the result of what he found that 
Wansdyke, in that district at any rate, is a work of Roman 
or post-Roman age. And probably few people who will take 
the trouble to go carefully through what he says on the 
subject in his book on Excavations in Bokerly Dyke and Wans- 
dyke will doubt the correctness of his conclusion. 

But the period stated, Roman or post-Roman, is more 
than a sufficiently wide one, and it will be well to quote at 
length what General Pitt Rivers said with regard to the 
possible age of the dyke ; the passage will be found on 
pages 29 and 30 of his book, which will be quoted in this 
paper as Excavations. After discussing the, possibility that 
Wansdyke was constructed by Aulus Plautius in 43, with 
regard to which he remarks that the only objection he can 
see to the supposition is that the Roman frontier at that time 
lay far in advance of Wansdyke, he proceeds : "We must 
also not altogether overlook the possibility of such an en- 
trenchment having been thrown up during the troubles of 
the year 208, when the Caledonians penetrated far into South 
1 Archaological Journal, viii. 143. 



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Britain, necessitating the presence of the Emperor Severus 
himself to put a stop to their inroads. We must consider 
also the possibility of the Wansdyke having been constructed 
by the Romanised Britons, after the departure of the Romans, 
as a defence against the Picts and Scots, when the Britons 
were driven into the south-west corner of the country. . . . 
The Britons must doubtless have learnt the Roman methods 
of castramentation and defence, and the resemblance of the 
Wansdyke, in the general principle of its construction to 
the walls of Hadrian and Antoninus, should not be over- 
looked. Lastly, we must bear in mind that there is nothing 
in our evidence to disprove the supposition that both these 
works [Bokerly and Wansdyke) may have been thrown up by 
the Saxons. During the seventh and eighth centuries the 
wars between the West Saxons and the Mercians continued 
up to the time of Offa. The great work drawn along the 
frontier of Wales, to keep the people of that country in 
check, is .attributed to Offa, and it is not impossible that the 
Wansdyke may in like manner have been thrown up by the 
West Saxons as a defence against him. The frontier between 
Wessex and Mercia appears constantly to have been shifting, 
but the line of the Wansdyke represents, more or less, the 
ordinary boundary that existed between the two tribes. It 
is true that nothing Saxon has as yet been discovered to 
support this hypothesis. But our evidence, from the nature 
of it, fixes only the earliest, and not the latest period, at 
which these works may have been constructed. Two circum- 
stances appear to me to militate against its being regarded 
as Saxon. Assuming the origin of the name Wansdyke to 
be Woden's Dyke, it is unlikely that, if it was constructed by 
the Saxons, they should have attributed it to Woden ; and, 
secondly, it would appear probable that if so large a work 
had been constructed by the Saxons, some mention of it 
would have been made in the Saxon Chronicles." 

This is so admirable a piece of historical writing that no 
apology is needed for the length of the quotation. As an 
instance of the clear insight of the writer, we may notice that 



The Date of Wansdyke. 



1 33 



the remark that the Britons must doubtless have learned the 
Roman methods of castramentation and defence is illustrated 
by what Henry of Huntingdon relates concerning the battle 
fought not far from the line of the^ Wansdyke, as a result 
of which Ceaulin was driven from his kingdom in 591 : 
" Cum autem Brittones, more Romanorum, acies distincte 
admoverent, Saxones vero audacter et confuse irruerent, 
maximum prgelium factum est, concessitque Deus victoriam 
Brittannis." A century and a half after the departure of 
the Romans the Britons, using Roman methods, were 
victorious. It is true that Henry wrote five centuries after 
the battle, but he seems to have had access to authorities not 
now extant. 

Wansdyke may be taken to extend from Maes Knoll at 
the eastern end of Dundry Hill to a short distance south of 
Chisbury Camp, near Bedwyn Station. It is singular that 
the parallel of latitude 51 0 23' 30", which passes through the 
point where the dyke joins Maes Knoll, also cuts Chisbury 
Camp at a distance of about forty-two miles and twenty-one 
yards, though the length of the dyke itself from the north 
end of the camp to Maes Knoll seems to be about forty-six 
miles and a quarter — an addition of some 10 per cent. Its 
course is very direct, the most northern point near Wan's 
house being less than a mile and a half from a straight line 
between Maes Knoll and Chisbury, while the dyke at South 
Stoke, near Bath, is about two miles and three-quarters 
south of the line. A comparison with the Roman wall 
is interesting. The distance from Wallsend-on-Tyne to 
Bowness-on-Solway is sixty-six miles, and the whole length 
of the wall is about seventy-three miles and a half — also an 
addition of about 10 per cent. The station Procpiitia is about 
four miles and three-quarters north of a direct line between 
the two extremities of the wall, and Newtown, near Carlisle, 
is about four miles south of it. The weakest point of 
Wansdyke is where the valley of the Avon cuts through 
it between Bathford and Bathampton, and the point where 
it is said the Scots first pierced or " thirled" the Roman 



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wall is at Thirlwall, where the little river Tipalt cuts through 
it at about the same relative point in the line of defence. 

With regard to extensions of the dyke beyond Maes 
Knoll and Chisbury, Collinson takes it right to the Severn: 1 
" Descending the Hill (Dundry) it crosses Highridge Common, 
where its tract is still visible, and soon after thwarting the 
great western road from Bristol to Bridgwater, forms by 
its vallum a deep narrow lane overhung with wood and 
briars leading to Yanley-Street in the Parish of Long 
Ashton. From Yanley it traverses the meadows to a lane 
anciently denominated from it Wondesdich-Lane, as appears 
from a deed dated at Ashton 3 Edw: II. (1310), wherein 
William Goudulph grants to Adam de Cloptone a cottage 
with a piece of land adjoining to it in Aystone juxta Bristole, 
situated on the eastern side Venelle de Wondesdiche. 2 Here it 
crosses the Ashton road at Rayenes Cross, 3 and ascending 
the hill, enters the hundred of Portbury, in the Parish of 
Wraxall, and terminates at the ancient port of Portishead, 
above mentioned on the Severn sea." 

Collinson was a careful writer, and he was Vicar of Long 
Ashton, but it must be confessed that few traces, if any, of 
the dyke can now be found west of Maes Knoll ; still, if we 
accept Wondesdiche as representing Wansdyke we must 
continue it to a point on the Long Ashton road five miles 
north-west of Maes Knoll. It may be doubted, however, 
whether for purposes of defence much would have been 
gained by taking the dyke to the west of that point. Temple 
Meads Station at Bristol is on the meridian of Maes Knoll, 
and only four miles north of it, while in old days the tide 
flowed up the Avon at least as far as Saltford, seven miles 
above the station. A river with such a tide as the Avon, 
near Bristol, would surely afford as good a line of defence as 
any dyke. No traces of the dyke can now be found between 
Long Ashton and salt water. 

1 History of Somerset, iii. 140. 
2 Ex Autog. penes J. H. Smyth, baronet. 
3 A mile and a half westward from the church, ii. 304. 



The Date of Wansdyke. 



J 35" 



At its eastern extremity the dyke can be traced for a mile 
and a half from Chisbury Camp ; but its direction is changed, 
it no longer runs east and west, but rather south-south-east, 
parallel with the ancient road from Cirencester to Winchester, 
which at this point it is evidently intended to guard. Sir 
Richard Hoare traced a branch of it along the Berkshire 
Hills for nearly five miles to the eastward of Chisbury Camp 
to near Inkpen, and he seemed to have formed the idea that 
it originally extended to Silchester, around and in the 
neighbourhood of which place dykes similar to Wansdyke 
occur, but he was unable to find any trace of it on the 
ground between Inkpen and Silchester. 1 We notice, how- 
ever, that an eastward extension to Inkpen would not accord 
with the very decidedly southern direction taken by the dyke 
when it leaves Chisbury. It is likely that both Maes Knoll 
and Chisbury were in existence before the dyke was driven 
between them over the face of the country. 

The dyke varies so much in size and form that no general 
description can be given of it. Perhaps the section given by 
General Pitt Rivers, 300 paces west of the point where it 
joins the Roman road at Morgan's Hill, will give a fair idea 
of it. Here the rampart rises five feet above the ground 
on the south and ten feet above the ditch on the north, 
while an outer bank rises about three feet above the ditch. 
But sometimes there is no rampart, the natural level of the 
soil coming to the edge of the ditch, and often there is no 
outer bank ; while along the line of the Roman road between 
Morgan's Hill and Ashley Wood, in Monkton Farley, there 
is frequently little more than a slope in the ground down 
towards the north. The ditch is always to the north of the 
rampart, showing that the dyke was constructed as a defence 
against an enemy to the north of it. With regard to the 
places where the rampart is inconspicuous or absent, the 
following remarks of General Pitt Rivers are instructive : 
" I have elsewhere suggested that in places where the dyke 
passed through a forest, the earthen mound and ditch may 
1 Excavations, p. 28. 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



have been replaced by an abattis of felled trees, no trace ot 
which, of course, remains at the present time. If the Roman 
road from Marlborough to Bath were made at an earlier time 
than the dyke, as now appears probable, nothing would be 
more likely than that in places where it passed through a 
forest an abattis should have been laid in front of the bank 
of the road as a defence. But in places where the line of 
defence left the road, as on the tops of the hills where no 
trees grew, a deeper ditch and bank would be necessary. 
This idea must be taken for what it is worth in the present 
state of our evidence on the subject. It is, however, to be 
observed that the rampart diminishes in size or is wanting 
in places where forests may have existed, and that it 
increases in places where forests are unlikely to have 
grown." 1 " Abattis are formed of trees cut down and arranged 
side by side with the branches interlaced outwards and the 
stems inwards; the branches should be freed from foliage 
and their ends cut sharp. They may be arranged in one or 
more rows, so that the fire from the parapet shall sweep 
along their summits, their stems being firmly fastened by 
pickets to the ground and partly buried in it ; an enemy 
would suffer great loss while attempting to remove them 
under fire." 2 It is evident that a defence of this kind would 
be very effective, and might be provided very quickly in a 
wooded country. 

It will now be well to follow the dyke shortly in its course 
from east to west. It is in good preservation immediately to 
the south of Chisbury Camp. Here the ditch is to the east 
of the rampart, as the dyke is guarding the ancient road 
in the rear ; the top of the rampart is about ten feet above the 
bottom of the ditch. I could not trace the point at which 
the dyke left Chisbury, but about a third of a mile west of its 
northern end, south or a road near a farm with two fine 
Araucarias, there is a bank with a ditch which looks very 
much like a degraded piece of the dyke. To the east of 

1 Excavations, p. 246. 
2 " Fortification," Encyc. Britt., Ed. ix., vol. ix., p. 422. 



i 



The Date of Wansdyke. 



137 



Savernake Forest, about a mile and a half west of Chisbury, 
the dyke is represented in a ploughed field by a slope to 
the north-east of about four feet in thirty ; no doubt the line 
of defence has been smoothed down by cultivation, but 
probably it was guarded here by arf abattis. The dyke re- 
appears to the west of Savernake Forest, about five miles 
from Chisbury, crossing the railway from Marlborough to 
Savernake, continuing for a mile and a quarter ; it is then 
found at intervals to Shaw Farm, four miles south-west 
of Marlborough. Near Shaw Farm the bank is fully ten feet 
above the ground to the south of it, and twenty feet above 
the bottom of the ditch. Where the dyke crosses the 
Ridgway the bank is* only about six feet above the soil on the 
south, the ditch is about eight feet deep, and its bottom 
is some twenty-two feet below the top of the bank ; there is 
also a low outer bank about two feet high. Further to 
the west the bank is as high as it is at Shaw Farm. From 
this point it can be traced to Ashley Wood above Bathford. 
Three miles south of Marlborough is a large camp on Martin- 
sell Hill, which with Chisbury six miles distant no doubt 
protected the road to Winchester, which ran between them. 

At rather more than eight miles from Chisbury the dyke 
crosses the Ridgway at an elevation of 790 feet, and about 
a mile further on it reaches its highest point of 913 feet, on 
the high chalk hills to the south of the valley of the Kennet. 
From a point a little west of this there is a magnificent 
view of the dyke as it traverses the front of St. Anne's Hill 
and reappears beyond Shepherd's Shore by Furze Knoll on 
Morgan's Hill. The distance between the extreme points 
at which the dyke can be seen at Furze Knoll and Shaw 
Farm is fully seven miles. It is quite as fine a view as 
that of the Roman wall from Hot-bank. West of St. Ann's 
Hill the dyke gradually drops to the road between Calne and 
Devizes at Shepherd's Shore, only 570 feet above the sea. 
At this weak point in the line the rampart is no less than 
thirty-two feet above the original bottom of the ditch. A mile 
and a half further on, at Morgan's Hill, nearly seventeen miles 



138 



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from Chisbury, at an elevation of 700 feet above the sea, 
the dyke joins the Roman road from Speen to Bath, along 
which it runs for fourteen miles, during which part of its 
course its elevation is very slight. For the greater part of 
this distance Braden Forest protected it to the north, and for 
the last two miles the deep valley of the Box brook. 

At Ashley Wood the Wansdyke turned to the south-west 
and crossed the Avon Valley between Bathford and Warleigh. 
It is well seen on Bathampton Down passing from the south 
of the camp ; and keeping on the high ground close to the 
south of Bath, it is well developed for three-quarters of a 
mile between the Cross Keys on the Midford road, and the 
turnpike on the Fosse. From Engiishcombe it can be 
traced almost continuously by Stantonbury Camp to Compton 
Dando ; then there is a break of about a mile and a half till 
it reappears a quarter of a mile east of the North Somerset 
Railway, about three-quarters of a mile north of Pensford 
Station. And from this point it ascends the hill to Maes 
Knoll, which it reaches at an elevation of 600 feet above the 
sea, twenty-five feet higher than Chisbury Camp. 

Thus Wansdyke may be divided into three parts ; seven- 
teen miles of trenching, except possibly two or three where 
the line ran through Savernake Forest, between Chisbury 
and Morgan's Hill ; fourteen miles between Morgan's Hill 
and Ashley Wood, where spade work would have been 
light ; and finally fifteen miles of trenching between Ashley 
Wood and Maes Knoll. So that it may be said that, roughly 
speaking, two-thirds of the distance would have been guarded 
by entrenchments and one-third by forest. 

We may now proceed to consider what we can learn 
about the date of the construction of the dyke. General 
Pitt Rivers simply called it Roman or post-Roman, and he 
does not imply that there is anything in the nature of the 
work itself to fix its age more closely. He only tells us 
that it dates from the campaign of Aulus Plautius in 43, 
or some later period. Two questions arise — first, is the 
name Wansdyke a mere fiction like Ad Axium or Via Julia, 



The Date of Wansdyke. 



i39 



an invention of some latter-day antiquary ? and then, when 
do we first hear of Wansdyke, name or thing ? Both questions 
can be answered by reference to old English charters, 
summaries of which are given below : — 

I. Kemble, Codex Diplomatics, mxxxv.; Birch, Cavtulavium 
Saxonicnm, 390. Aug. 19 and Dec. 26. a.d. 825. 

quindecim cassatorum in vEtheltune. King Egcberctus 
to the Cathedral at Winchester. Alton Priors. Boundaries: 
be western wodnesbeorge. Winton. 

Domesday Book, 20 hides. Monks of Winchester. 

II. K., C. D., mlxx. ; C. S., 566; Thorpe, Dipl., 492. 
After a.d. 871. 

Will of Ceolwen' leaving 15 hides at Aweltune acquired 
by her husband in legal possession with witness of King 
Alfred to the Cathedral at Winchester. Alton Priors. The 
same boundaries as in the previous charter. Winton. 

III. K., C. D., ccexxxv.; C. S., 600. a.d. 903. 

xx cassatorum in Stantun. Rex Eadward principi Ordlaf. 
Stanton St. Bernard. Boundaries : thonne ofer wodnes die. 
Wilton. 

D. B., 20 hides. St. Mary of Wilton. 

IV. K., C. D., mcxx. ; C. S., 734. a.d. 939. Winton, 
Also K., C. D., ccclxxviii. Original charter in the 

British Museum. 

xv mansas aet Cynetan in Uferantun. Rex yEthelstanus 
Wulfswythe ancillae Christi. Overton by East Kennet. 
Boundaries : on wodnes dene up to wodnes die. 

D. B., 15 hides. Monks of Winchester. 

V. K., C. D., cccclxvii.; C. S., 998. a.d. 957. 

xx mansas aet Stantune. King Eadwig to Bishop Osulf. 
Stanton St. Bernard. Boundaries: on wodnes die. Wilton. 

VI. K., CD., cccclxxxii.; C. 5., 1053. a.d. 960. 

xx mansas in Stantun, King Eadgar to Bishop Osulf. 
Stanton St. Bernard. Boundaries : on wodnesdic. Wilton. 

VII. K., C. D., cccclxxxvi. ; C. S., 1073. A - D - 961. 
Headed : De Suthstoca, particulam quinis subestimatam 

mansiunculis in Tottanstoc. King Eadgar to the Church of 



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Bath. South Stoke. Boundaries: ^Erest westan northan 
hyt maerath wodnes die. Bath. 
Not named in Domesday. 

VIII. K., C. D., dii. ; C. S., 1099. a.d. 963. 

duas man'sas atque dimidiam aet Stantune. King Edgar 
to the Decurion iElfsige. Stanton Prior. Boundaries : on 
wodnesdic. Bath. 

D. B., 3 hides. Abbey of Bath. 

IX. K., C. D., dxvi. ; C. S., 11.64. A - D - 9^5- 

bis quaternis preter semissam mansiunculis in Stantun. 
King Eadgar to iEscwig, Abbot of Bath. Stanton Prior. 
Boundaries: oth wodnes die. Bath. 

X. K., C. D., dlxvi. ; C. S., 1257. a.d. 970. 
Exchange between King Eadgar and iEscwig, Abbot of 

Bath ; the King giving x cassates at Cliftune, and the Abbot 
100 mancusses of gold and x mansas at Cumtun. In the 
boundaries of Cliftune : rihte on wodnes die. of wodnes die 
on fosse streat. This Cliftune must be Lyncombe, south of 
Bath, for that is the only point at which Wansdyke and the 
Fosse meet. Bath. 

D. B., Lincuma 10 hides. Abbey of Bath. 

XI. K., C. D., mcix. ; C. S., 699. a.d. 933. 

v cassatos secus silvam que appellatur Safernoc 1 aet 
Motenes oran. King Athelstan to St. Mary's, Wilton. 
Boundaries : to wodnes die. Wilton. 

With regard to Motenes Oran, Sir R. C. Hoare writes 
(Registmni Wiltonense, p. 40) : "I imagine this place to be Oare, 
situated near Hewish, on the south side of Wansdyke, where 
there are some very extensive British earthen works." The 
boundary of Oare does not now touch Wansdyke, but it does 
run along the entrenchment on Martensell Hill, less than a 
mile and a half from the dyke, and this may have been 
regarded as pertaining to Wansdyke. It is not unlikely that 
the name Martensell perpetuates that of Motenes Ora. 

King Athelstan gave the land of ten manentes at 
Nywantun, and five cassates at Motenes Oran ; these appear 
1 This early mention of Savernake Forest is interesting. 



The Date of Wansdyke. 141 

in Domesday as 13^ hides and half a virgate at Newetone 
(North Newnton), belonging to St. Mary of Wilton. It will 
be seen from the names of the churches to which the estates 
belonged, given at the end of each charter, that the docu- 
ments are taken from the chartularies of the cathedral at 
Winchester and the abbeys of Bath and Wilton ; and there 
does not seem to be any good reason for doubting the 
genuineness of any of the documents. 

We see, then, from the original copy of King Athelstan's 
grant of Overtown to Winchester in 939 that Wansdyke 
was in existence at that date, and we see also from the 
other tenth-century charters that it was in existence also at 
Stanton St. Bernard in North Wilts, and at South Stoke, 
Lyncombe, and Stanton Prior in Somerset, that is to say 
no doubt throughout its whole length, by 970. And we see, 
too, that it was then known by the same name by which it is 
known now, and that is a very important matter. We 
notice also that the name Wodnesbeorge occurs in the 
Boundaries of Alton Priors both in the charter of Egbert 
to Winchester Cathedral in 825 and in the Will of Ceolwen 
after 871. Both Kemble and Thorpe in their Indices take 
this to represent Wanborough, nine miles away ; but the 
estate is certainly Alton Priors, and beorg might well be taken 
to mean rampavt. The Wansdyke runs through the parish, 
and it is tempting to connect the name of the boundary 
point with the dyke, and so to carry the existence of the dyke 
back at least another century. However this may be, we 
may be sure that as the dyke existed in 939 it must have 
existed in 825, for after Egbert's crushing defeat of the 
Mercians at Ellendune (Wroughton) in 825 there would have 
been nfr need for the West Saxons to construct a line ot 
defence along their northern frontier ; the pressure upon them 
came from the Danes, and from quite other directions. We 
conclude, then, that the dyke existed as we know it now 
jri 825. 

But to the question, How long did it exist before that 
time ? it is by no means so easy to return a definite answer, 



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because the documentary evidence which has carried us thus 
far fails. 

We have to question the dyke itself, and we begin at the 
eastern end. On consulting a map, it will be seen that the 
Ermine Street runs south-east from Cirencester through 
Cricklade and over Wanborough Plain, and from thence it 
takes a more easterly direction to Speen and so to London. 
We also see that at a point nearly due east of Swindon 
Station a branch road leaves it for Winchester. This branch 
runs nearly due south to Mildenhall (Cunetio), from which 
point it takes a more easterly course through Savernake 
Forest to Winchester. Wansdyke could very easily have 
been carried in a north-easterly direction from Savernake 
Forest by Ramsbury for some nine miles, in which case 
it would have guarded the road to Speen and London. 
Instead of which it is carried only for some four miles 
from the Forest, first towards the east and then towards 
the south, with the plain purpose of protecting the road 
to Winchester and leaving the road to London unguarded. 
We should gather, therefore, that to the men who made 
the . dyke the protection of Winchester was a more impor- 
tant matter than the protection of London; in other words, 
that the dyke is more likely to have been the work of West 
Saxons than of Romans. 

Again, if we consider the relation of the dyke to the 
boundaries of the parishes through which it passes we are 
presented with a very singular condition of things. In the 
fourteen miles from Morgan's Hill to Ashley Wood, for which 
space the dyke follows the course of the old Roman road, it 
forms a boundary between parishes for the whole distance; 
while during its course through North Wilts from Chisbury 
to Morgan's Hill, and through North Somerset from Ashley 
Wood to Maes Knoll, it has absolutely no relation at all to 
parochial boundaries. And there must be some good reason 
for this condition of things. We know that ancient roads 
and ancient fortresses and ancient dykes are very frequently 
followed by parochial boundaries, only in this case of course 



The Date of- Wansdyke. 



143 



the artificial landmarks must have existed before the parochial 
boundaries were laid down. . When, then, we find that the 
central third of Wansdyke where it follows the Roman road 
is a parochial boundary for its whole length, and the two 
extremities are nowhere followed by parochial boundaries, 
we are driven irresistibly to the conclusion that the Roman 
road existed before the parochial boundaries were laid down, 
but that the parochial boundaries as we now see them existed 
before Wansdyke was brought into existence. The Great 
Western Railway passes over the country from Bristol to 
Bedwyn regardless of the boundaries of parishes, and we 
should take the fact as a proof that the boundaries existed 
before the railway,- which otherwise would have formed an 
admirable line of division. And the argument is no less 
cogent with regard to Wansdyke, which was probably made 
some twelve centuries before the railway. 

As the West Saxons certainly divided out the district 
according to their own plan, calling the lands after their own 
names, if we can determine the date of the conquest of the 
district we shall not be far off the date of its settlement and 
the marking out of the parochial boundaries. And it is not 
difficult to fix the date of this conquest. The Old English 
Chronicle tells us that in 552 Cynric fought with the Britons 
in the place which is called Searobyrg {Old S arum), and put 
the Bret-welsh to flight ; that in 556 Cynric and Ceawlin 
fought with the Britons at Beranbyrg {Bavbuvy Camp, above 
Swindon) ; and that finally in 577 Cuthwine and Ceawlin 
slew three British kings at Deorharn (Dyrham), and took 
three fortresses {ceastra) — Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath- 
amchester. North Wilts then, we may be sure, was colonised 
between 552 and 577, and it is very likely that North 
Somerset was also colonised after the capture of Bath ; it 
follows, therefore, that Wansdyke cannot have been con- 
structed till after 552. But we may be sure also that it was 
not constructed for at least seventy years after that date, 
because until after 620 the career of the West Saxons was 
one of unbroken conquest and extension, and there would 



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have been no need to construct the dyke. In 571 Cuthwulf 
had defeated the Britons at Bedford and captured Aylesbury, 
Bensington, and Eynsham. In 584 Cutha and Ceawlin by 
their victory at Fethanleah had carried the West Saxon 
frontier probably to the Forest of Arden. In 614 Cynegils 
and Cuichelm defeated the Britons with great slaughter at 
Beandune, no doubt Bampton in Oxfordshire. So that in 
620 the West Saxon realm would have extended from the 
Isle of Wight on the south, the Severn on the west, the 
Forest of Arden and across to the Ouse by Bedford on the 
north, and down to the borders of Surrey on the east, a 
territory about 120 miles long and eighty miles wide. Soon 
afterwards came the blundering crime which brought ruin on 
the West Saxon realm for many a long year, and which, 
followed by disaster after disaster, laid it within twenty years 
absolutely under the power of the Mercian King. 

We see, then, that as we may be fairly sure that W^ansdyke 
was in existence by 825, and that it can hardly have been 
thrown up before 626, the date of its construction must most 
likely fall in the intervening two centuries, at some period 
when the West Saxons were depressed and needed pro- 
tection against Mercian attacks. It is likely that the West 
Saxons continued to hold what is now Oxfordshire until 
well on into the eighth century, and that the fights at 
Somerton in 733, at Burford in 752, and at Bensington 
in 777 mark successive steps in the advance of the Mercian 
frontier; but in any case the long line of chalk hills would 
have formed a sufficient protection on the east. From 
Avonmouth, however, to the chalk hills near Marlborough 
there was really no natural protection at ail for the West 
Saxons above the tideway of the Avon except the forest 
of Braden, while the Mercian boroughs of Cirencester and 
Bath afforded excellent points from which attacks on 
Wessex could be launched along the Fosse and Ermine 
Street. The ancient road from Cirencester to Winchester 
led straight from Mercia to the West Saxon capital. 
Further, the high chalk hills on the south of the valley 



The Date of Wansdyke. 



H5 



of the Kennet afforded the best line of defence if the West 
Saxons were driven to bay, for the flat valley of the Thames 
would give little advantage to defenders. It is evident, 
however, from the fight at Kempsford in 800 that the 
Thames formed the boundary between the two nations at 
that time. Supposing, then, that Wansdyke was constructed 
by West Saxons as a defence against Mercians, we see that 
it was a well-planned line of defence built with the least 
expenditure of labour, because Braden protected it for a 
third of its length. 

We now proceed to consider whether we can find a 
time within the two centuries indicated suitable for the 
construction of the dyke. On April 19th, 626, Eumer, who 
had been sent by Cuichelm, King of the West Saxons, for 
the purpose, tried to murder Edwin, King of the North- 
umbrians ; he slew Lilla, a thane, and Forthere, a soldier, 
and wounded the king. On his recovery Edwin marched 
southward, no doubt along the Riknild Street, which ran 
from Aldborough- on -the- Ure to Bourton- on -the -Water, 
where, under the name of Buggilde Street, it joins the 
Fosse. It is likely that he met the West Saxon host at 
this point ; and he certainly inflicted a crushing defeat 
upon them, slaying five kings and a great number of people. 
No acquisition of West Saxon territory would have been 
•of any value to him, but two years later Penda, King of 
the Mercians, improved his opportunity, fought with the 
West Saxons at Cirencester and made a treaty. There is 
no record of war between the Mercians and West Saxons 
for the next seventeen years ; but when in 643 Ken walk 
succeeded to the throne of the West Saxons he put away 
the sister of Penda whom he had married, and was there- 
fore by that king driven from his throne in 645. It was 
at this time, no doubt, if not in 628, that Bath and 
Cirencester and their neighbourhood came into the power 
of the Mercians. 

Kenwalk fled to the court of Anna, King of the East 
Angles, where he was baptised, and where he remained 

11 

Vol. XXVII. 



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for three years. In 648 he would have returned, and in 
that year the Chronicle tells us: "Her Cenwalh gesalde 
Cuthrede his mage Hi thusendo londes be ALscesdune" — "At this 
time Cenwalk granted to Cuthred his kinsman three 
thousands of land by Ashdown." It seems likely that this 
entry refers to the construction of Wansdyke. It will be 
noted that neither the Parker nor the Peterborough 
Chronicle mentions what the units of the land-grant were, 
though the MSS. B and C insert the word hida — hides. 
But both these are comparatively late authorities. The 
Manuscript B may be dated about the year 1000, and the 
Abingdon copy, C, about the middle of the eleventh 
century. 1 Ethelwerd, writing about the end of the tenth 
century, simply paraphrases the Chronicle : " Cenuualh 
propinquo suo Cuthredo tradidit ex praediis suis tria millia 
adjacentia colle qui vulgo dicitur Escesdune." The earliest 
authorities, therefore, give no idea of the extent of the unit 
of the land-grant. It is quite true that instances can be 
found in the Old English paraphrase of Bede of the elliptic 
use of the phrase with the sense of hides, 2 but even this 
paraphrase is 250 years after Kenwalk's grant. The extent 
of the unit is quite indeterminate, 3 and the passage has 
been a difficulty to successive interpreters of the Chronicle. 
It is perhaps worth noting that if we take the unit to be 
an acre it would give a breadth of about 160 yards along 
the whole length of the dyke. Ashdown is, of course, the 
great mass of chalk downs in North Wilts and Berkshire, 
between Ilsley and East Kennet, along the edge of which 
the Ridgeway runs, and which shelters the eastern end of 
Wansdyke, as the tidal Avon covers it on the west. 

But apart from the interpretation of this passage, the 
return of Kenwalk would be a very natural occasion for 
the construction of the dyke. Cirencester, hostile probably 
since 628, was less than sixty miles from Winchester, with, 
1 Plummer, Two Saxon Chronicles, ii., xxix., xxxi. 
2 Two Saxon Chronicles, ii. 23. 
8 Stevenson, Asser's Life of King Alfred, 154, note 6. 



The Date of Wansdyke. 147 

a direct road between the two places, and it was absolutely 
necessary that the way to it should be strongly fortified. 
Moreover the construction of the dyke would not have 
been so heavy a matter as it seems ; for the trenching only 
extended over some seventeen miles in North Wilts and fifteen 
miles in North Somerset. If Kenwalk called out the West 
Saxon fyrd and set them to work at it, the task might well 
have been accomplished in two years. With regard to the 
Roman wall, "from calculations that have been made, 
founded upon the experience gained by the construction 
of the vast works connected with modern railways, and 
supposing ten thousand men were employed upon it, it is 
considered that, in the existing conditions of the country 
at the time, the V ilium and the Munis could not be reared, 
even supposing the labour to have been uninterrupted, in 
a shorter period than two years." 1 On the one hand, the 
construction of Wansdyke would have been a very much 
lighter task than that of the Roman wall with its vallum; on 
the other hand, the Roman legionaries, no doubt with native 
labourers under them, would have turned out much better 
work than the West Saxon fyrd could produce. Besides 
which the legionaries could work continuously, while the 
fyrd could only be called out for a definite time. 

It may be taken as certain that a Mercian king would not 
willingly sit still while the West Saxons were barring him 
out ; and here again the circumstances of the time lend 
probability to the idea that the dyke was constructed soon 
after 648. Bishop Stubbs writes : " Penda never relaxed in 
his hostility to Northumbria ; Bede mentions two expeditions, 
one in the time of Bishop Aidan, in which he besieged 
Bamborough, and another in the time of Finan (H. E., iiu 
16, 17). These inroads seem to fall between 645 and 652." 2 
Kenwalk might well have seized an opportunity while Penda 
was occupied in Northumbria to construct the dyke. But it 
is likely that in 652 the Mercian king was south again, for 

1 Handbook to the Roman Wall, Ed. 1895, p. 37. 
2 Dictionary of Christian Biography, iv. 302. 



Transactions for the Year 1904, 



the Chronicle tells us that in that year Kenwalk fought at 
Bradford-on-Avon. Ethelwerd calls this fight helium civile, as 
he calls the fight between Egbert and Beornwulf at Ellendune 
in 825 bella civilia ; and a civil war waged by Kenwalk at 
Bradford-on-Avon could only be against the Mercians. 
We have seen that the weakest point of the dyke was at 
the point where the Avon cuts it between Bathford and 
Bathampton, not only on account of the natural features of 
the country, but also because the Mercian king could husband 
his resources at Bath till it suited him to make an attack. 
If Penda found the dyke in being, and wished to force it, 
an attack up the Avon Valley would seem to suggest the 
readiest road to success. It this were so the attack seems 
to have failed. 

In 661 the Chronicle tells us that Kenwalk fought at 
Posentesbyrg, wherever that may be ; also that Wulphere, 
son of Penda, plundered as far as Ashdown and in the Isle 
of Wight, and that he gave Wight to Ethelwald, King of the 
South Saxons. Bede (H. E., iv. 13) adds the Meonwaras, or 
inhabitants of the Valley of the Meon, to the gift. Wulphere 
would seem to have come to East Hampshire and down the 
Valley of Meon to Wight. This would have been his natural 
course if he went up over Wanborough Plain and along the 
old road towards Speen and then to the south. He would 
.have avoided the dyke by passing to the east of it. We are 
told that Cuthred died in this year, very likely in battle 
against the Mercians. With regard to the locality of 
Posentesbyrg, Mr. W. H. Stevenson, Fellow of St. John's 
College, Oxford, in a letter dated October 25th, 1904, 
suggested that it is now represented by Postlebury, in the 
parish of Cloford, near Frome. The old road from Uphill 
to Old Sarum must have passed within a mile of this point 
in its course between Beacon Hill and Maiden Bradley, 
and it lay on the north-western edge of the Forest of 
Selwood. Accepting the identification, we should suppose 
that Wulphere marched from Bath up the valleys of the 
Avon and Frome with the intention of passing along the 



The Date of Wansdyke. 



149 



ancient road by Old Sarum to Winchester, but that he was 
met and defeated by the West Saxon forces on the edge of 
Selwood Forest. This happened at Easter, which fell on 
March 28th in that year. Later in the year no doubt 
Wulphere marched from Cirencester over Ashdown and as 
far as Wight. It would thus seem that an unsuccessful 
Mercian invasion from Bath was followed by a successful 
one from Cirencester. 

In 675 we are told that Wulphere and iEscwine fought at 
Biedanheafde, which is taken by Mr. Plummer to be Bedwin. 
If this identification is correct, Wulphere was caught in an 
attempt to pass close round the eastern end of the dyke, and 
he most likely lost his life in the attempt, for his death is 
recorded in this year. In 715 Ine and Ceolred fought at 
a place which the Parker Manuscript calls Woddesbeorg, 
and the Peterborough Manuscript Wodnesbeorg ; this has 
generally been taken to be Wanborough, but we see from the 
Winton Charter of 825 that it may very well have been at 
the point where Ridgeway crossed Wansdyke by Alton 
Priors. The last fight that we can definitely place on Wans- 
dyke occurred in 1006, when the Northmen marched on a 
career of plunder through Hampshire to Reading, Walling- 
ford and Cholsey, then along Ashdown to Cynetan, where they 
defeated the fyvd which had been called out to meet them,, 
and so by Winchester back to their ships. Cynetan has been 
placed at Kintbury, but it is much more likely to mean 
East Kennett, where Ridgeway crosses Wansdyke, on which 
probably the fyvd had been posted to withstand the invaders. 

We see, then, that supposing Wansdyke to have been 
constructed immediately after the return of Kenwalk in 648, 
the positions of hostilities between Mercia and Wessex seem 
to have a clear relation to the line of the dyke. In 652 
Kenwalk fought a battle in a civil war at Bradford-on-Avon, 
an attack from Bath up the valley of the Avon being 
apparently the easiest way of piercing the dyke. In 661 
Wulphere seems to have passed wide of the dyke on the 
east, but in 675, trying to slip close by its eastern extremity, 



150 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

lie met with resistance and was apparently slain. The fight 
in 715 may have been either at Wanborough or where 
Wansdyke guards Ridgeway. 

We now proceed to consider whether what is now North 
Wilts was in the latter part of the seventh century under the 
power of the Mercians or the West Saxons, and we turn 
naturally to the history of the minster at Malmesbury. We 
are in the habit of regarding this great church as peculiarly 
West Saxon ; but as the Bishop of Bristol has shown, it was 
in its early days quite as much a Mercian as a West Saxon 
foundation, receiving gifts from the kings of both peoples. 
This point will be clear from the following list of early 
Malmesbury Charters : — 

K., C. D., xi.;* C. 5., 37. Aug. 26, a.d. 675. 

Charter of Leutherius, Bishop of the West Saxons, to 
the Priest Aldhelm of land to build a monastery. — L. 

C. S., 54. a.d. 680. 

Grant by Cenfrith, Earl of the Mercians, of x cassates at 
Wdetim to Abbot Aldhelm, with consent of his lord King 
Ethelred.— W. M. 

K., C. D., xxii. ;* C. S., 58. a.d. 681. 

Grant by King Ethelred, of the Mercians, at the request 
of Cenfrith and the prayer of the brethren at Malmesbury 
of xxx cassates to the west of the public street and xv 
others near Tetbury. — L. 

Marked Niuentun, Long Newnton. 

K., C. D., xxiii. ;* C. S., 59. 

Grant by King Ethelred of the Mercians of xv cassates 
near Tetbury. — L. Boundaries of Chevletone, Charlton. 

K., C. D., xxiv.;.* C. 5., 63. Aug., a.d. 682. 

Grant by Cedwalla, King [of the West Saxons] , of xxxii 
cassates at Kemele. — L. Kemble. 

K., C. D., xxvi.;* C. S. t 65. July 30, a.d. 683. 

Grant by Berhtwald rex, regnante domino, of xl cassates at 
Sumerford. — L. 

K., C. D., xlviii. ; C.S., 103. a.d. 701. 

Ina, King of the Saxons, xlv cassates ; v at Iserdun, xx 



The Date of Wansdyke. 



where the stream Corsaburn rises, in another place near the 
same stream x, and near the brook which is called Redburna 
x. — L. Garsdon, Corston, and Rodborne. 

K., C. £>., xciv. ;* C. Si, 170. a.d. 745. 

Cuthred, King of the West Saxons, x mansiones in 
Wdetun. — L. 

K., C. D., cm. ; C. S., 185. a.d. 758. 

Kinewlf, King [of the West Saxons] , xxx manentes where 
the streams Meardaeno and Reodburna join. — L. 

K., CD., clxxiv.;* C.S., 279. a.d. 796. 

Egeferth, King of the Mercians, restores xxxv manentes 
at Piertean, which his father Offa had stolen from the 
Abbey. — L. Purton. 

All these documents are given by William of Malmesbury, 
who wrote not later than 1145, while those marked with 
an L are found in a Malmesbury chartulary written in the 
time of Richard II.; and they mark the tradition of the 
abbey in the middle of the twelfth century with regard to 
the sources from which the estates came to it. The 
documents marked with a star were regarded by Kemble 
as doubtful, but it does not therefore follow that the 
information contained in them is false. We may take it 
that certainly from the time of Egbert onwards the minster 
had been in Wessex, and it is unlikely that the monks 
would have attributed their earliest endowments to Mercian 
kings unless they had really been so given. We see, then, 
that to Ethelred, King of the Mercians, and his nephew 
Berhtwald, an under-king in the same realm, who sheltered 
St. Wilfrid in 680, are attributed gifts of land at Charlton 
and Somerford, in North Wilts, as well as at Long Newnton, 
in Gloucestershire. We notice also that, apart from the 
grant by Cedwalla attributed to 682, all the earlier grants 
are Mercian, and all the later grants, except the restitution 
of Purton by Ecgferth, are West Saxon. Unfortunately, 
no grant is attributed to the period between 683 and 701 ; 
but so far as these Malmesbury Charters may be taken as 
evidence, they show that in the early part of the reign of 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



Ethelred the minster received endowments from Mercia 
rather than from Wessex, and therefore that it probably- 
stood on Mercian territory. How far the Mercian boundary 
lay beyond Malmesbury there is no evidence to show, any- 
more than we can tell how it was that Malmesbury came 
under West Saxon influence in the days of Ine, who became 
king in 688 ; but that this boundary lay then further south 
than it does now is clear. Malmesbury lies about thirteen 
miles north of the dyke ; Little Somerford about two miles 
less. 

With regard to the name of the dyke, we have seen that 
it was known as Woden's from the earliest times at which 
we can trace its existence. And this need not mean that 
our forefathers attributed it to Woden, but rather that the 
West Saxons themselves constructed it as a defence against 
the Mercians, and called it by the name of Woden, who 
was considered to be the protector of boundaries; and this 
dedication would still have been possible in 648. As against 
Penda, who was the last great mainstay of the old English 
heathenism, the West Saxons might still have hoped that 
it would have its influence ; while Christianity can hardiy 
yet have obtained a controlling power among the West 
Saxons. It is true that Bishop Birinus had begun his 
missionary work among them in 634, and that their King 
Cynegils was one of his earliest converts; but Bede 1 relates 
the death of Birinus before that of Cynegils in 645, and 
Kenwalk did not become a Christian till after his accession 
to the throne, while he was an exile in East Anglia. After 
his return in 648 a Gallic bishop named Agilbert came from 
Ireland, but as he never seems to have learned the language 
of the West Saxons he can have had little or no influence 
over the people. Though Bede tells us that Birinus, working 
from Dorchester on the Thames, built many churches and 
turned many people to the Lord, we may well think that by 
far the larger number of the West Saxons were still heathen 
in 648, and would be likely to call their great boundary 

1 H. E., iii. 7. 



i 



The Date of Wansdyke. 153, 

dyke by the name of Woden. If this were so Wansdyke 
has a very real historic interest, as being the last great 
abiding mark left by an expiring heathenism on the face 
of the country. We may, however, take it as fairly 
certain that the name of Woden would not have been 
applied to the dyke in or after the time of Ine and St. 
Aldhelm ; and as we have seen that it can hardly have 
been constructed before 626, so we can scarcely place it 
later than 700. 

Concerning the part of the dyke between Spye Park and 
Ashley Wood, it is generally inconspicuous in this section 
of its course. General Pitt Rivers gives sections of it from 
Chisbury as far as the Melksham Canal, and again from the 
Fosse to Stantonbury ; 1 but there is nothing to show what it 
is like between the Avon at Melksham and the same river 
at Bathford. South of Laycock, on the road to Melksham,. 
it is represented by a low slope on the north of the hedgerow 
which forms the parish boundary, while between Chapel Knapp 
and Whitley a slight slope on the south of the hedge is the 
only sign of it. It is, however, well developed for a consider- 
able distance to the south of the house in Neston Park, and 
it seems to be traceable on the north of the wood to the west 
of the road between Box and Atworth. A quarter of a mile 
south of the crossing of the roads near Hatt House its ridge 
can be discerned on the sky-line east of the road, and to 
the west it is marked by a slope on the north of the hedge- 
row. It can be detected as a broad low ridge in a field, 
to the west of the road between Kingsdown and South 
Wraxall, but between Kingsdown and Monkton Farley it can 
hardly now be traced, though a gate probably marks the 
ancient course of the Roman road. It reappears in the 
low ground east of the Avon, rather more than half a 
mile south of Bathford Church. It is likely that the 
whole of this district was heavily wooded in early 
days. In Mediaeval times Braden Forest stretched from 
the Thames to near Wootton Bassett, and from the 
1 Excavations, 248, 249. 



154 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

Ray to beyond Braden Pond, but the name Bradenstoke 
marks a much further extension to the south and west; while 
in Domesday great masses of woodland are attributed to the 
king's manors of Chippenham, Corsham, and Melksham, and 
to the Sheriff Edward's manor of Lacock. 1 The ground 
rises gradually from an elevation of 132 feet at the road near 
Lacock to one of 530 feet near Monkton Farley, and it would 
seem that though to the east of Neston the dyke is indistinct, 
it can generally be traced to the west of that point. Probably 
the wood became thinner as the elevation increased and the 
soil became more dry. 

We see, then, with regard to the date of Wansdyke, that 
it was certainly in existence under its present name in 939, 
and probably in 825. On the other hand, the fact that 
although the portion of its course where it follows the 
Roman road is a parish boundary for its whole length, its 
two extremities in no place form boundaries of parishes, 
shows that these extremities are later in date than the 
boundaries. But the boundaries cannot be earlier than the 
colonisation of the district by the West Saxons, a process 
which, according to the Chronicle, occurred in the last half 
of the sixth century ; while the fact that the growth of the 
West Saxon realm was continuous until 626 to a point far 
beyond Wansdyke would seem to show that the rampart is 
not likely to have been erected before that date. We may 
perhaps narrow the limit of two centuries rather more by 
the consideration that the name Wansdyke is not likely to 
have been given to the work after about the end of the 
seventh century, when under the influence of Ine and 
St. Aldhelm Christianity was generally accepted by the 
men .of Wilts and Somerset. Within the two centuries 
following 626 it would not be easy to point to a more likely 
period for the erection of the dyke than that following the 
return of Kenwalk in 648, and we shall probably not be far 

1 There are useful papers by the late Canon Jackson on the forests of 
Braden and Selwood in the Wiltshire Archaological Magazine, vol. xxiii., 
pp. 162-165, 268-294. 



The Date of Wansdyke. 



1 55 



wrong if we think that it was constructed by Cuthred in the 
four years following that date. 

It may seem strange that a paper on this subject should 
appear in the Transactions of a Mercian Society, but Wansdyke 
is a work of national and not merely of local interest. If it 
was constructed by West Saxons, on West Saxon territory, 
the Mercians were the moving cause of its construction, and 
at any rate the paper was thought out and written on West 
Saxon soil. 



THE PAINSWICK OR IFOLD VILLA. 



By W St. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

In 1868 Roman remains, including an undescribed 
pavement, were discovered in an 18-acre field on the old 
demesne-land at Ifold, usually mis-spelled High-fold. There 
are other ' Ifolds ' 1 in England dating from Saxon days. 
No one seems to have made any available notes of the 
' find,' nor is there to hand any contemporary account of 
what was found or of what was left by the finders. Inquiry 
after facts has proved well-nigh fruitless. 

Ifold Farm is situated, some six hundred yards north of 
Painswick, and at about the same distance west of the road 
leading to Gloucester. This town is five miles further north- 
ward. Ifold is reached from this main road by a farm-lane of 
gentle declivity in its first or upper half, possibly on the site 
of an ancient track. This leads directly down from quarries 
of valuable local stone, 2 a fact perhaps of importance, seeing 
that both Roman and mediaeval Gloucester have been 
indebted largely to Painswick for their building stone, as 
Roman remains at Gloucester prove. The track, however, 
by which the villa was reached from Glevum must have 
travelled more directly from Holcombe. 

On reaching the gate opening down into Ifold the lane 
takes a sharp turn to the left for forty yards, and then 
continues for two hundred yards in its original direction, 

3 Ifield and Ifold occur, both, in Bramber Rape, Sussex. Cf. Elwes, 
Castles and Mansions of Sussex, p. 132. Ifeld is another form. We have 
also Iford, Iffley, and If-ham. 

s The Duke of Norfolk has used this stone in the church at Arundel 
with conspicuous success. 




i 



The Painswick or Ifold Villa. 



157 



and so reaches the farm, beyond which it does not go. It 
did not always take that turn or quirk. 1 

The field of Ifold 2 forms an irregular polygon. The 
soil is uniformly rich, and Ifold in mediaeval times was in 
consequence one of the demesne-lands in the Manor of 
Painswick. The vegetable mould lies about 10 in. in thick- 
ness, covering a rich ochreous soil full of calcareous freestone 
belonging to the inferior oolite of these hills. Cereals and 
roots form the usual crops raised here. 

The situation is commandingly beautiful in character. 
Immediately south - eastward the ground drops in rich 
sloping orchards to Blakewell with running water. West- 
ward, again, it drops steeply into another watered and 
wooded coombe, while northward it maintains a broad level 
for some four hundred yards before it subsides into lower 
Holcombe. Due southward for four miles the folding hills 
west and east descend into the Painswick and Stroud 
valleys, until the high lands of Rodborough and Minchin- 
hampton superbly close out the southward view. 

Four years ago, being anxious to verify the tradition 
as to Roman remains, by permission of Mr. Bartlett, the 
present enlightened owner of Ifold, I searched the averred 
site of them, and soon picked up with an oyster-shell an 
undoubted piece of Roman brick. The owner later on 
brought me a small coin found there, which proved to be late 
Roman (Roma and the Wolf with twins, bronze), and he 
promised that one day between harvest and ploughing a 
trench should be opened. One thing and another, however, 
prevented this contingency until October 18th, 1903, 
when Mr. Bartlett sent to ask me to come and see some 
holes he had dug in his field, and on my arrival there I 
recognised a portion of a Roman wall, much reddened, as 
Cotteswold and many other stones become by exposure to 

1 The old tithing map, some seventy years old, shows that which 
is now one spacious field as formerly having been three fields. The villa 
remains lay then over a hedge from Ifold Farm. This hedge ran up 
from the angle of hedge and field just adjacent to the site of the Villa. 

2 See plan. 



158 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



fire. It exemplified, in fact, the usual story, i.e. a burned 
villa. It is commonly held that the triumphant Saxons set 
fire to every Romano-British town and villa they met with. 
In many instances this may have been the case, and especially 
where resistance was offered. The amount of timber used 
in these villas was, of course, considerable, and some 
destructions by fire may well have been accidental. At any 
rate, here was a fresh example. The courtesy of the 
proprietor permitted me to begin examination by means 
of pick and spade without further delay. This continued 
until mid-January, 1904. 

On October 20th we started following the exposed 
portion of a wall with a trench 2 ft. 6 in. wide, and within 
2 ft. from the surface we came upon quantities of finely-cut 
hexagonal stone 1 slats 18 in. in length, with large iron nails 
still remaining in the head-holes. This wall runs from north 
to south. 2 Within two hours from commencement we had 
cleaned corners N.E. and S.E. of a chamber, 3 which 
proved to be isolated, measuring 10 ft. 6 in. by 9 ft. 6 in., 
full of burned timber and debris, with rough pottery be- 
longing to kitchen utensils, including a portion of a cullender 
and a bottom of a red-glazed pot having a good potter's 
stamp designed as a wheel of eight spokes, such as has 
been found in Gallo-Roman remains not infrequently, and 
measuring fin. in diameter. Between the spokes are round 
dots (see Fig. I.). A cold chisel 6 in. long, with a blade 
breadth of fin., next turned up, and several more iron 
nails. In the course of the day was found also a tile 
J$ in. thick bearing a greenish-yellow glaze (often regarded 
as mediaeval, but in reality Roman also), with some 
fragments of pale - yellow pottery with external black 
glaze. The fire which had prevailed had burned with 
especial fierceness here ; slats and stones lay thick in a 
general bed of sooty soil. Small lumps of ' opus signinum' 
also occurred ; but whenever the spade reached the floor- 
level mortar - gravel was found without pavement. The 
1 Forest stone. 2 No. 1 on plan. 3 No. 1 on plan. 




I FOLD. FLUE-TILE, STAMPED R(es) P(ublica) G(levensium). 



The Painswick or Ifold Villa. 



159 



paving flags, if any were here, had therefore been removed. 
On the east side of the room, however, three or four broken 
flags were cleared in site, with a drain-hole running out 
through the wall (south) between two of them. A few 
animals' bones occurred above them 'belonging to pigs and 
sheep, and some oyster shells. The walls in most parts 
had been destroyed to the footings. The west wall was nearly 
obliterated. Slightly north of the middle, in the east wall, 
a well-defined rough step and doorway, much burned, was 
cleared, and work was continued forthwith outside (east) 
the latter. The measurement of this isolated room proved to 
be 10 ft. 6 in. N. — S. by 9 ft. 6 in. E. — W., with a uniform 
wall-thickness of 1 ft. 5 in. 

As the ground falls gently westward and southward over 
the entire site it was to be expected that where parts of the 
Villa must have cropped out, ploughing operations during 
centuries, and general exposure, must have destroyed them 
considerably; for the superficial soil would naturally become 
thinner over these, and the ploughshares will have torn the 
stones out of position, scored and scattered them. 

Next day and the following gave work, for the stone 
slats (19 in. by 11^- in.) lay very thickly, and the walling 
stones lay everywhere scattered among them. At 6 ft. east 
beyond the doorway (No. 2) a rough but well-set pavement 
of large cobbles was now met with lying in situ, on the top 
of which lay a neat mortarium (quern), 13 in. diameter, 
upside under, and its exposed side (bottom) only was brightly 
reddened by the action of fire, but its other side not at all, as 
if the fire had passed and burned over it. It was unbroken, 
well-formed, and showed a shallow pouring lip. 1 It has a 
depth of 4 in., and its inner depression measures 1 in. At 
8 ft. east was found a satisfactory 2 ft. wall running north and 
south (No. 3). The cobble-pavement, being now cleared, 
gave out at 7 ft. southward. As it presented a fairly well- 
laid appearance, albeit rough, it was to be recognised as late 
Romano-British work. Lifting a portion of it, when com- 
1 See photo of group of objects, III. 



160 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

pletely cleared and swept, numbers of the original large 
hexagonal tiles were lying beneath it, while a little below 
these again were found patches (in site) Of a mosaic pavement 
composed of black tesserae of three sizes. 1 Other tesserae 
were wanting, so that considerable alterations in the floor 
had taken place here. Animal bones were plentiful, but 
only, as before, in the upper debris. 

This fresh wall (No. 3) was presently followed both north 
and south, and it proved to measure 41 ft., having sharp 
angles at each extremity showing walls running due west, 
like those of a small court. A fragment of a curved stone 
chair-back (?) was met with here. 

At a distance — 3 ft. north of the above-mentioned cobble- 
pavement, in the debris, and slightly above it in level — lay 
portions of a stone column (No. 4), with collarino and typical 
cap "all of a piece" with it, having a diameter of gin. 
(see Fig. IV.) : that is to say, it has been turned on a lathe. 
Four feet further north, and slightly west, beyond the 
angle of the previously-explored room, a well-worn large 
flag of hard grey argillaceous stone lay in site (No. 5), 
and still further in line (north) with it, at a distance of 
6 ft., were two more like it. These lay firmly fixed in 
rammed gravel above virgin soil. Between them lay (not 
in site) the much-burned' but distinct base of the former 
column. 2 No mosaic appeared hereabouts. The flags 
presented well-cut sides, but there came to light no more 
than these three. The north end of this area, there- 
fore, had been paved with lias flags, while further south 
it had been paved with dark tesserae. This might indicate 
that while some portion of it was closed in from the 
weather originally, some portion was also purposely exposed 
to it. 

Beyond this the northern wall of this area, or court, 
brought its western extremity (No. 6), a spur-wall, almost 

1 Here occurred fragments of a patera (black) with diameter 6 t 7 q in. 

2 10^ in. by io§ in. with a depth of 6| in., and plinth-depth i\ in. ; 
the upper surface much reddened with fire. 



4 




>' 

i 



The Painswick or Ifold Villa. 



161 



into a line with the eastern wall of the isolated room 
at some 12 ft. to north of it. It rises in three courses 
of well-cut stones above its footing (see Fig. V.), and 
measures in thickness 2 ft. (with footing 2 ft. 6 in.). Another 
object now met with was a large fragment 18^ in. by 9!- in. 
of a quadrangular stone bearing (raised along its circum- 
ference) a deep, sharply-moulded cornice, or frame, as if to 
contain an inscription ; no lettering, however, appeared upon 
it. A second and smaller fragment was found later on near 
by ; but, although presenting the same mouldings, this gave 
no further indication of lettering. It must have measured as 
much as 2 ft. 6 in. by. 2 ft., if indeed it was not square when 
intact. Near this lay a small oblong box-like tank, likewise 
of stone, measuring u^ft. by 8 in., with an exterior depth of 
6 in. and an interior of 5 in. 

Many iron nails, some of great size (gin.), and of three 
varieties, were found; a boar's tusk, and abundance of snails 
[Helix nemorosa). None of these latter were of the kind 
usually called Roman snails [Helix pomatia). The presence 
of clusters of these oolitic snails (white, with a banded 
reddish spiral) of varying sizes, in pockets of soil, strongly 
suggested their hybernation, perhaps in days when the ruins 
were still covered with overgrowth. 

On October 22nd, trenching eastward beyond the upper, 
or northern, angle of this court, and following on, a wall was 
found going due east (No. 7), but it gave out at 9 ft., showing 
signs as of a deliberate uprooting. On the way to that point 
more fragments of a small (9 in.) lathe-turned verandah 
column were found (No. 8). It lay parallel (south) with the 
wall then being followed. These small columns, perhaps, 
point to a low parapet-wall upon which they stood supporting 
a tiled lean-to roof, facing westward. Unfortunately (for 
want of further evidence) the inter-columniations cannot be 
determined. 

Examining the breach of continuity in this last wall, 
evidences showed that a 1 ft. 8 in. wall had turned sharp 
northward at this point (No. 9). This indicated the near 

12 

Vol. XXVII. 



162 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



presence of a room of considerable size. Turning direct 
north, then, to follow the line of that vanished wall, red tesserae 
soon began to show in site lying in a clean, inviting line,. 
19 in. below the surface. Here, therefore, is a room with a 
mosaic floor. The trench was carefully continued for 10 ft. 
more, until no tesserae showed themselves on our left. In 
the afternoon another trench was made so as to follow around 
the west end of the north court wall. We then worked in 
eastward, so as to follow that wall on its north side. Having 
reached the set-off of another broken wall running north at 
4 ft. from that western extremity, or spur, it became clear 
that on the other side of that wall lay the rest of the chamber 
containing the above mosaic floor. This must have measured, 
consequently, 15 ft. in length, W. — E. 

The mosaic was laid bare (after cautiously skinning the 
entire surface for 14 in.), at a depth of 19 in. But most of 
the western half of it had disappeared, and in place of 
a portion of it, in this side, had been laid down a large 
patch of rough cobbles bordered E. — W. by a line of upright 
stones, such as cattle-stalls are provided with. The bedding,, 
or * rudus,' of the mosaic near it had been trampled out 
of recognition and stained black with, probably, animal 
(drainage) matter. At 6 ft. eastward, however, the mosaic 
began to take up well in larger patches, showing good design 
(see Fig. VI.) ; and in direct contact with it, at one point, lay 
half of the skull of an adult pig. The rest of the room 
was cleared, and the nature of the mosaic discovered 
itself to be of combined geometric and scroll type, having 
a broad chequer border at the east end (in small red 
and white squares), measuring 2 ft. 3 in. in width, and that 
was further bound in by a tnin band of larger red tesserae, 
three deep ; the whole being set in a bedding of soft cement 
3 in. thick. The tesserae used here are of three sizes, 
the largest measuring xlths of an inch square; the next, 
I in. ; and the smallest, 1 in. square. Fat and exceedingly 
long earthworms (11 in.) came up where the tesserae were 
wanting. The colours used in the mosaic were three only — 




5 



The Painswick or Ifold Villa. 



163 



blue, red, and white, made of lias, tile, and Painswick stone 
(see coloured Fig. I.), 

It seemed evident that much of the destruction of this 
floor may have been wrought by animals ; and much also by 
the heavy stones and tiles which 'had fallen upon some 
portions of it. Among these lay fragments of fallen 
'intonaco,' excellent in thickness (2^- in.) and firmness of 
make, having a white ground decorated in panels, with 
bright red bands (width 1 in.). Few objects, save animals' 
bones and teeth, were met with, and the iron sheath of a 
dagger or long knife. The north wall of this room proved 
to be entirely destroyed ; but the edge of the mosaic never- 
theless remained quite clear. The spoiler had only required 
building stone ready-made. Judging from this and the soft 
layer spread over the mosaic itself, I should conjecture that 
much stone has been removed methodically from the site at 
no distant period : possibly to build the neighbouring farm. 

The room measured 15 ft. E. — W. by 10 ft. N. — S. 
Evidences of fire again became prominent, though the pave- 
ment itself nowhere showed them ; but only the upper soil, 
as if, perhaps, later wooden sheds which may have taken 
its place, rather than the original room, had been so des- 
troyed. The lumps of ( intonaco ' (wall plaster) were none 
of them blackened, and their well-mixed colours are still 
vivid. 1 

Beyond the ' mosaic ' room, and adjoining it northward 
(No. 10), the concrete bedding of a portion of floor only 
told of another room (No. 11), perhaps of like size; similar 
traces eastward from this, in shallowing ground, told of yet 
another but smaller one. One of these had been supplied 
with a flue from a hypocaust. So far. there was met no 
trace of any apsidal chamber. 

1 It may be of use to remind those whom it may concern not to obey 
the .rather natural 'instinct' to throw water on a newly-found mosaic. 
It is' often done in order, it is hoped, to clean and make it discover its 
design. As the setting-bed or < nidus' is invariably soft, the water 
loosens further still the only apparently firm tesserae, and they come away 
from the design upon the slightest provocation, or on the bottom of the 
workman's shoes. 



164 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



It now became roughly possible to estimate the breadth 
of that which is evidently the western wing of the Villa at 
32 ft.; and to mark, once for all, that most of the flags of the 
court on this side had been taken away ; that the roofing 
tiles had fallen apparently after this ; that still later owners 
repaved portions of it over these fallen slates, &c, who still 
used the Roman querns ; and that these folk and their suc- 
cessors kept plenty of cattle, oxen, sheep, and pigs, in 
whatever parts of the building they could conveniently 
turn into sheds, and probably slaughtered them on the spot ; 
finally, that these sheds had been burned, and perhaps some 
of the cattle in them. The Villa, therefore, would seem to 
have experienced many vicissitudes. That, apparently, is its 
historic outline. The latest recognisable coin found there 
belongs to Constantine the Great (a.d. 312-336). 

Meanwhile the court was explored to its southern end 
(No. 12), and two openings in its wall, much-torn, but 
possibly both of them doorways, were found; one at 13 ft. 
from the north end, the other at 6 ft. from the south end. 
At 41 ft. the southern angle was caught sharply-defined, and 
its (still) 2-ft. wall being now followed westward, finally 
gave out to a narrow opening at 3 ft. 6 in. It then took 
up for 2 ft. more, and gave out with another slightly wider, 
but sharp, opening (see plan). This E. to W. wall ended in 
-an isolated 2-ft. square base. But 1 ft. east of this a 2-ft. 
wail (No. 13) was encountered running to S., that is at right 
angles to it, which soon terminated in a large buttress 
immediately south of us. This buttress - base footing 
measures 3 ft. in width, E. — W., and is 6 ft. 10 in. in length. 
Three courses of it remain. From it a 2-ft. wall holds out 
straight northward for 9 ft., travelling toward the isolated 
chamber first-explored. It, however, proved never to have 
continued so far as that chamber. Its termination, as found, 
corresponded with the southernmost doorway of the court- 
wall. 

The wall of the court then examined immediately east of 
the exposed buttress, travelled for 10 ft. 6 in. beyond the 




! 



The Painswick or Ifold Villa. 



165 



north to south wall, and it then also turned northward, but 
soon became obliterated in the shallow soil. The shallowness 
of the soil here, and the action of the plough, had almost 
destroyed it within 3 ft. of the above turning. 

Here were found a piece of the lip of a vase of whitish 
pottery, painted red, and a fragment of a column smaller in 
diameter by 2 in. than the previous example, thus measuring 
but 7 in. instead of gin. in diam. Traces of construction, 
however, extend still east of this in the shallow soil, together 
with occasional tiles and oyster shells. But nothing is quite 
determinable there owing to the aforesaid ooliteration and 
scattering. 

It is clear that a buttress of large size must have backed 
the all-important south wall of the court. No trace of 
any important or wide entrance to the building was found 
hereabouts, but merely that of a postern. 1 The remainder 
of the south wall has disappeared. 

The chambers above-described in the eastern side of the 
Villa, proving to have been destroyed (although remains of a 
wall at the northern extremity of the wing gave the full 
length of the Villa as 105 ft. N. to S.), it now became 
necessary to look for the western side of it. This was found 
(No. 14) on November 16th by striking a trench E. to W. 
in virgin soil at a guess, and reaching a N. to S. wall 
with, fortunately, but little waste of labour. This wall 
proved to measure 2 ft. in thickness, and it was met with 
close to where it takes an acute turn eastward. Having 
caught that angular turn at our immediate north, we 
first of all followed it southward. At 20 ft. 4 in. south of 
this turn occurred a corresponding turn (No. 15) also directed 
eastward. This lay in line with the N. wall of the isolated 
room first explored. At 9 ft. 6 in., nevertheless, this again 
turned off sharp southward (No. 16), finally gave out at 13 ft., 
and could not be traced further (No. 17). Turning now to 

1 About twenty yards south, on the lower edge of the sloping field, 
after rain the ground becomes quagmire, evidently from a spring. 
Exploration there will probably discover the water-supply of the Villa, 
perhaps a well. None was found within the Villa itself. 



166 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



work the inner side of these walls, it became evident that 
the tiles which lay so thickly were not of the same dimensions 
with those formerly met with in the eastern side of the Villa, 
though made of the same material and having the large- 
headed iron nails remaining in the stud-holes. Numbers 
of these tiles are perfect, and measure i6£ in. in length 
by 10^ in. in width. Here could faintly be traced foundations 
of the walls of three small rooms. 

The breadth of the Villa (as at present remaining) is 
found to be 63 ft. It is a small villa of irregular 'courtyard' 
type. The first room explored stood out entirely isolated, 
surrounded and surveyed by segments of long and short 
verandahs, indenting an unsymmetrical courtyard. 

Taking the north side of the W. to E. wall (No. 14) 
and following it at 8 ft. eastward a clean-cobbled pavement 
(No. 18) was encountered, and at it ft. (No. 19) a clear 
passage, 2 ft. in width, interrupted the wall. At one foot 
eastward of this, after having met with several lumps of 
' opus signinum ' (some presenting a half-round moulding), 
a well-preserved bath (No. 20), made of the same material, 
was cleared, measuring 4 ft. 10 in. N. to S. by 4 ft. E. to W., 
and having its floor made of a large single slab of dark 
micaceous slate, and its sides more or less perfect, smooth 
inside, to the height of 16 in. Across the wall south of 
it was found the red drain pipe (No. 21) belonging to it. 
A half-round moulding travelled around the base of the bath, 
and masses of broken ' signinum ' lay within it. 

North of it, as we proceeded eastward, quantities of 
coloured and striped wall-plaster occurred, both blue, red, 
and white, with purple stripe, also a large splash of lead 
and portions of pots of various makes and sizes, including 
a fragment of an Aretine (terra sigillata) lid. The level of 
the bath inside stood 10 in. above the cobbled pavement 
upon which the structure rises. 

Next this bath eastward occurred the solid 1 concreted 

1 Solid, that is to say, to considerably above the level of the floor of 
the adjacent bath (i.e. 1 ft.). Villas so situated were probably well 
furnished with rain-water tanks. 




VII. 



I FOLD. HYPOCAUST No. 26. 




I FOLD. HYPOCAUST, No. 27. 



i 



The Painswick or Ifold Villa. 



167 



iDase (No. 22) of a square construction, well-built, and possibly 
made for the purpose of carrying a tank for rain-water. Beside 
it (north) were found an Upchurch vase 1 without handles. 
The tiles met with hereabouts were, of the smallest or third 
size found, measuring but 14 in. by 9 in. Here were turned 
up nineteen voussoir-like cakes of concrete ; also portions 
of a spheroidal stone weight reddened by fire externally, 
but having a finely-smoothed surface and a diameter of 3 in. 
It is made of pebble belonging to the inferior lias of the 
Severn valley. Beyond the supposed tank-turr occurred 
-another bath (No. 23) quite similar to the former one, except 
that in this the entire floor was likewise made of 'opus 
signinum,' which was unbroken. It showed the same half- 
round moulding. 

Immediately east, adjoining this, was now laid bare a 
space 9 ft. by 10 ft. paven (No. 24) with thin large slabs of 
brown slate-like stone, bound in on the east by a wall running 
north and south. 

Here, therefore, in a band across the centre of the villa lie 
its baths ; and the abundance of tiles and sooty material told 
that the hypocaust must be close at hand to the north of 
these. These baths seem to have been entered on the south 
from the courtyard. 

Work being resumed next day at a projecting angle close 
to the easternmost bath, a good wall (No. 25) was found, 
and followed along northward for 18 ft., until it gave out. 
Turning to examine it inside (eastward), I presently found 
myself standing within an apsidal chamber (No. 26) with 
stone pilae, more or less broken, and abundant soot. The pilae 
are squared white monoliths just 2 ft. in height. Following 
round the southern curve of the apsis, the wall soon turned oft 
sharply and led me into a second and parallel apsis (No. 27) 
of similar dimensions, being 7 ft. wide by 6 ft. in depth. In 
the latter, side by side with its fellow, the pilae were all 

1 Height, 5^ in. ; diam. top rim, 4$ in. ; diam. base, 2| in. ; circum- 
ference of widest bulge, 15 in. wide. Colour, yellow-washed, with black 
core. 



i68 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



standing untouched, and on the tops of some were square brick 
tiles. To this communicated a low-arched entrance (No. 28) 
for the hot air to pass between the two central (or easternmost) 
pilas. Here was found a crumpled-up, thin, pewter-pot, handle, 
neck, and base ; a dented piece of chalk, 1 4^- in. long, 3^ in. wide, 
and 2 in. thick, together with the rim of a Durobrivian pot, with 
white applied scroll ornament ; a little red-painted vase, 4 in. 
high (Fig. III.) ; two hinge-bands (iron), 7 in. by £ in., 7|- in. by 
1 in. ; a fragment of a tiny column made of ' opus signinum,' 
painted white with a blue stripe ; many fragments of plaster 
(intonaco), having three parallel bands of red, purple, and' 
light blue, divided from one another by white lines, thinner 
between the red and purple and thicker between purple and 
blue, the main ground being pure white. 

Some tiles from the hypocaust measure 16 in. by nf-in. 
Here also were found two flange-tiles, bearing clearly 
impressed the hollow letters R. P. G. (Respublica Glevensium, 2 
i.e. Commonwealth of Glevum) (Fig. II.), and on the back of 
one the marks of the factor's fifteen-toothed metal comb. 

The hypocaust being cleared and photographed, the 
flue, furnace-pit, and stokehole (No. 29) were sought and 
found — the latter northward at a distance of 30 ft., as 
indicated in the plan. Eastward from the hypocaust two 
flues ran to what may have been a triclinium or dining- 
hall (No. 10), next the mosaic-room. West of the hypocaust 
numbers of large tiles occurred, and also the neck and 
one handle of a two-handled glass decanter 4^- in. in 
height, which has miraculously escaped (see Fig. I.). 
Besides these were found a large perforated grindstone 
and another stone quern 3 (the darker one in photographic 

1 Chalk was used by the Romans for whitening shoes and garments, 
and for keeping talleys, as well as for marking slaves, and victims, ' Hostia.' 

2 It may be well to recall here the inscription which shows that 
Glevum was colonised by Nerva : D.M. M. Vlpio Ner. Quinto Glevi 
mil. fr. Leg. vi. v. Calidivs Quietvs Collega Fratri Observato 
Piisimo B.M.F.C. (Corpus Ins. Lat. vi. 3346). It is interesting to note 
how the little communities of even distant provincial centres clung to the 
old style. 

3 Mortarium. 



The Painswick or Ifold Villa. 169 

group of objects), and a pot studded within with broken 
pebbles for a similar purpose. 

At 16 ft. 6 in. west (the virgin soil cropping up higher 
and higher owing to not having been dug out here for founda- 
tions, and probably forming the small vestibulum), a dry 
wall N. — S. (the only one met with) was found (No. 30) 
and followed northward. It led to a spot 30 ft. distant 
from the cross-wall behind (south of) the baths, where were 
two large rough slabs 3 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 3 in. of forest stone 
(No. 31). One lay flat and one stood on end; perhaps 
used once for door-stones, but, as found, suggesting a grave. 
Near by these lay an octagonal stone base (No. 32), 18 in. 
diameter, of Painswick stone, carrying (made with it in one) 
a portion of a column 9^ in. diameter, and drilled (not in 
the centre) with an octagonal hole designed for a rod or 
thin post. 

It is probable the Villa was entered here from a track at its 
northern end by a door ; but if that was the case the plough 
has obliterated all but the barest traces of it as well as of the 
track which led down from what is now Holcombe, to it. 

Bones, teeth, and shells of the following animals 
were found: — 

Mussel (Mytilus edulis). 

Snails {Helix nemovalis and Helix vufescens). 

Whelk (Buccinum undatum). 

Oyster (Ostvea edulis), large and small. 

Stag {Cervus elephas), points of antler. 

Goat (Capm hircus), a horn- core and fragmentary skull. 

Horse (Equus caballus), jawbones, teeth and ribs. 

Pig (Sus scrofa), jaw, teeth, feet-bones and thigh- 
bones ; and impression of feet on a brick. 

Sheep (Ovis aries), several bones and two jaws. 

Dog (Canis familiaris), teeth and bones. 

Badger (Meks), teeth and cranium. 

Weasel (Mustela vulgaris), vertebrae and teeth. 
Bronze Objects. A thin scale with a small hole in it, 
1 in. by i£ in., but with only one true edge. 



17° Transactions for the Year 1904. 

Two coins — Helmeted Roma ; reverse, the wolf and 
twins. Constantinus (small bronze), Securitas (?) 
(or Felicitas) Augusti. 
WrNDow-GLASS. Two small fragments. 
Lead and Pewter. A mass of splashed lead, and a small 
pewter-pot with triangular-moulded handle. 

Base diameter, 2\ in., slightly domed. 
Height, 5i-in. 

Mouth diameter, i\ in,, with spout-lip. 

Handle, 3-sided, ^in., tapering to top. 

Thickness of metal, 1 m,m. 
Worked Bone. One or two fragments showing traces 
of workmanship, but of no determinable purpose. 
Beads. Six coloured and perforated glass-beads. 
Iron. Hinge-bands — 

(1) 7 in. by fin. 

(2) 7|-in. by 1 in. 

(3) 1 of in. by i£in. 

A perfect thin horse-shoe ring ending in pierced loops from 
which hangs an iron single and a double or triangular link 5 
the former passed through the latter. Ring measures 4 in. 
by 3f in. Perhaps for tying a horse or a serf to in a yard. 

The scarcity of coins and fibulae is remarkable. 

A gold ring and other objects were found here in 1868, 
but have been lost beyond tracing. Rumour has it also that 
coins were found, but they are not traceable. One, a gold 
solidus of Valentinian, was offered here four years back as 
having come from Ifold, but I did not see reason then to credit 
this. 

It is likely that as adjuncts to the villa there were 
barns or farm buildings. These will be searched for another 
year with the owner's permission. They should be on the 
eastern side of it. Search on the western side proved 
useless. The present farm stands but eighty yards from the 
rustic-villa. 

It is noteworthy that in this Villa all the older materials 
were of good make: the colours, the bricks, the 'opus signinum,' 



The Painswick or Ifold Villa. 171 

the tesseras and mosaic design, and the walls ; doubtless 
the timbering corresponded. The wall-mortar was every- 
where finely sifted. As far as could be disclosed, no wall 
once built had been altered or re-erected. Only one ' dry ' 
wall, a poor one, was found. With the pavements, as shewn, 
this was not always the case. 

Everything was either good or bad, there was no third 
character in it. And the general type of the workmanship, 
together with the letters on the bricks, gave the impression 
that the Ifold villa may be classed as a probably late second- 
century Romano-British villa. It is admittedly a difficult 
matter to obtain necessary elements for forming a comparative 5 
standard of style whereby to distinguish precise periods in 
provincial Roman art. Had this; Villa been in Italy, its 
character in materials might have denoted a slightly earlier 
date ; so good are these. 

The most telling feature, perhaps, gathered by ' the 
excavator out of this exploration is the care with which the^ 
courtyard portions had been tiled with regard to effect. We 
.have, from three separate portions, of lessening dimensions, 
the three following stone tiles found in them : — f 

Court (East), length 41 ft. ; size 19 in. by l i^-in. tile. 
,, (West) ,, 18 ft. ; „ 'i6£in. by lojin.. tile. 
,, ,, 10 ft. ; ,, 14 in. by 9 in. tile. 

The nail-holes occur invariably to the left of the median 
line of the tile. No wooden pegging as used to-day was^ 
employed, but only iron nails of varying size. 

The interesting occurrence of stamped bricks belonging 
to the Colonia of Glevum may be due to various causes; 
(1) The owner may have contracted with workmen from 
that city; or (2) he was an official himself of that Colonia f 
or (3) the territorium of Glevum may, for peculiar reasons, 
have extended so far as to include the valuable quarry and 
forest-lands of Painswick ; or (4) he may have bought from 
the city-yards. 



ON SOME GLOUCESTERSHIRE MANUSCRIPTS 

NOW IN 

HEREFORD CATHEDRAL LIBRARY. 



By LANGTON E. G. BROWN. 

So many chances have contributed to scatter and destroy the 
contents of mediaeval libraries, that it seems worth while to- 
record any MSS. whose history can still be traced, with a 
view to the formation of catalogues of all existing MSS. of 
each locality ; for while the architectural relics of the out- 
ward life of the past can mostly be studied on the spot, the 
MSS. which preserve its inner life and thoughts must often 
be sought in distant libraries, and without such a catalogue 
their existence may be unknown to the local antiquaries, who 
would find them of most service. 

As a contribution to such a catalogue of Gloucestershire 
MSS. I have tried to describe some now preserved in our 
Cathedral Library, two of which formerly belonged to 
Gloucester Abbey, four or five to its daughter house, St. 
Guthlac's, Hereford, and one each to the Gloucester Fran- 
ciscans and the Flaxley Cistercians. I hope in later papers 
to describe sixteen MSS. that belonged to the Austin Canons 
of Cirencester, and were in many cases written by them ; 
and also two works by Gloucester authors — "Seventeen 
Epistles of Gilbert Foliot, Abbot of Gloucester, afterwards 
Bishop of Hereford and of London " (published from other 
MSS. in Giles' edition of his Epistles), contained in our MS. 
P. i. 15 ; and the " Panormia or Latin Dictionary of Osbern, 
Monk of Gloucester," contained in P. v. 5 : the former of 
these MSS. belonged to the Hereford Franciscans, the 
latter to the Abbeydore Cistercians. 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



173 



The history of the Flaxley MS. is partly shown by its 
inscriptions; how the others came into our library is 
unknown. I can only suppose that the two books of 
Gloucester Abbey had been transferred to its dependency, 
St. Guthlac's, and the book of the /Gloucester Franciscans 
to the Franciscan house at Hereford (many of whose MSS. 
are in our library). Such transfers of books to neighbouring 
houses of the same Order must have frequently occurred. 
Then at the dissolution of the monasteries in Hereford some 
of their books may have been brought to the Cathedral Library, 
as the nearest remaining public library ; for Hereford was 
never a monastic cathedral, so the dissolution did not affect 
its library, which, though despoiled of its service-books at the 
Reformation, and perhaps of other more "Popish" books, 
remained otherwise undisturbed till it was removed to the 
Ladye Chapel, increased and rearranged early in James I.'s 
reign. Since then the MSS. have remained substantially 
untouched in their mediaeval bookcase, with the chains 
which were probably put on them when they were brought 
to the library, except that some of the more dilapidated 
books have been rebound, and the whole collection removed 
early in last century, when the Ladye Chapel was restored, 
to a chamber above the Cantilupe shrine in the North 
Transept, and again in 1897 to the present upper library, a 
room built for them over part of the Western Cloister by the 
generous bequest of the Rev. W. F. Powell, honorary canon 
of Gloucester. 

The following table will give the best general idea of the 
outward appearance of these MSS. Those marked * have 
modern bindings ; the others, though they may have been 
repaired and resewn internally, are still in their plain, 
ancient covers — boards covered with whitish skin, usually 
with some brief title on the side or back. The back of 
O. iii. 1 terminates in small flaps; the sides of O. v. 5 are 
slightly bevelled or rounded. Most apparently had two 
clasps, though only O. iii. 1 still retains them. All have 
chains fixed to the side edge of the cover, so they are 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



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Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



175 



placed in the shelves upright with their edges, not their 
backs, visible. 

The shelf mark shows the bookcase, shelf, and volume. 
In counting the leaves I have not reckoned modern paper 
flyleaves, nor leaves now stuck tcf the cover, nor mere 
fragments of torn leaves. As to the dates I have not the 
experience to speak confidently, but have tried to give a 
probable conjecture. 

O. hi. 1, which (except the index) is ruled with merely 
indented lines (not like the others with the marks of a piece 
of lead), looks the oldest of the MSS., then P. iii. 2 ; they 
are written in bold, plain round hands, with initials red or 
green, mostly plain. P. iii. 5 is in various very small crabbed 
hands, with plain red or occasionally green initials ; the 
general form of the letters somewhat resembles that of the 
twelfth century, but I think it may be early thirteenth from 
the closeness and rigidity of the writing. In O. v. 1 and 
P. vi. 1 the large, bold round hand of the twelfth century 
has received greater finish and something of the Gothic 
spirit ; the former, with blue, brown, green, and red initials, 
I should guess rather before 1200, the latter from its beautiful 
scalloped and decorated red and blue initials is perhaps 
rather after that date. O. i. 2 is certainly not later than 
1228, probably not much earlier; its writing is small, close, 
rather round and neat; its red and blue initials show the 
decorative pen flourishes of the period, which are more 
elaborate and beautiful in P. iv. 5, a finely-written MS. 
certainly before 1273. As to O. v. 5 and O. iii. 3, I am more 
uncertain; the former, by far the finest of these MSS., both 
in the minute beauty of its illuminated initials, in which 
deep blue predominates, and the delicate thinness of its 
vellum, is bound not in quires of eight leaves as the others 
usually are, but of sixteen or sometimes twelve leaves, yet 
the quires feel no thicker than in the earlier books. It also 
differs from the others in which only the quires are numbered, 
usually on the lower edge of the last page, with a roman 
numeral, or as P. iii. 2 with a letter, and catchword ; whereas 



176 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



in O. v. 5 each leaf is numbered in arabic figures in the 
lower margin of its first page or recto in the space between 
the columns, and often just above is the number of the quire 
in roman numerals. The small, close, book-hand of this 
MS., just like a miniature reproduction of a handsome 
black-letter page, and the rich minuteness of its initials are 
so well proportioned that it looks like a handsome folio, and 
yet it gets the entire treatise of Gregory on Job into quite a 
moderate-sized volume, comparing well with our India-paper 
volumes both in beauty, neatness, and conciseness. O. iii. 3 
is also written on fine white vellum, in quires of twelve 
leaves — once of sixteen; otherwise it is a contrast to O. v. 5. 
Its initials are left blank (as often happened, perhaps when 
a community had not got a skilful illuminator). Its writing, 
though fairly regular and black, is rather more cursive in 
style, and there is a total absence of decoration ; in fact, it 
was a book for study, not for luxury, the only one among 
these MSS. that represents the literature of the later school- 
men. I do not know whether it is thirteenth or fourteenth 
century; otherwise all these MSS. seem to range between 
1 100 and about 1300, and most of them probably between 
1 1 50 and 1250, a period apparently of great literary activity 
in this part of the world, and unusually well represented in 
our library ; a time when the monasteries founded or re- 
organised during, the century after the Conquest had grown 
to full vigour and still retained the energy of their first 
impulse. 

I have tried to give first a general account of the appear- 
ance of the MSS. to save much needless repetition, and 
also because the peculiarities of some of them seemed to 
come out most clearly in such a comparison. All are on 
vellum, thick and with many flaws in the older books, but 
usually surprisingly clean and well preserved. P. iii. 2 is 
imperfect at the end, and P. iii. 5 in many places, handfuls 
having been torn out ; the others, I think, are perfect. 

I may observe that the books of Gloucester Abbey prefer 
the form Gloucestria or Glocestria in their inscriptions, 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



177 



while the Franciscan book speaks of Glovernia. Similarly, 
.St. Guthlac's is spelt in various ways : Guthlacii, Guthlaci, 
Gutlaci, Gudlaci. 

O. iii. 1 is inscribed on its last page: "Liber abb^ie 
beati petn Gloucestr. a quo et a dfb maledicatwr qui cum 
alienaumt et defnmdaumt. Fiat, fiat." Inside its first cover 
is a spiral leaf-scroll and some scribbling ; inside its end 
cover, " No. 15." On the y of the first flyleaf begins a sort 
of index, perhaps thirteenth century, continued on the next 
page, the nr of which contains the original table of contents- 
incomplete, for in the text the first six treatises had only 
blank spaces left for their titles, the first and sixth of which 
a later hand filled "in, and the compiler of the table of 
contents probably took the first four treatises to be one 
book; also he lumped together the sermons at the end, and 
overlooked one of Augustine's treatises, which a later hand 
added. The actual contents are as follows : — 

(a) Libri Prosperi contra Pelagianam Hevesim. 

[1. Epistola de gratia et libero arbitrio, in St. Augus- 
tine's works, Migne's edition, torn, x., col. 1793. 

ii. Prosperi Responsiones ad Capitula calumniantium 

Gailorum, torn, x., col. 1833. 

iii. Prosperi Responsiones ad Capitula objectionum 

Vincentianarum, torn, x., col. 1843. 

iv. Prosperi Responsiones ad excerpta quae de Genu- 

ensi civitate sunt missa, torn, x., col. 1849.] 

(b) Item Augustini Ad Octo Questiones Dulcitii [torn, vi., 

col. 147] . 

vi. Idem de Predestinatione Sanctorum [ = sixth book 
of the Hypomnesticon ; torn, x., col. 1657]. 
[vii.] Idem de Vera Religione [torn, iii., col. 121]. 
[viii.] Idem de Gratia et libero Arbitrio, ad Valentinum 
monachum [torn, x., col. 881]. 

(c) Sevmones eiusdem et Origenis et Eusebii, de Nativitate et 
Circumcisione et Epiphania Domini. 
[ix. Sermo beati Augustini episcopi de Natiuitate 
I 3 

Vol. XXVII. 



i 7 8 



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Domini, incipit Quis tantarum rerum . . 

Sermon cxxi. in Appendix to torn, v., 
col. 1987. 

x. Incipit Dominus noster Iesus Christus . . . 
= Sermon cxxviii. in Appendix to torn, v., 
col. 1997. 

xi. Incipit Clementissimus pater omnipotens Deus cum 
doleret seculum cenulentis erroribus inuolutum 
... (s. 76 ; Mai nova P.P. Bibl. i. 150.) 

xii. Incipit Hodie Veritas orta est, Christus . . . 

= Sermon cxcu., torn, v., col. 1011. 

xiii. Incipit Verbum patris, per quod . . . = Sermon 

cxci., torn, v., col. 1009. 

xiv. Incipit Hodiernus dies ad habendam . . . 

= Sermon ccclxx., torn, v., col. 1657. 

xv. Sermo Eusebii in Natali Domini, incipit Audiuimus 

prophetam de natiuitate . . . (Augustini, s. 138; 
Mai Bibl. nova P.P. i. 323.) 

xvi. Sermo Origenis de Circumcisione Domini, incipit 

Quod mortuus est Christus, peccato mortuus 
est . . . (Horn. xiv. in Lucam, interpr. Hier- 
onymo ; 26, 246.) 

xvii. Allocutio S. Augustini de Epiphania Domini, 

incipit Post miraculum uirginei partus, quo se 
uterus diuino numine . . . 

xviii. Sermo b. Augustini episcopi de Epiphania Domini, 

incipit Ad partum uirginis . . . = Sermon cc, 
torn, v., col. 1028. 
xix. Item Sermo unde supra, incipit Aperiatur hodie 
omne os = Sermon cxxxvm. in Appendix to 
torn, v., col. 2017]. 

Some of the above treatises and sermons are of doubtful 
authorship. 

The MS. seems to consist of three distinct sections, the 
vii th and viii th treatises commencing fresh quires, with more 
decorated titles ; at these places, and before the iv th treatise, 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



179 



a strip of the margin has been knotted to form a marker. 
The initials are chiefly red and light green ; one is mauve, 
one blue ; a few are slightly decorated. 

O. i. 2 is by far the most varied and interesting in its 
contents ; on the top of flyleaf 2, f (flyleaf 1 formerly lined 
the cover), is the inscription : " ~L,iber Thorns de TSredonc 
Abb^is Gloucestvie He became abbot in 1224 and died 
in 1228. On the next page is the contemporary table of 
contents, to which I have made some additions : — 

In hoc uolumine continentur hec que subscripta 
sunt. Omelia [Declamatio] Bernardi Clareual- 
lensis [Gaufridi] super Ecce nos reliquimus 
omnia ... ... ... ... ... ... i. 

Quidam tractatus de Cruce, que sic incipit, 

Circuire possum ... ... ... ... ... ii. 

[Ricardus de S. Victore de Studio Sapientie ... iia.] 

[Sermones quinque anonymi ... ... ... iib. 

Extracts from Augustine: i. from Sermo 130 ; ii. 
from De Vera Religione, cap. 16, sections 30, 31 
(torn. iii. 134); iii. from Sermo 171; iv. from 
Tractatus iv. in Epistolam Joannis ad Parthos, 
cap. 6 (torn. iii. 2008) ; v. from Sermo 304. 

Tractatus [Sermo] Anselmi Cantuar. de 2 Beati- 

tudinibus et 2 Miseriis iii. 

Contemplatio Gregorii Nazareni (sic) reuersi de 

Agro iiii. 

Alquinus de omnibus Virtutibus et Vitiis ... v. 

Sinonima Ysidori Hispalensis episcopi ... ... vi. 

Breues Allegorie super Vetus Testamentum et 

Nouum [? Petri Comestoris] vii. 

Sententia Nouati de humilitate et obedientia ... viii. 

Sermo Sci. Augustini quod nichil est gloria 
mundi, et de penis inferni [58 ad Fratres in 
Eremo; torn. vi. 1341.] ix. 

Sermo eiusdem de humilitate et obedientia [torn. 

vi. 1221.] ... ... ... ... ... ... x. 



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De tribus Habitaculis, Celo, Terra, Inferno [torn. 

vi. 991.] , .. ... xi. 

Anselmus Cantuar [Eadmer] de Similitudinibus xii. 
Meditacio cuiusdam [Alexandri Neekam] de 

Maria Magdalena, sic incipiens, Osculetur me xiii. 
Liber Sancti Augustini de Decern Cordis 

[Chordis — the Decalogue. Sermo 9; torn. v. 75.] xiiii. 
Sermo [Alexandri Neekam], qui sic incipit, 

Verno tempore [solent reges ad bella procedere] xv. 
Exceptiones de Vitas (sic) Patrum ... ... xvi. 

Vita Sancte Marine Virginis ... ... ... xvii. 

De S. Paulo Simplice ... ... ... ... xviii. 

Vita S. Alexii Confessoris ... ... ... ... xix. 

Sermones [xii.] S. Cesarii episcopi [Perhaps 

three by Caesarius, two by Faustus and seven 

by Eusebius.] ... ... ... ... ... xx. 

The contents of this MS. deserve a fuller description 
than I shall give to the others, as some of them are of local 
interest, and, as a whole, they give a particularly good idea 
of the thoughts of the Gloucester monks. Nearly all the 
contents are either moral treatises and exhortations, or 
allegorical interpretations of Holy Scripture, and several 
combine both interests. Evidently the cultivation of the 
monastic virtues occupied most of the attention of the 
cloister — it was a school of character, where the one aim was 
to forsake all earthly motives and to train souls into sanctity. 
Intent on the study of their own lives, they analysed and 
classified virtues and vices, framing schemes of soul-progress 
from the contempt of earthly goods, the repentance and 
abandonment that flung the novice prostrate beneath the 
abbot's will, through the ascetic discipline of self-control, 
chastity, humility, retirement, silence, obedience, to the 
sweetness of spiritual contemplation which was at once the 
perfection and reward of the true monk, as in deathlike self- 
forgetfulness and absorption he gazed in silent rapture on 
the beauty of God. 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. i8r 

This incessant study of morality tended to boredom. In 
fact, religion became -such a bore from being continually 
dwelt upon that monks were more tempted than most men ta 
escape from the conventional religiousness into excessive 
interest in every trifle of meals or farmwork or affairs of 
the monastery, and so the communities formed to quit the 
world for God became at last centres of the most intense 
worldliness. 

Little trace of this is to be found in these early MSS., but 
they show the attempt to beguile the monotony of moral 
exhortations by anecdotes from holy lives, classical quota- 
tions, and, above all, the wildest extravagance of allegorical 
use of Scripture. If "the subject-matter of monastic study 
was the monks' own characters, the textbook was the Bible. 
Perhaps no age has ever been so thoroughly familiar with 
every word of Scripture, or so dexterous in applying it to 
every moral topic. The literal meaning of the words may- 
have entirely escaped notice, for they are often gathered at 
random from every part of the Bible, and patriarchs and 
kings become marvellously ingenious personifications of 
virtues and vices, while Bible narratives are pressed into 
orderly presentations of ethical systems. A good example 
of this, both in the academic neatness of its ethics and the 
arbitrariness of its employment of history, is the treatise 
" De Studio Sapientie," which the scribe did not apparently 
distinguish from the anonymous treatise " De Cruce," which 
precedes it. (The same two treatises are apparently joined in 
another MS., O. ii. 8, where they are anonymous, and follow 
a work by Hugh of S. Victor.) An early pencil note in the 
margin ascribes it to Richard of St. Victor, one of the literary 
glories of Paris in the twelfth century, who followed his 
teacher, Hugh of St. Victor, in the exposition of Scripture 
and the promotion of mystical piety. He takes for his 
subject the history of Jacob's wives and children, which 
becomes in his hands a systematic scheme of the growth of 
virtues in the soul. Leah is natural Affection, Rachel Reason ; 
their handmaids respectively Sensuality and Imagination. 



1 82 



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Leah's sons, Fear, Grief, Hope, and Love, are discussed at 
length; then the handmaids' children, Imagination bearing 
two kinds of " Speculation," while Sensuality, or rather the 
subdual of the Senses, produces Abstinence, Patience, 
Obedience, Praiseworthiness, Discipline of mind and body ; 
then follow Mercy, Joy, Sweetness (inward and outward), 
Strength, Humility. Then the tale of Dinah suggests Zeal, 
Modesty, Caution in punishing sins, Grief and Hope as aids 
to repentance ; after which Rachel's sons, Discretion and 
Contemplation, lead up by self-knowledge, "science," and 
revelation to the contemplation of God. All this is worked 
out with much moral suggestiveness and a close adhesion to 
the narrative. To us the allegory simply confuses and 
burdens the intrinsic interest of the ethical treatise, but 
evidently then it made it more attractive and fixed it in the 
memory. A much larger work of Scripture allegory occupies 
a great part of the volume, the " Short Allegories on the 
Old and New Testament," which is printed among the works 
of Hugh of St. Victor, though Dupin thinks it more probably 
to be ascribed to Richard. Our MS. originally ascribed the 
New Testament portion to P .... tor Parisiensis (part of 
the name has been erased, perhaps to alter Comestor to 
Manducator, his other title). This must have meant 
Peter Comestor, whose " Historia Scholastica " it slightly 
resembles ; he is also named in a pencil marginal note as 
author of the Old Testament portion. Dr. Montague Rhodes 
James informs me that Peter Comestor was the author ; 
he suggests that the erased title attributed it to Petrus 
Cantor, as Comestor was called of Troyes, not of Paris ■ 
he was, however, Chancellor of Paris University. But all 
three writers were contemporaries at Paris, and whoever 
wrote it it is the continuation of a work on subjects of 
general information also ascribed to Hugh or Richard of St. 
Victor. It goes through the Old Testament book by book, 
allegorising the chief narratives ; in the New Testament it is 
much briefer than the printed text and in quite a different 
order, not according to the books, but perhaps intended to be 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



roughly in order of events. It breaks off in the middle of 
i:he Gospel history, omitting the Epistles, &c, and the long 
digressions on the Sermon on the Mount, &c, which the 
printed text gives under St. Matthew. Similar allegorical 
expositions of Scripture in brief Latin verses have been 
added in the margins of several leaves, of which the following 
may be taken as brief samples : — 

" Quomodo suscepit Salomon a matre coronam ? 

Est Salomon, Christus ; mater, sinagoga ; corona, 
Spinea; de spinis Christo dedit ilia coronam." 

" Respexit Dominus ad Abel. Respexit ad eius 

Munera ; plus placet affectus quam munera dantis ; 

Unde prius dantem respexit, postea munus ; 

Non per munus Abel, per Abel sunt munera grata." 

" Hicque Sareptene mulieris ligna legentis, 
Natus, far, oleum, uiuit, habundat, adest : 
Crux, duo ligna; farina, scientia ; Christus, Helyas ; 
Femina, gens; oleum, gratia; nosque, puer." 

This last is a good instance of the habit in mediaeval 
verse of a string of nouns joined to a string of verbs, to 
be taken in pairs: "Natus uiuit, far habundat, oleum 
adest." Such verses seem to have given great pleasure 
both to authors and readers, if one may judge by the 
number of MSS. into which they are scribbled, some verses 
occurring again and again. 

The more extravagant excesses of allegorising are exem- 
plified in the little treatise " De Cruce," which, fortunately 
for the author's credit, appears anonymously. 1 After a 
rhetorical introduction beginning " Circuire possum Domine 
celum et terram, mare et aridam, et nusquam te inueniam 
nisi tantum in cruce. Ibi dormis, ibi pascis, ibi cubas in 
:meridie. Crux enim tua fides est, cuius latitudo karitas, 
1 Perhaps by Baldvin of Ford.— M.RJ. 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



longitudo longanimitas, altitudo spes, profundum timor," 
&c, it proceeds to discuss Calvary, Absalom and Judas, 
the double cave, Michol, Elijah's mantle, Joseph, the two 
going to Emmaus, the widow and jars of oil, &c. But the 
sort of treatment will be seen from a brief outline of its 
earlier sections. Calvary (the place of baldness) suggests 
"Go up, thou bald head." Christ, our Elijah, went up 
thither, not having where to lay His head. His disciples 
fled : they are His hair. Then a passing allusion to the 
daughter of Syon being made bald; to the bald eagle who 
gazes on the sun — so he who grows spiritually bald sees the 
true light (with a tacit allusion to the tonsure ?) ; but long 
hair blinds and weighs down a man— so Absalom lost the 
beatific vision by the weight of his hair, and it hung him. 
This leads to a parallel of Absalom and Judas. Judas's 
" hair " was the bag he bore, which weighed him down ; 
it was shorn once a year in his restoring the thirty pieces of 
silver (!). He weighed his sin in weighty words ; he weighed 
his shame, not his conscience nor God's mercy. Then as 
Absalom's hair stood for avarice, his mule stands for 
hypocrisy (because of its double nature). Then the soldier's 
spear that pierced Absalom (like Christ) is preaching ; the 
soldier Christendom, who by preaching pierces sinners' 
hearts. This spear, called by Habakkuk a flaming spear, 
is that which, with the water-flask of grace, David took 
from Saul ; for the words of wisdom and grace are taken 
from the proud. Then David's reproach to Saul (1 Sam. 
xxvi. 20) leads up to a comparison of the tiny flea that leaps 
and bites and the lowly, righteous man who confidently bites 
the vices of the flesh, and leaps to the hills, where he has 
a most sure refuge. 

The discursive irrelevance of all this, its total uncon- 
sciousness of absurdity (or else of reverence), and its intense 
stupidity is not at all exaggerated. Much of it might be 
simply the stringing together of concordance references for 
a single word. 

The two pieces by Alexander Nequam (so the name 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



is spelt in the title; it was probably Neckam or Necham) 
both bear his name in the text, so it is strange that the table 
of contents mentions them anonymously, if there is not v 
indeed, a touch of contempt in the " Meditatio cuiusdam." 
He was born at St. Alban's in 1 157, .but joined the Austin 
Canons of Cirencester, where he was abbot from 12 13 to 
1217, so he may fairly be reckoned a Gloucestershire worthy. 
He intended to present his poem, " De Maudibus Divine 
Sapientie," to Gloucester Abbey, but doubted its acceptance, 
which implies friendly intimacy, but perhaps some less 
pleasant feelings : both may be illustrated by the inclusion 
of these two pieces in this Gloucester volume, and the 
omission of his name from its index, not so many years 
after his time, when his memory as a man of most 
distinguished and varied learning ought to have been 
familiar to all England, especially in Gloucester Abbey r 
where I suspect his sermon on Spring was preached — 
at least, its opening allusion to the Church of St. Peter 
would there be most appropriate. I need hardly speak 
of his general career, as the life prefixed to his two chief 
works in the Rolls Series gives a full account of him, as 
well as that in the Dictionary of National Biography. He 
was a typical instance of the monastic scholar of the 
period, beginning his career as a lay teacher, and seeking 
the cosmopolitan training of Paris University, so he not 
unfitly accompanies Richard of St. Victor — like himself, 
an Austin Canon. 

The first and by far the longest of his works in this 
volume, the " Meditatio de Magdalena " (not, as has been 
stated, a poem), begins : " Osculetur me osculo oris sui. Ad 
mensam spiritualis refectionis recumbente sapientia . . . ," 
and opens with a pretty little allegory of various virtues 
introducing the penitent to the banquet hall of wisdom. 
Then he enlarges on the whole history of Mary Magdalene, 
with copious use of the Song of Songs and other Scriptural 
material. Some account of the shorter sermon on Spring 
will give an idea of his style, decidedly flowing and eloquent,. 



1 86 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



compared to the rest of the volume. Taking as text the 
words " Verno tempore solent reges ad bella procedere," 
first he enlarges on springtide, literal and spiritual — the 
winter has fled from around St. Peter's, it is the time of the 
Sun of righteousness, of the more clement air of the Holy 
Spirit ; then turning to the novices before him — O that the 
springtide of their youth may bear spring blossoms of pure 
thoughts ; then to the elder monks — and the autumn fruit of 
good actions ! Not in sloth's winter do kings go to war, but 
in spring warmth and moisture of grace. Kings — they who 
well rule themselves — each with his own soul as a subject 
city! "How sits the city alone, full of people" — alone, 
without the Trinity's aid and comfort ; full of people, of 
tumults of idle thoughts. Happy kings who rule discreetly 
their portion of the earth, happiest who judge themselves 
to be earth — "dust thou art, unto dust . . ." (In all this he 
has played with "prelatos," a word dear to elder monks, as 
meaning not only one set over a city, but over his brother 
monks.) Then he enlarges on war, on civil war (too well 
known then at Gloucester) — foes, evil spirits and vices ; 
citizens, our brethren. Next he briefly reviews a series of 
Old Testament wars — the five kings against four (i.e. the 
pleasures of the senses against the cardinal virtues) ; against 
Amalek, when Moses, supported by Hur (fervour) and Aaron 
(strength) aided the war by intercession, as a good abbot 
aids his community by his prayers (here I can fancy his 
most courtly compliments towards the presiding abbot — he 
had duly flattered each class of the community) ; then 
lollows Jephtha's daughter, the flesh, to be sacrificed by 
abstinence; then he imagines their excuses — "they are too 
young for the conflict," but did not young David slay Goliath 
(vain confidence) with the missile of a penitential Psalm and 
the sling of devout impulse? Then, turning from novices to 
seniors, "they are too old to be fighting" — why, Ambrose 
says our arms are our tears, so are true fasts and fruitful 
prayers. Look at aged Caleb's conquest ! Nestor did more 
than Achilles, Samuel's prayers than Saul's sword. Similarly 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



Judith, Jael, Deborah are quoted — will they let women surpass 
them ? And after quite irrelevantly allegorising the whole tale 
of Thamar, he returns to his text, and gracefully winds up 
his sermon. 

St. Anselm is represented in this ,yolume by two works, 
neither of which perhaps is from his pen, though gathered 
from his words. The sermon on two Beatitudes and two 
Miseries was preached by him during his exile to the 
assembled monks at Cluny, and so highly was it esteemed 
that afterwards, at the request of many elsewhere, his 
biographer and companion, Eadmer, drew up a report of 
the sermon from memory, after talking over the subject with 
St. Anselm ; so his report, which is printed in St. Anselm's 
works, is really revised by the author with his later thoughts. 
The sermon in our MS. is evidently quite a different and 
much shorter report of the same sermon, perhaps obtained 
direct from Cluny, for Gilbert Foliot, Abbot of Gloucester, 
was a Cluniac monk ; it may even be a copy of St. Anselm's 
written sermon, if he left it at Cluny. This, and the 
treatise " De tribus Habitaculis," are also included in 
another MS. (P. i. 6), formerly belonging to Richard 
Hanley, Abbot of Gloucester (1457-72), which I hope 
to describe in a future paper. The two Blessednesses 
are the natural bliss of Eden and that of the angels 
in heaven ; the two Miseries those of earthly life and of 
hell. These are scarcely touched upon, but the natural 
beatitudes. Beauty, Speed, Strength, Freedom, Health, 
Pleasure and Long Life— each with its spiritual counterpart 
— Wisdom, Friendship, Concord, Power, Honour, Security, 
Joy — a rather unconventional series — are dwelt on at 
some length. The Similitudes, also due to Eadmer's zeal 
in collecting and reporting St. Anselm's sayings, are a 
collection of miscellaneous observations on moral and 
Scriptural subjects, many allegorical ; the text is in 
parts much briefer than that printed, especially at the 
end. It would seem that Eadmer may have issued severa 
copies, enlarging the later copies as he recollected more 



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sayings. At the end of this treatise the scribe has added 
a verse: — 

" Vita breuis, casusque leuis, nec spes remeandi ; 
Quanta seres hie, tanta feres; sit cura parandi ; 
Plura seras ut plura feras, ne non seruisse 
Peniteat, cum nil ualeat iam penituisse." 

Alcuin's treatise " De Sapientia " (otherwise called "De 
Virtutibus et Vitiis"), which near the beginning quotes as 
Athanasius the opening verse of the Quicunque Vult, deals 
briefly with knowledge, wisdom; faith, charity, hope; 
Bible study; peace, mercy, indulgence, patience, humility; 
compunction, confession, penitence, not delaying conversion, 
the fear of the Lord; fasting, alms; chastity; avoiding 
fraud; of judges and false witnesses; envy, pride, anger, 
seeking human praise; of eight vices — pride, gluttony, 
fornication, avarice, wrath, accidie, sadness, vanity; and 
of the four cardinal virtues. 

Bernard's 1 Sermon to the Clergy on Contempt of the 
World — an exposition of the verse, "We have left all 
and followed Thee" — here divided into sections, with a 
separate table of contents, and the other ethical contents 
of the volume, need little notice. Their topics — humility, 
obedience, contempt of the world, heaven and hell, the 
Decalogue — must have been the very alphabet of cloister 
teaching. The anonymous treatise "De tribus Habitaculis," 
printed with St. Augustine's works (torn, vi., col. 991), 
has often been attributed to St. Patrick, but not by Irish 
writers ; evidently a later work (Haddan and Stubbs). 
St. Caesarius' Sermons to Monks deal with such topics as 
that they are assembled for conflict, not rest ; that after 
overcoming crimes they should shun even little negligencies; 
of the pains of hell ; how useful reading and other honest 
occupations are ; that it is not enough to have lived in the 
cloister, but to have acted well ; that the just receive part 

1 Really by his secretary Gaufridus or Geofrey, Abbot of Igny, &c. 
It also occurs incompletely in P. iii. 5. 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



of their reward even here ; against detraction, &c. ; and 
on the husbandry of the soul. Two of these are attributed 
by Schenkl to Faustus Rhegiensis, and six or seven to 
Eusebius Emisenus or Eucherius. Many occur also in 
O. i. 6, a Cirencester MS., in describing which I hope to say 
more about them. 

It will be observed how many ages and lands are 
represented in this volume — a feature of the Middle Ages 
very unlike our habit of relying almost entirely on the 
literature of our own country and our own generation. 
Here Augustine and Novatus, with Isidore from Spain 
and Caesarius from Southern France, represent the early 
maturity of Latin Christianity; the Greek Fathers, always 
inadequately known in Latin monasteries, are meagrely 
represented by Gregory Nazianzen ; Alcuin recalls the brief 
renaissance of Charlemagne ; Bernard, Hugh or Richard of 
St. Victor, Peter Comestor, and Anselm unite French, Italian, 
and English Christianity in the early twelfth century ; while 
nearly a century later Alexander Neckham just serves as a 
casual sample of contemporary English authors. But perhaps 
the most strangely remote age and locality in the book is 
seen in the collection of anecdotes and sayings from the lives 
of the Fathers — the hermit saints of Egypt, Anthony and 
his followers, the pioneers of Christian monasticism, from 
whom, through Cassian and other writers, the Western 
monks learnt the first principles of asceticism. The title 
prefixed to this collection is " Incipiunt adhortaU'o^es 
Sanctorum Patruw, perfectionesqwtf monachorwm, quas de 
greco in \dXinum transtulit beatws Ierom'wws " ; it has no 
colophon. It is a somewhat abridged selection from the 
much larger collection of anecdotes entitled " Sanctorum 
Anachoretarum iEgyptiorum Apophtegmata," which is 
printed in the ninth volume of De La Bigne's Sacra 
Bibliotheca Sanctorum Patvum (second edition, Paris, 1589, 
col. 1333), an d there attributed by some to St. Jerome 
as translator, but rather to Pelagius, a Roman deacon. 
In early times many lives of these saints seem to have 



igo 



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been wrongly ascribed to St. Jerome. 1 The collection is a 
mere string of anecdotes, arranged to illustrate successively 
the virtues of compunction, chastity, poverty, patience, 
endurance, avoiding ostentation, silent labour, discretion, 
obedience, humility, charity, contemplation, &c. A brief 
repetition of a few of the shortest anecdotes will show the 
nature of the collection. 

When Abbot John was dying the brethren begged him to 
leave them some edifying saying. He groaned out : " I have 
never done my own will, nor taught anyone what I had not 
first done myself." Asked "What good thing shall I do that 
I may live in it?" he replied: "God alone knows what is 
good, but I have heard that Abbot Nesteron, St. Anthony's 
disciple, said — Are not all works equal ? for Abraham was 
hospitable, and God was with him ; Elias was a lover of 
quiet, and God was with him ; and David was lowly, and 
God was with him. Whatever, therefore, you find your soul 
desire in accordance with God, do that, and guard your 
heart." 

Abbot Arsenius, when still living at court, prayed: "Lord,, 
guide me to salvation ; " and a voice came to him saying : 
"Arsenius, fly from men, and thou shalt be saved." When 
a monk he prayed the same words, and a voice said : 
" Arsenius, fly, be silent, be still, for these are the roots of 
sinlessness." 

Once blessed Theophilus, the Archbishop, with a certain 
judge, visited Arsenius, and asked him to speak to them. 
After some silence he said : " And if I say a thing will you 
do it ? " On their promising, he said : " Wherever you may 
hear Arsenius is, don't you go near there." 

Abbot Moyses said : " Mind you sit still in your cell, and 
your cell will teach you all things." 

1 The Vitae Patrum is a compilation of very mixed origin, too long 
to go into. The whole mass of the Latin texts was edited in cent. xvin. 
by Heribert Rosweyd. Dom E. C. Butler has recently investigated the 
Greek text in Texts and Studies (M. R. J.). This work is not to be con- 
founded with the Lausiac History of Palladius, otherwise called the 
Paradisus of Pleraclides, which occurs in a Cirencester MS. 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 191 

It was said of Abbot Arsenius that all his life while he sat 
at his handiwork he used to have a cloth in his lap to wipe 
up his frequent tears of penitence. 

When Archbishop Theophilus was dying he cried : 
" Blessed Arsenius, that you have always borne this hour 
before your eyes ! " 

When Abbot Pambo wept at the sight of an actress, he 
explained : " Two things move me — her perdition, and that I 
care less to please God than she to please degraded men." 

Once Abbot Sisci said confidently: " These thirty years I 
have not asked pardon of God for a (deadly) sin, but I pray 
' Lord Jesu Christ, protect me from my tongue,' and even 
now every day I fall into faults through it." He said also : 
" Our pilgrimage consists in holding one's tongue." 

Another saying of his was: " It is better to eat flesh and 
drink wine than to bite our brother's flesh with disparaging 
words." 

One elder visiting another, the host bade his disciple 
" Make us a little lentil-porridge and bake us some cakes," 
and he did so. But the elders went on talking of spiritual 
matters till next midday. Again the host said to his disciple, 
" Make us some lentil-cakes, my son." He only answered, 
" I made some yesterday," and so they got up and ate them. 

The brethren begged an old monk to rest from hard work, 
but he answered : " Believe me, sons, even Abraham will 
repent, when he sees God's great and splendid gifts, that he 
had not striven more laboriously." 

There was an elder who was often ill. One year he 
chanced not to fall ill, and lamented, saying : " God has 
deserted me and has not visited me." 

The elders would say : " If you see a youth ascending to 
heaven of his own will, seize him by the foot and fling him 
on the ground, for it's not good for him to do it in that way." 

An elder said : " How can one keep one's heart if one's 
tongue has the door open ? " 

One elder said to another : "I am dead to this world ! " 
The other answered : " Don't trust in yourself till you are 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



out of this body, for if you say you are dead, be sure 
Satan isn't." 

An elder said: " If one loses gold or silver one may find 
it again ; but lost time can never be recovered." 

There was an elder who, when his thoughts would say to 
him, "Let be to-day, for you can repent to-morrow," used to 
contradict them, saying: "Nay, but to-day I will do penance; 
to-morrow God's will be done ! " 

Abbot Zacharias was asked : " Tell me what to do." He 
flung down his hood and trampled on it, saying : " Except a 
man be trodden under foot like that he cannot be a true 
monk." 

A brother, hurt by another, wanted to avenge himself. 
An elder who heard him said: "O God, we don't require 
Thee now to take thought for us, for now we take our own 
vengeance! " whereupon the injured monk forgave his brother 
and did penance himself before the elder. 

Someone asked: "Why is it that now some of us find 
daily life so hard, and do not receive grace as men used to ? " 
An elder answered : " Because there was charity then, and 
everyone drew his neighbour upwards ; but now charity has 
grown cold, each drags his neighbour down, and so does not 
deserve grace." 

The picturesque little lives of St. Marina, St. Paul the 
Simple, and St. Alexius, which follow, will be found in 
substance in Baring-Gould's Lives of the Saints; they also were 
early Eastern monastic saints. 

We have seen the collection and arrangement of anecdotes 
to illustrate moral topics; a similar selection is seen in process 
of formation in a series of quotations from Juvenal, Lucan, 
Horace's Epistles, and Ovid's Tristia, which are very neatly 
written in a much abbreviated contemporary hand in the 
lower margins of the earlier pages. The quotations, often 
only a line or two, are chiefly arranged in the order of 
occurrence, but in the margin opposite many of them figures 
have been added indicating the moral heading under which 
they were to be arranged. Thus i. stands for praises of 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



193 



-poverty, its security, &c. ; ii., the evils of riches, ambition, 
worldliness, great men; iii., flattery and courtiers; iv., 
gluttony and drunkenness ; v., the faults of women ; vi., 
ancestral pride ; and so on. These classical quotations were 
probably meant to grace and enforce sermons or epistles; 
but classical authors were considerably studied as literature 
at Gloucester Abbey, as Osbern's Dictionary shows. A taste 
for classical poetry is also visible in some mediaeval Latin 
poems copied into the flyleaves at the beginning of this 
volume, preceded by quotations from Gregory Nazianzen 
and Ambrose, and by a hymn and collect in honour of St. 
Arildis, which will be found in the appendix. I am indebted 
to Canon Bazeley for the following account of the saint, 
given by Leland : " Sancta Arilda Virgin, martyred at 
Kington (Kineton), near Thornbury, translated to this 
monastery (St. Peter's, Gloucester), had done many miracles." 
" Saynt Arild Virgin martired at Kinton ny to Thornberye 
by one Muncius a Tiraunt who cut of hir heade becawse she 
would not consent to lye withe hym. She was translatyd to 
this monasterye, and hathe done great Miracles." There is 
still a well at Kineton called St. Arild's Well. She is said to 
have been buried in the crypt. 

It appears from a spoilt calendar-leaf used to line the 
cover of another of our MSS. (P. vi. 1), which I shall 
describe presently, that her feast was on St. Margaret's Day 
(July 20th), though it is accidentally entered on the previous 
day. 

This memorial of a local saint is perhaps the most 
interesting thing in these volumes to local antiquaries. 
But to return to the Latin poems which follow, and which 
I think may perhaps be the work of Hildebert, Bishop 
of Tours (who died in 1134). First comes an elegiac poem 
of sixty-four lines on the Contempt of the World, " Esto 
quod faveant, et cuncta tibi famulentur." Be as prosperous 
as you may, says the poet, you must die; be fair as Paris, 
wise as Cato, eloquent as Tully, a Eurialus in character, 
a Numa in experience, blessed with ^ancestors, family, 

Vol. XXVII. * 4 



194 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



wealth, a hall decked with ivory, purple couches, attendant 
knights — with necklace, ring, head-dress, jewelled goblets — 
your leisure occupied with pleasures of the chase — let each 
night excel the day, and each day the night — when fortune 
has granted all this, not you but your heir will enjoy it. 
All is fleeting ; groans will follow smiles, the end of joy 
be eternal punishment. Serve God while you have health 
and time; days fly like a shadow — in youth they are fleeting, 
in age few; one day will end them all, as sudden at last 
to old as to young. Then follows a string of celebrities 
who have died, of every rank and sex (ending in Venus !) ; 
then a horrible portrait of decrepit old age — "Ergo libens 
Christum, dum sanguine membra calescunt, Dum superest 
tempus, dum tibi robur, ama ! " 

Next comes a long, frigid poem in praise of St. Mary ; 
then a lament that men will prefer mirth to penitential 
exhortations, a lucky throw to Christ's grace, the tale of 
Helen to the most tearful sermon. How much wiser to 
read Scripture, for where will you find such marvels ? 
What romance can equal the miracles ? Then follows a 
long list of Old Testament wonders, all in rhymed couplets; 
then quit the poets ! away with frivolities — " Flebilis est 
risus quo surripitur Paradisus, Et lacrime lete que dant 
bona nescia mete. Jeiuna, plora, uigila, pete, psalle, labora, 
Ut tibi sit munus trinus Deus et Deus unus " ; then exhor- 
tations to ascetic life ; for Death takes all else away ; what 
are all perishing riches ? — in Death we shall see ; Heaven 
is best of all, then forsake all earthly things. 

The next poem enforces celibacy by a disgusting sketch 
of a disinterred woman. Soon we turn with relief to a little 
poem on the motives of a scholar. God, Who sees all 
things, sees the motives of every student. Some seek gain, 
others praise — with equal toil, equal weariness. Riches 
and knowledge never satisfy — desire grows with attainment ; 
but thou, O flower of youths, too rich to need gain, vainly 
seeking adequate praise, thou must needs take God Himself 
for thy aim ! 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts 



195 



Next, recurring to the contrast between the vanity of 
poetry and the preferableness of Scripture, the poet sketches 
the Grammarian, more careful of speech than of soul ; the 
Rhetorician, prating of Truth and neglecting the Truth ; 
the Logician, tossing about his windy sophisms with jaw- 
splitting garrulity, swinging his arms, stamping, laughing ; 
but thou, spurn these kites and soar like an eagle ! Gaze 
into the height of virtue, and thence satisfy the poor, the 
hungry with the true riches of moral teaching, the food of 
the soul. Learn that you may teach virtues — that pleases 
God, Who delights not in riches but piety. 

Again a long poem on women causing all evils, both 
of sacred and profane history ; then one on the Camel 
and the Needle's Eye ; then epigrams on Gambling, Dives 
and Lazarus, Pythagoras, &c. Such were the subjects and 
thoughts current in Gloucester Abbey. 

I have described this book at some length, for it serves 
to illustrate mediaeval ways of thought ; the remaining 
volumes call for much less remark, as they mostly contain 
a single work, and that better known. 

The five following MSS. belonged to St. Guthlac's Priory, 
in Bye Street, Hereford, a cell of Gloucester Abbey. 

P. iii. 2, the oldest of these, is inscribed on the first leaf: 
" Liber sancti Guthlaci, de prioratu Herefordie." On the 
same leaf are the following verses and title : — 

" Nullam causidico reor esse fidem, neque dico, 
Hosti pro modico fit amicus, et hostis amico. 

" In hoc uolumine continentur epistole Pauli. Et epistoie 
canonice. Et uita sancte Paule. *Et cantica canticorwM 
In xiii quatemis— (here a later hand has added, " *Hec 
et pars Vitae Paulae non sunt ") — que sunt de minoii 
uolumine, quedam glosule super cant^ csmticorum, cum 
duobus quaternis s. continentur hie. 

" Occurrant menti tua mors, et passio Christi, 
Judiciique dies, pia celi, terror auerni." 
(Then the above inscription.) 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



I think the title means that at first this volume contained 
thirteen quires (quateynum meant four sheets — eight leaves—, 
folded together ; otherwise called quatevnus, quartevnum, and, 
quate/nio, whence the French cahier and our quire) ; but that 
early in the Middle Ages it was divided into two volumes, 
the last five quires, containing the end of Jerome's Life of 
S. Paula and the Glosses on the Song of Songs, being, 
bound separately in a smaller {i.e. thinner) volume, to which 
the last two quires of the present volume, containing the 
rest of the Life of S. Paula, properly belonged, though: 
bound with the Epistles. That is to say, it was intended 
to divide the volume at the end of the Epistles, making 
S. Paula and the Song of Songs form the second volume ; 
but the binder divided the quires wrongly, so that at present 
the volume contains the Epistles and nearly all the Life of 
S. Paula, breaking off at the end of the eighth quire, at 
the words " ... sic et is qui iuramentum metuit." The 
second volume has long disappeared. 1 (It is possible that 
the "thirteen quires" referred to the Song of Songs only.) 
The text of the Epistles, without gloss, is written in a 
small, neat, pale round hand. On the second page is some 
introduction to Romans — " Romani sunt qui ex iudeis . . .," 
attributed by Schenkl to Hrabanus Maurus, Bruno Carth. 
and Lanfranc. The text begins on the third page with a 
dark-green P decorated with red flourishing, and enclosing a 
crude drawing of St. Paul holding writing implements. At 
the end of the Epistle to the Hebrews is a formula of excom- 
munication, which will be found in the appendix. Then 
follow the Canonical Epistles, after which, beginning a fresh 
quire in a much larger, bolder hand, with twenty-nine lines 
instead of forty-two to the single column, the Life of 

1 Dr. M. R. James suggests, " Could ' de minori uolumine' mean ' of 
smaller size' [i.e. smaller leaves) ? " If so, P. i. 8 or P. i. 14 might contain 
the missing commentary ; but in neither does the number of quires agree 
with the above reckoning. The former MS. also contains a commentary 
on the Apocalypse; neither contains the missing leaves of the Vita S. 
Paulae. They are both small, thin, and shabby ; of the same date or a 
little later than P. iii. 2. 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



197 



S. Paula commences with a red S with green flourishing 
and two men's faces. 

In the margin of the Epistles are some paragraph 
numbers, perhaps to divide them for daily lessons; and 
some Sunday Epistles are indicated. 

O. v. i, " Liber Genesis glosatus," is inscribed on the lower 
margin of fol. i, "■'Roger Capellanus (?) dedit hunc libfMW 
ecctesie sancti Gudlaci de Hereford (?)." It is a very ordinary 
specimen of the twelfth century glossed books of the Bible. 
The text occupies the central column, with glosses between 
the lines, and longer comments in each side column, the text 
being in larger writing so that a line of, text occupies the 
space of two lines of gloss. The initials are large, not much 
decorated, in blue, brown, green, and red. 

The first two pages contain in two columns introductory 
extracts on Genesis from Isidore, Gregory, Augustine, Bede, 
Strabus, Jerome, and Alcuin. A half illegible title on the" 
front cover seems to ascribe the Gloss to Rabanus Maurus. 

The cover seems once to have had a central boss. Inside 
the end cover of this (and of O. iii. i) is the late entry No. 15; 
also some rabbinical characters which I have not deciphered; 
there are similar characters at the end of P. vi. 1. 

P. vi. 1, Gregory the Great's Homilies on Ezekiel, was 
inscribed on the first flyleaf, which was stuck to the cover: 
" Liber de pnoratu Sancti Guthlacii Herford," in a late 
thirteenth-century hand. In detaching the flyleaves from 
the covers, which was done recently at Oxford by a careful 
and experienced bookbinder, this inscription was almost 
washed out, but it had fortunately been copied before. The 
loosening of these flyleaves, however, resulted in interesting 
discoveries, for the first flyleaf was found to contain an 
unfinished leaf of a July Kalendar, "flung aside by the scribe 
because he had entered the later festivals a day too soon— 
an -easier mistake to make when the days were numbered 
backwards by the Roman calendar — and so used to line the 
volume which was then being bound. This kalendar will be. 
found in the appendix; the red-letter days had not been 



198 



Transactions for the Yea^ 1904. 



inserted. Most of the saints named are in the Sarum and 
York Kalendars; York omits St. Kenelm ; St. Grimbald is 
less common ; but the chief interest of the page lies in the 
mention of St. Arildis, on St. Margaret's Day (July 20th, 
though the scribe has misplaced it on the 19th). I have 
already spoken of this little-known local saint, whose feast- 
day, I believe, is only known from this entry. 

The end flyleaf was the last sheet of a Sacramentary 
apparently written for an Anglo-Saxon Abbess. 1 The original 
text will be found in the appendix ; later hands had added 
" Benedicamus domino: Ite missa est" (the concluding 
formulae at Mass), with the music, and some scribbling half 
cut away, an anecdote about some Archdeacon of St. Peter's, 
Rome, &c. The sacramentary text is beautifully written in 
round Anglo-Saxon characters of the tenth century, according 
to Schenkl ; prayers by an abbess for herself, followed by 
versicles and collect for travellers or pilgrims. It is interesting 
to find such prayers for a woman's use, most eariy service- 
books being for priests. The main text of the volume, St. 
Gregory on Ezekiel, is beautifully written in a large, bold 
hand, with large, well-decorated red and blue initials and 
brief red notes in the margins. Each homily has a red title 
and a bold red, blue, or green initial. 

P. iv. 5, Stephen Langton's Tropologia on the Minor 
Prophets, is inscribed inside the cover: " Istum libruw dedit 
Adam de Elmeleye eclesie sancti gutlaci H^refordie, et 
habet panem in die obitus sui in pevpetuum." The donor is 
mentioned in the Gloucester Cartulary as follows (vol. i., 
p. 32): "Anno Domini 1273 obiit Adam de Elmeleye, 
monachus huius loci, qui propter ipsius sanctitatem coram 
altari Sanctse Crucis in magna ecclesia ad petitionem populi 
sepelitur, pro cuius amore Dominus ibidem multa miracula 
operatur." The Altar of the Holy Cross would be just in 
front of the rood loft, at the East end of the nave, so if 

1 If we could think that this abbess was head of St. Peter's Minster 
at Gloucester the prayers must have come down from very early times, as 
there seem to have been no abbesses there after the eighth century. — Ed. 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



199 



the tomb was a conspicuous one it may have been the most 
prominent object in the nave. 

Canon Bazeley informs me " Adam de Elmeleye shares 
the privilege of having miracles performed at his tomb with 
Harold, who was murdered by the Jews in 1168 and was 
buried in the Chapel of St. Edward and St. Edmund, the 
central chapel of the crypt, and with St. Arild. Adam 
took his name from Elmley, on the slopes of Bredon 
Hill." Abbot Thomas de Bredon is an instance of the 
connection of the monastery with the locality, and his 
influence may have attracted Adam de Elmeleye to the 
monastery. 

When the Hereford MSS. were being catalogued in 161 1 
the librarian had, I suppose, forgotten that this MS. had 
come from St. Guthlac's, and inserted Adam de Elmeley 
in our list of donors to the Cathedral Library, whence it 
was supposed he might have belonged to the Herefordshire 
parish of Almeley, which was mentioned in Domesday 
among the possessions of St. Guthlac's. There is no 
mention of it, however, in the Cartulary, so I suppose it 
had ceased to belong to St. Guthlac's before that was given 
to Gloucester Abbey. 

The treatise is beautifully written in close, small, rather 
cursive hands, with blue and red flourished initials, and 
some red titles in the margin ; the quotations of the text 
are in most parts underlined in red. 

It begins, " Tropologia super duodecim pvophetas collecta 
ad lectiones magistri Stepani de Longetune. Ossa prophe- 
tarum duodecim pullulant de loco suo ..." If it is the 
substance of his lectures while he was at Paris University, 
as perhaps the simple title Magister implies, it is quite an 
■early work of his. The colophon, however, which is in the 
margin and partly cut off by the binder, reads : " [Explicit 
expositio libri [duodeci]m prophetarum [ . . . ] uenerabi[li 
Cantuari]e powtifice [Stephan]o de longe[tune]." This is 
in black; the rubricator was intended to copy it into a 
.blank ruled space at the end of the treatise. 



200 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



At the beginning and end are some extracts from' 
Augustine on Genesis, &c. 

Besides his greatness as archbishop and statesman, 
Stephen Langton has been called " next to Bede, the most 
voluminous and original commentator on the Scriptures 
this country has produced," and as a theologian "second 
to none in his own day." Our modern division of the 
Bible into chapters has been attributed to him. His com- 
mentary on the XII. Prophets is mainly mystical, dealing 
largely with interpretations of proper names. In lecturing 
he first read the text and the usual glosses, then expounded 
at length clause by clause. He begins thus: "The bones 
of the Prophets sprout forth out of their place." (Ecclus. 
xlvi. 12.) " Surely there is a vein for silver, and a place 
for gold ..." Silver means God's Word; the vein, 
theological books, from which God's Word is dug out. 
Gold is Heavenly Wisdom, gained from God's Word; in 
three places, the mouth of teachers, the ears of their 
hearers, and the hands of both teachers and hearers 
performing it. Thus the bones of the XII. Prophets 
sprout from their places, from tongue, mind, works : the 
bones are their spiritual meaning ; for the flesh is the weak, 
frail, literal sense — the bones the strong spiritual sense, the 
marrow hid in them is the sweetness of celestial tropology. 
(Tropologia seems to mean figurative speech, allegory ; it 
was used by Jerome, 1 but it was not intelligible to all even 
in the Middle Ages, for Osbern's Dictionary merely explains 
it as " apologia, excusatio.") 

Then follows a sketch of the history of Israel : how 
Jeroboam's idolatry was partly repressed by prophetic 

1 Epist. cxx., ad Hedibiam. " In tropology we rise from the letter to 
greater things, and whatever happened carnally among the elder (Jewish) 
people, we interpret in a moral sense, and turn it to our soul's edification." 
So Peter Comestor says, " History teaches what was done, Tropology 
what ought to be done, Allegory what should be believed, Anagogy what 
should be desired [in HeavenJ . Apparently Tropology applied texts 
morally to the soul, Allegory to Christ, the Church, &c. , Anagogy 
prophetically to Heavenly things.' 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



201 



denunciations, till Ahab and Jezebel gave it new vigour; 
Jehu did not wholly abolish it, and in Jeroboam II. 's time it 
had so increased that the prophets were obliged to write as 
well as utter their prophecies — hence the origin of the XII. 
Prophets. Their outward subject is 'the ten tribes and the 
two, signifying inwardly the good (the two) and the wicked 
(the ten). Their outward intention is to recall the Jewish 
people from idolatry ; their inward to join the members [of 
Christ] to the Head. 

Then after reading a verse or two of the text and glosses, 
he returns to the beginning, explaining Hosea allegorically 
as Christ, his wife as the Gentile Church. " The word of the 
Lord," is our Saviour. Beeri = "" my wells," is God the . 
Father ; and he quotes a variety of verses about wells, 
which have living springs within them, whereas lakes or 
cisterns only receive and cool water from elsewhere, and 
so on. 

P. iii. 5, lettered on the back " Sermones," is inscribed on 
the flyleaf: " Ricardus de Newintoh dedit hunc librum 
prior[atui ?] Hereford." It is not quite clear that this was 
St. Guthlac's, for in the late thirteenth century there were 
also Franciscan and Dominican priories at Hereford, but I 
think it is practically certain. (The Franciscan books usually 
bore their shelf-mark, and quite a different inscription.) 
Richard de Newington I can find nothing about : presumably 
he took his name from Newington Bagpath, a village on the 
Cotteswolds near Dursley, of which the Abbey held the 
Advowson. John, Thomas and Walter of Newington appear 
in the Cartulary, among witnesses of thirteenth - century 
charters, as inhabitants of Gloucester ; perhaps Richard was 
son of one of them. 

The book contains no authors' names, but appears to be 
portions of several authors bound together. It is chiefly 
composed of quires of eight leaves, and in several cases the 
author changes with the quire, which seems sometimes to ber 
arranged so that the contents end with the end of the quire ; 
in other cases the quire breaks off with an unfinished work — 



202 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



one quire at least has been almost entirely torn out, another 
is partly torn, two have scraps of writing sewn in between 
the leaves, and in several pages there are blank spaces, after 
which the next page begins afresh with another subject. It 
is rather like a commonplace book, in which sermons and 
religious observations were entered ; but I think the quires 
are not all bound in their proper order, and if they were 
rearranged and some missing quires supplied they might 
form some three or four small volumes of sermons by distinct 
authors. The first nine quires have signatures on the last 
page, numbered i. to x. (quire ix. being missing) ; the others 
have no signature, though often catchwords ; once or twice 
slanting lines on the opposite pages are used instead to show 
which quires should be bound together. But on the last 
page of quire 17 a sermon is begun, and partly erased, with 
the note below in the margin, " Hie sermo sequenti tercio 
folio inuenitur " — that is to say, the sermon had already been 
written on the third leaf of the next quire, so each quire 
must have been written simultaneously by different monks, 
and when they were brought together the chief of the scrip- 
torium (very likely the precentor) cancelled the beginning of 
the sermon because it had already been written in full. But 
this sermon is found on leaf 3 of quire 8, so that quire must 
at first have followed the present quire 17; yet the quires 
1 to 8 have continuous numbered signatures, so the signatures 
must be later than the original arrangement. I mention this 
because it throws some light on the habits of the scriptorium ; 
where it was evidently usual to begin a quire with a longer 
sermon or treatise, and if that did not fill the quire, or over- 
flowed into part of the next quire, the space was usually 
filled with little sermons or paragraphs, though sometimes 
left blank. For this purpose of filling up quires much use 
was made of a collection of " sentential " or miscellaneous 
paragraphs on religious subjects attributed to St. Bernard, 
most of which is to be found in this volume, among a number 
of longer sermons of the same author, and a number of his 
sermonettes are similarly used. 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts* 203 

These collections of sentential seem a feature of the 
twelfth century ; perhaps their nearest modern parallel is in 
the books of selections from the writings of Pusey, or similar 
authors, which are sometimes drawn up for popular circula- 
tion. These sentential, however, in many cases seem not 
extracts, but perhaps sermon notes or religious table-talk. 
A large proportion begin with * 'there are three (or four, or 
seven) states of" the soul, or the Church, &c, or "there are 
three grades of" penitence, humility, &c, a form of sentence 
serving as an aid to memory, and also as heads for sermons, 
&c. For instance, "There are three dwellings of the soul — 
heaven, hell, and earth ; heaven, where are only saints ; hell, 
where are only sinners'; and earth, where they are mingled." 
Many, however, are much longer than this. A collection of 
this sort is printed with the works of Hugh of St. Victor; 
Anselm's Similitudes is a somewhat similar work. 

Quire 1 of this volume contains some anonymous matter 
of this sort, besides sermons 64, 74, and 17, in the Appendix 
to Sr. Augustine, torn, v., with sermons on John xii. 26 (Et 
uide fructum qui sequitur . . .), Gen. i. 26 (Que imago . . .), 
John x. 11 (Ad humilitatem nos reuocare), &c, whose author 
I have not found. 

Quire 2 contains most of Hugh of St. Victor on certain 
Psalms, breaking off at Psalm xlii. 7 ; and quire 4 begins 
with three things of his — part of his Miscellanea (Spiritus 
diiudicat omnia , . .), De quatuor voluntatibus in Christo, 
and De potestate et voluntate Dei; with four others I have 
not identified. 

Quires 3, 5, 6, 7 contain sermons, sermonettes, and 
sentential of St. Bernard; quire 3 including sermons 7 to 10 
on the Psalm Qui habitat, &c. ; quire 6 is chiefly on 
Scriptural subjects ; quire 7 four sermons on All Saints, St. 
Martin, Origen, &c. 

Quires 8, 10, 16, and 17 are anonymous sermons (quire 9 
is missing); quires 8 and 17 chiefly on Scriptural subjects; 
quires 10 and 16 chiefly for festivals. 

Quires 11 to 15 and 18 are St. Bernard's, chiefly sermons 



Transactions for the Year 15104. 



for festivals, Ad Clericos de Conversione, on the death of St. 
Malachy (with the epistle), &c; quire 19 is entirely occupied 
with his sentential ; quire 20 contains most of his (or rather 
his disciple Geofrey's) Declamatio on " Ecce nos reliquimus 
omnia," with table of chapters, as in O. i. 2, breaking off 
abruptly. 

The rest of the book is similar, of unknown authorship, 
including a little treatise on the Virgin from the text, " Que 
est ista que ascendit sicut aurora . . ." The latter quires are 
much torn, one nearly destroyed. Probably all the anony- 
mous parts of the book are the work of twelfth-century 
authors, most likely French or English. The covers are 
lined with leaves of other books ; that at the beginning is 
part of a closely- written treatise, perhaps on the death of 
the righteous ; that at the end is part of an antiphonary with 
music, containing antiphons to Benedictus and Magnificat, 
&c, from the second Wednesday in Advent to the beginning 
of Matins on the third Sunday; it chiefly agrees with the 
Sarum Breviary. 

'., O. iii. 3, Summula Casuum Raimundi fratris ordinis 
Praedicatorum, cum glossa et prsefatione, is inscribed in red, 
"Liber monachorum beate Marie de Flaxleye." On the 
verso of the last leaf is a name, perhaps Henricus Corand, 
though the first name has been read as Hew and the second 
may be Corrine, or some such form. Below, in a clear formal 
italic hand, sixteenth or seventeenth century, is the librarian's 
inscription : " Iste liber partinet ad librariam Heref ord ' >? ex 
dono hugonis corand doctor diuinitatis." Thus in this case 
we know how the volume reached our library, though not 
how the donor obtained it. The only person that can be 
easily suggested as the donor is Hugh Coren or Curwin, Dean 
of Hereford from 1541 to 1558, and afterwards Archbishop 
of Dublin and Bishop of Oxford, his reputation resembling 
that of the Vicar of Bray, if worse reports are unfounded. 
But he was not D.D., but D.C.L., and the name is spelt 
differently. One of the same name (perhaps the same 
person) was the last Prior of Bridgnorth, and the name 

t 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



205 



seems to have remained in Hereford; so I hope this volume 
•may be the gift of some less notorious namesake of the dean, 
who seems to have owed his deanery to his advocacy of 
Anne Boleyn's marriage. 

, The volume is small and ugly, the initials never having 
been filled in, and clumsy rebinding rendering it awkward to 
open, though the vellum is white and thin. It is written in 
quires of twelve leaves, once of sixteen. The treatise is a 
manual of casuistry for the guidance of parish priests in 
hearing confessions ; it is divided into three books— on duty 
to Gpd, duty to men, and clerical duties. A supplementary 
treatise on Marriage, usually at the end, is I think towards 
the middle. The author, Raymond of Pennaforte, third 
General of the Dominicans, was author of the five books 
of Decretals; he lived about 11 75 — 1275, an< ^ obtained 
canonisation. 

O. v. 5, Gregory the Great's Moralia on Job, is inscribed 
on the verso of the third flyleaf (facing the text) — (J£ : 16 
(a library shelf-mark ? the first sign perhaps standing for est), 
" Libn Moralium beati gregorii Pape, de communita.te ixainim 
minorum Glovmiie." Inside the front cover is an erased 
column of pledge-entries, which only vary as to the date 
and price, not the person. The first is : " Cautela doctoris 
.[Ricardi] Netherton, ordinis minorum, exposita in cista 
Vienne anno domini 1439, xi die mensis Octobris, et iacet 
pro 30 solidis." The last date is 3449, and the price 20s. 
There are many erased pencil entries on the flyleaves — 
verses, theology, &c 

This volume, beautiful in its fine, thin vellum and its 
close, neat writing, is illuminated with many minute but 
very beautiful initials. One at the beginning, R, contains 
the Pope enthroned, with pastoral staff, giving his bene- 
diction; his garments are blue over white, on a gold ground; 
the letter is dark blue, decorated with little white rings, with 
an outer pink ground. Another, D (in this shape j^), contains 
a satyr holding a dragon's jaw and spearing its throat; the 
same colours with red, brown, and yellow. Another, V, 



206 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



contains a mermaid shooting an arrow towards the left. 
The other initials are without figures, but very beautifully- 
decorated. The book is chiefly written in quires of sixteen, 
and is foliated throughout. 

It ends, " Finito libro sit laus et gloria Christo," with 
which this account may fitly conclude. I shall be thankful 
if any of its readers can give me any further information 
about the writings or the persons mentioned. Such an 
account as this can hardly fail to be dull in parts, except 
to those specially interested in such subjects, but I hope 
it may reach some to whom it may contribute some fact 
of interest, and may give others a faint idea of what 
Gloucestershire books were like seven centuries ago. I 
must gratefully acknowledge the suggestions of Dr. M. R. 
James; and have been much assisted by H. Schenkl's 
Bibliotheca Patrum Laiinonim Britannica, which gives a 
catalogue of the Hereford MSS. with careful references. 



UNFINISHED LEAF OF [GLOUCESTER?] KALENDAR 
FOR JULY. 

(From the first flyleaf of P. vi. 1 .) 

xix. Octaue sancti Johannis. 

viii.A. vi. Sanctorum Processi et Martiniani et sancti 
Swithuni episcopi. 

v. 

xvi. iiii. Ordinatio sancti Martini siue Translatio. 
v. iii. 

ii. 

xiii. 

ii. viii. Sancti Grimbaldi confessoris. 
A. vii. 

x. vi. Sanctorum Septcm ¥ratr\im. 

v. 

xviii. iiii. 
vii. iii. 

ii. 



t 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



207 



iiii. A. 
xii. 



IX. 

xvii. A. 
vi. 

xiiii. 
iii. 



A. 



xix. 



XVII. 

xvi. 
xv. 
xiiii. 

xiii. 
xii. 
xi. 
x, 
ix. 
viii. 
vii. 
vi, 
v. 
iiii. 
iii. 
ii. 



Sancti Kenelmi xnaxtyris. 

Sancte Margarite vixginis et xnartyris, et 

sancte Arildis virginis et xnaxtyvis. 
Sancte Praxedis virginis. 

Sancti Apollinaris episcopi et xnartyris, 
Sancte Cristine virginis et xnartyris. 



[All the names following St. Kenelm should be one day- 
later. The red letter feasts were not added. St. Arildis was 
a Gloucester saint: see O. i. 2.] 



TWO PAGES OF AN ANGLO-SAXON SERVICE BOOK. 

(From the last flyleaf of P. vi. 1 .) 

-menti mee fortitudinem fidei, altitudinew spei, sinceritati 
tuaw simul et fraternal dilectionew propitius respirare 
dignare, qui uiuis. 
T)eus qui semper gaudes in operibus bonis, et in deuotione uel 
desiderio fideliuw tuoruw, te supplex deprecor ut me 
famulaw tuam, quaw frequents mandata tua neglexisse 
cognoscis, per intercessionem sancti benedicti confessoris 
tui seu om/mim confessoruw tuoxum emendationem ac 
penitential facis esse deuotawi, ut que usque modo a 
bonitatis officio impia prauitate discesseram, tua oxnni- 
potens dens inspiratione conversa ad ueram libertatew de 
laqueis diaboli in quibus teneor captiua euadere merear 
inlesa, per. 



208 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



Omnipotens sempiterne deus, qui facis mirabilia magna solus, 
pretende super me miserrimam famulaw tuaw et sup^r 
cunctam congregationew mihi indigne commissa/w spiritum 
gratie salutaris et ut in ueritate tibi complaceamus, per- 
petuum nobis rorem tue benedictinisf infunde, per. 

Domine gratia tua nos semper protegas et Christ'mnis omnibus 
viuentibus atque defunctis mism'ctfrdiam tuam ubique 
pretende ut viuentes ab omnibus inpugnationibus defensi 
tua opitulatione saluentur. Et defuncti remissionem 
mereantur suorum omnium accipere peccatorum per 
dominum. 

Vias tuas domine demonstra eis. et semitas tuas eis. 
P^fice gressus eorum in semitis tuis edoce eis. 
Beati inmaculati in via qui ambulant in lege domini. 
Lucerna pedibus eorum verbum tuum domine. et lumen 
semitis eorum. 

Gressus eorum dirige domine secundum eloquium tuum ut non 

dominetm eis omnis iniustitia. 
Pro iter agentibus. Angelus domini bonus comitetur vobis- 

cum. ad dirigendos pedes v^ros in viam pacis ut p^yacto 

obedientie cursu. ad nos iterum reuertamini cum gaudio. 

per. 

Pamulos tuos et famulas tuas om^s circumadstantes hie et 
ubique queso domine tua semp^ protectione custodi ut 
liberis t\bi mentibus. 

HYMN 1 AND COLLECT FOR ST. ARILDIS. 

(From the third flyleaf of 0. i. 2.) 

In Arildis memoria 
Plaude mater ecclesia, 
Nos ad eius preconia 
Vocum demus ofricia. 

Hec se Christo dedicauit, 
In quo trinum hostem strauit, 
Hec se prorsus abnegauit, 
Et cum Deo ambulauit. 

1 More correctiy an Oratio Rytlimica. — M. R. }. 



Gloucestershire Manuscripts. 



209 



Virgo prudens, sponsa Christi, 
Per quem mundo illusisti, 
Et decorem induisti, 

Jam amicta lumine, 
Came munda, mente pufa, 
Certans contra carnis iura, 
Nunquam sponso caritura 

In celesti culmine. 

Gentem finesque Gloucestrie 
Illustrant tue reliquie ; 
Succurre nostre miserie 
Ut per te uiuamus in requie. 

O Arildis, O huius cenobii 
Aduocatrix, et spes solatii, 
Ad te mater clamamus filii, 
Fac nos consortes materni gaudii. 

Christo tuo pro nobis loquere, 

Fac in eius odore currere, 

Fac nos sponsum tuum agnoscere, 

In quem delectant angeli prospicere. Amen. 

Deus, qui uirginitatem beate Arildis dignitate martyrii 
decorasti, quique locum istum sacris eiusdem reliquiis 
iliustrasti ; precibus ipsius da nobis indulgentiam, et loco 
isti perpetuam securitatem, per dominum. 

FORM FOR THE EXCOMMUNICATION OF LAY 
OPPONENTS OF THE CHURCH. 

(From P. Hi. 2, fol. 39, following the Epistle to the Hebrews.) 

Ex auctoritate Dei Patris omnipotentis, et filii eius 
domini nostri Iesu Christi, et spiritus sancti, excumini- 
camus (sic) et anathematizamus, et a liminibus sancte Dei 
ecclesie sequestramus, eos qui hoc maleficium fecerunt uel 
consenserunt, uel partem aliquam inde scientes habuerunt, 
uel habituri sunt. Priuamus ergo eos ab omnium bonorum 
consortio, ut nullam partem uel communionem cum Chris- 

15 

Voi,. XXVII. 



2IO 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



tianis habeant, uel possideant. Maledicat ergo illos sancta 
Dei genitrix uirgo semper Maria, Maledicant eos potestates 
celi et terre, maledicant patriarche et prophete, Maledicat 
sanctus Petrus princeps apostolorum cum omnibus apostolis. 
Maledicat eos sanctus Stephanus cum omnibus martiribus ; 
maledicat sanctus Martinus cum omnibus confessoribus. 
Maledicat eos sancta Maria Magdalena cum omnibus 
uirginibus. Maledicant eos omnes sancti Dei qui fuerunt 
ab initio mundi uel futuri sunt usque ad consummationem 
seculi. Sint igitur maledicti eundo, sedendo, loquendo, 
dormiendo, uigilando, comedendo, bibendo, seu quamcunque 
rem faciendo. Maledicti sint in domo, et extra domum, in 
agro et extra agrum, in foro et extra forum. Maledicti sint 
in silua, in aqua, in mari, et in omni loco ubicunque sub celo 
tuerint. Sint igitur dampnati cum Dathan et Abironc quos 
terra uiuus absorbuit. Sint dampnati cum Juda traditore 
Domini quern nec terra sustinuit, nec celum recepit, sed 
laqueo suspensus medius crepuit. Sint dampnati cum eis 
qui dixerunt domino suo recede a nobis, scientiam enim 
uiarum tuarum nolumus. Et sicut candela extinguitur ista, 
sic extinguatur memoria eorum ante Deum, et demergantur 
in inforno inferiori, nisi quoquo modo ad emendationem et 
satisfactionem uenerint, aut per se aut per alios hoc idem 
dampnum manifestauerint, amen, amen. Fiat, Fiat. 



THE ENGLISH CHURCH IN THE REIGNS OF ELIZABETH 
AND JAMES I. By W. H. Frere. London: Macmillan & Co. 
1904. 

It is a very remarkable thing that many people who could give a very 
fair account of the history of the Reformation in England down to the 
death of Queen Mary would be very much at a loss if they were asked to 
carry on the story through the reign of her sister. And it is as unfortunate 
as it is strange that this should be so, because it was in the reign of 
Elizabeth rather than in the days of her father or her brother that the 
constitution of the English Church took its present form ; and it is on the 
nature and history of the Elizabethan settlement rather than on matters 
which occurred in earlier reigns that attacks are now chiefly directed. It 
is only too true that the Church history of the reign of Elizabeth is not an 
attractive subject, for the Church of England — at any rate, in the early 
part of that period — was a very unlovely thing. Her beautiful churches 
were defaced, her bishops were for the most part men of mean capacity 
and low ideals, her clergy were insufficient in number, too often unlearned, 
and drawing their model of church government and worship from Germany 
and Switzerland rather than from the Book of Common Prayer, while the 
lay people were divided in opinion and distracted by Recusancy and 
Nonconformity. Yet it is impossible .to understand the position of the 
Church of England without a clear knowledge of the history of the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and it would be quite true to say that no part of the 
history of that Church has been more often misrepresented and misunder- 
stood than that of the forty years which followed the death of Queen Mary. 
From this point of view a book which should give a short, clear and 
accurate account of the Church history of the period has been much 
needed, and Mr. Frere' s book goes a very long way to supply the need. It 
has evidently been very carefully worked out, and at the end of each 
chapter is an excellent list of authorities bearing on the subject which has 
been dealt with. The work is a real addition to the knowledge of the 
period, fair, accurate and thorough, and is all the more helpful because 

15 A 



212 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



the clever chapter on the Elizabethan settlement in the Reformation 
volume of the Cambridge Modem History is so very untrustworthy. 

With regard to the book itself, there is a very careful account of the 
early months of the Queen's reign, the difficulties with the Marian bishops, 
and the difficulties — no less serious — with the Edwardine exiles, who had 
imbibed on the continent principles quite at variance with the Book of 
Common Prayer, and who in very many cases accepted the book not 
because they agreed with it, but because they hoped to make it quite 
other than what it was. When they had fled from England in the time 
of Queen Mary the Lutheran districts of Germany, being more under the 
influence of the emperor, had done little to receive them, so they took 
refuge chiefly in Switzerland, and when they returned their purpose was 
to reform the Church of England on a Swiss model — Calvinistic in 
theology and Presbyterian in discipline. Those who became bishops were 
for the most part very slack in enforcing conformity, while many of the 
clergy more or less completely disobeyed the directions of the Prayer 
Book. Mr. Frere traces out patiently and thoroughly the developement 
and growth of this foreign model in the English Church— first in flat 
disobedience, and then when the Queen's arm was too strong, through the 
" prophesyings," culminating in the audacious attempt by means of 
classes to set up a Presbyterian system under the Episcopate, and thus by 
cutting away the ground from beneath its feet to evacuate Episcopal 
government of all real power. No less difficult were the conditions which 
arose from those who adhered to the Marian regime. Cardinal Vaughan 1 
estimated that at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth the 
adherents of the old religion numbered half the population of the 
country, and if the estimate includes all who preferred the Catholicism of 
Henry VIII. or of Mary to the Protestantism of Edward VI., the estimate 
is certainly not beyond the mark. In this sense the Queen must be 
reckoned among the adherents of the old religion. At first the men of 
the Roman religion were tenderly dealt with, for it was seen that their 
system must die out for lack of clergy ; and as the Pope also stayed his 
hand against the Queen, there was peace so far as the adherents of Rome 
were concerned. But when in June, 1570, Pope Pius V. excommunicated 
the Queen, and soon afterwards constant relays of secular priests, Jesuits, 
and Benedictine monks from abroad invaded the land, the penal laws 
were put in force, and death, which was so often plotted against the 
Queen, was meted out unsparingly to the invaders. Above this chaos 
rudis indigestaque moles of Popery and Protestantism, Recusancy and Non- 
conformity, quiet devotion and bitter partizanship, which made up the 
English Church, one figure — that of the Queen — stands out clear and 
supreme. Ever ready to act on the principle, Pavccve subjictis et dcbcllare 
1 lincyc. Britt., ed. x., vol. xxxii., p. 275. 

i 



Notices of Publications. 



213 



superbos, the quiet Romanist and the devout Puritan might dwell in peace, 
the stubborn Recusant and the stiff Nonconformist alike were crushed. 
Two principles guided her action in Church matters : first, that the bishops 
must rely on their spiritual authority— over and over again when they 
sought aid from the secular arm they were forced to do their own work 
themselves; and, secondly, that the secular power must not interfere in 
spiritual things. With at least equal frequency when members of the 
House of Commons strove to interfere in Church matters they were 
sharply snubbed, and told to leave spiritual matters to spiritual men. 
The Queen's strength lay in the fact that she knew her own mind, and 
the strength of the Roman Recusant and the Protestant Nonconformist lay 
in the same fact. The weakness of the English Church lay in the fact 
that the Anglican Episcopate did not know its own mind. With its body 
in England and its heart in Geneva or Zurich, it was feeble and ineffective. 
The characters of the Queen and her archbishops are clearly and fairly 
drawn. Elizabeth was a true daughter of her father, with all his ability 
and skill in reading the minds of the people and drawing them to herself, 
yet with a policy and self-control in government taught by adversity which 
he never possessed. Without a shred of sympathy with Protestantism in 
its Lutheran or Calvinistic forms, she would probably have preferred the 
Church system in force during the last years of her father's life, but was 
wise enough to see that she must be content with her brother's English 
book. Hers was the hand that enforced conformity to the book and 
moulded the Church into shape. Parker, the quiet student, who accepted 
the primacy so unwillingly, and yet who by his love for all that was good 
in the old system, his learning and his moderation, worked for good by his 
gentleness, as the Queen worked by her strength ; Grindal, in whom 
mildness and sympathy sank into weakness ; Whitgift, the prelate after 
the queen's own heart, a Calvinist in doctrine though a thorough Episco- 
palian in discipline, yet one who knew well how to moderate the severity 
both of his doctrine and his discipline — was learned, upright, and 
generous : these were the three or four who moulded the Church of 
England into a form which could contain themselves and Cartwright and 
Hooker, as three centuries later it contained Lord Shaftesbury, Dr. Pusey, 
and Mr. Maurice ; and it is doubtful whether a National Church for so 
individualistic a people as the English could have been framed on any 
narrower basis. 

Mr. Frere's book will take a worthy place in the series of Histories o 
the English Church of which it forms a part, and it may be trusted to 
give "an accurate, broad-minded and sympathetic account of the very 
important period concerning which he has written. There is not much 
of a specially local character. Bishop Cheyney, who was consecrated to 
the See of Gloucester in 1562, and who held the Diocese of Bristol in 



214 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



commendam, was one of the few prelates of the period not under the 
influence of Calvinism, and was more than once in trouble on account of 
his so-called Lutheranism. Mr. Frere, like most writers on the period, 
assumes that Celebrations of the Holy Communion were infrequent ; but 
this conclusion is not borne out by a series of entries in the wardens' 
accounts of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol, for 1589. Easter fell on 
March 30th, and there are entries for the cost of bread and wine on every 
Sunday from March 16th to April 27th, also on Sundays, May 18th and 
25th, and June 1st, 8th, 22nd, and 2qth, as well as on Lady Day, Maundy 
Thursday, and Easter Eve. Generally the cost of the elements is stated 
by one or two entries in each year only. The Vestiarian controversy is 
carefully and not too lengthily dealt with. Concerning this matter, " one 
Embroidered Cope of Velvet" is mentioned in the wardens' inventory of 
property belonging to St. Thomas' Church in 1616, and if the wardens' 
accounts of the old Bristol churches were examined it would probably be 
found that the ancient vestments survived at least till the end of the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. They certainly remained in some of the churches, 
as the cope-chest has remained at St. Mary Redcliff to this day. But 
Bristol was happy in having no specially-marked ecclesiastical history at 
this period. 

REMAINS OF THE PREHISTORIC AGE IN ENGLAND. By 
Bertram C. Windle, F.R.S. London: Methuen & Co. 1904. 

The purpose of the book is stated to be to give an account of the present 
state of knowledge respecting the relics of prehistoric man in this country, 
and it may be said at once that the work is thoroughly well done. The 
book, of course, is addressed in the first instance to those who have a 
general but not very .extensive knowledge of the subject ; and to them it 
will be most helpful as giving thoroughly trustworthy information con- 
cerning the subject dealt with. While those whose knowledge is more 
advanced will find it useful as an accurate book of reference with regard 
to the elements of the subjects included in its scope. Special mention 
should be made of the figures, for in a series of subjects where so much 
depends on comparatively small points of difference, accurate represen- 
tation of details is absolutely needful. There are nearly one hundred 
illustrations, most of which have been specially drawn, and it is quite 
true to say that they are both well chosen and well executed. With regard 
to the method in which the subject is treated there is a refreshing absence 
of writing for the purpose of proving one aspect or another of a contro- 
verted subject ; the facts are related clearly and systematically, and they 
are not veiled under clouds of theories. As an instance of this clear, fair 
writing the ten pages at the end of the book on the " Physical Remains 



i 



Notices of Publications. 



215 



of Prehistoric Man " may be particularly mentioned. The question of 
the date and method of the appearance of the animal man on the earth is 
a purely physical one ; but anyone who recollects the thick clouds of 
prejudices and prepossessions and mistakes and hasty judgments which 
have obscured the discussion of the question in ,the last generation will be 
grateful for the few pages of clear light which are here given. Not much 
can be said on the subject in the space, but what is said is plain and to 
the point. ; 

After an introductory chapter the writer proceeds to speak of the 
method of manufacture of stone implements, and of the different types of 
stone implements; then of implements of copper, bronze, and bone. 
Afterwards there are chapters on burial places— long and round barrows ; 
megalithic remains ; earthworks — camps and dykes ; early habitations — 
pit-dwellings, pile-dwellings, and so forth ; the early Iron Age ; and finally 
on the physical remains of prehistoric man. At the end of each chapter 
there is a list of localities in England where the objects described have 
been found, or may be seen. With regard to these lists, as the writer 
says, they are experimental ; but they will be found to be very helpful. 
They do not claim to be perfect ; as an instance of error, the little dolmen 
at Stoke Bishop is mentioned under Somerset. The writer well re- 
members other stones evidently of a similar character which lay on the 
east side of the road to Coombe Dingle, but which disappeared about 
forty years ago what time a neighbouring road was metalled. Farmer 
Green, of Avebury, has his brethren in other shires. Though flint arrow- 
heads are common on Cotswold, our district is not strong as representative 
of the Stone Age ; but from the Bronze Age onwards there are few parts of 
England which afford better opportunities of studying the remains of pre- 
historic man than Gloucestershire and its surrounding districts. The 
Bristol Museum contains the bronze palstaves found a few years ago at 
Coombe Dingle, and another found at Banwell. There is hardly any 
better example in England of a long barrow than that at Uley, and 
Mr. Witts mentions forty long barrows as existing in Gloucestershire, 
while he records the existence of no fewer than 126 round barrows. So 
far as barrows and earthworks are concerned, no county in England has a 
better guide than that which is provided by Mr. G. B. Witts in his 
Archaological Hand-book to Gloucestershire. The Dolmen at Druids' Stoke is 
the only one in our district; it is now in the city of Bristol, and is 
probably the only structure of the sort existing in one of the great 
boroughs of England. Building operations are drawing perilously near to 
it, but as it lies close to a high road there ought to be no difficulty in 
preserving it from destruction. Four menihirion, or standing stones, are 
mentioned as existing on Cotswold, also the remains of a circle near 
Marshfield. With regard to earthworks, camps, and dykes, Mr. Witts 



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Transactions for the Year 1904. 



mentions no fewer than 112 examples of these works in Gloucestershire. 
Dwellers in all parts of our district will find them close to their doors — 
from the Clifton camps above the Suspension Bridge to Meon Hill Camp 
near Stratford-on-Avon, and from Offa's dyke by the Wye to Salmonsbury 
by Bourton-on-the- Water, near the Oxfordshire border. They are of all 
types. There are promontory forts — (a) by the sea like the "Bulwarks " 
at Beachley, where Buttington Tump still marks the place of victory over 
the Danes in 894 ; (b) inland, like the great fort on Bredon Hill, a plan of 
which is given. Hill-forts whose shape is determined by the form of the 
hill on which they stand, such as Oldbury Camp, near Thornbury, where 
the rings run round the hill. But complete circles are not common in 
Gloucestershire hill-camps as they are in Wilts and Dorset. More often 
the rings cut off a part of the level ground above an escarpment like 
Dyrham Camp, the scene of one of the decisive battles in English history, 
where Ceawlin in 577, by his victory over the Britons, won access for the 
West Saxons to the Severn Sea. Finally there are the plateau camps, 
which are situated on ground which is almost, or quite, flat. Such a 
camp is Salmonsbury, near Bourton-on-the- Water, which was very 
likely the scene of the crushing vengeance wreaked by Edwin of 
Northumbria in 626 on Cuichelm, of the West Saxons, who had 
tried to murder him. Other camps of the same kind are Norbury, near 
Northleach, and Bury Hill, near Winterbourne. Sodbury Camp is a 
good example of Roman work. Of dykes — boundary or otherwise — Offa's 
dyke starts from the entrenchments at Beachley and extends to the 
Dee ; it is the longest work of the kind in the country, extending over 
more than 100 miles, half as long again as the Roman wall and about 
twice as long as Wansdyke. But for practical purposes the most instruc- 
tive earthworks in our district are those at Bagendon, three miles north of 
Cirencester. Pit-dwellings may be seen at Drakestone, on Stinchcombe 
Hill, and at Westridge Hill, in Wotton-under-Edge, as well as near 
Amberley and in other places. Thus, with the exception of lake-dwellings 
and remains of the Stone Age, our district gives admirable examples of 
the various kinds of relics of prehistoric man found in England ; while 
Salisbury and Glastonbury are not far distant, and the Blackmore Museum 
at the former place contains one of the most instructive collections of 
stone implements in the country, and the museum at Glastonbury contains 
a good collection of objects found in the lake-village. At the end of the 
book is a suggestive list of English museums, showing the points in which 
each museum is deficient or most helpful. Altogether the book may 
be thoroughly recommended as providing a trustworthy introduction to 
its subject and as a good preparation for the study of the classical works 
which bear upon it. There is a helpful index, 



Notices of Publications. 



217 



PLACE-NAMES OF SCOTLAND. By James B. Johnston, B D. 

Second Edition. Edinburgh : David Douglas. 1903. 
The first edition of this book was published twelve years ago, so that 
the writer has had plenty of time to revise his earlier conclusions. By far 
the larger number of the pages are occupied with an alphabetical list 
of the place-names of Scotland, which is specially helpful because it gives 
under each name not only the meaning which the writer supposes the 
name to bear, but also ancient forms of the name with the dates at which 
they occur. Thus, for instance, it seems likely that the book may throw 
some light on the origin of the name Penny quick Bottom in Twerton, and 
we find: Penicuick (Midlothian). 1250, Penicock ; 1296, -ycoke. W. 
pen-y-cog, " hill of the cuckoo." No doubt it is likely that in so go-as-you- 
please a pursuit as that of place-names some readers will disagree with the 
meaning assigned, but at any rate the ancient forms provide to some 
extent a check on the imagination of the writer and a guide to the thoughts 
of the readers of the book. The more important names such as Edinburgh 
are fully dealt with. This place-name seems — like Malmesbury — to be 
capable of a double derivation. On the one hand there is the very ancient 
Irish form Elin in 638 leading on to Oppidum Eden in 970, and dun eadain, 
fort on the hill slope, which it is noted exactly suits the case, burgh being 
the English for dun. On the other hand, Ecclesia Sanctc Cruets Edivinesbur- 
gensis occurs in a Holyrood Charter about 1128, and Edwin of 
Northumbria died in 633, an earlier date than that of the oldest of the 
forms mentioned. A curious variant is oppidum puellarum, about 1140, 
suggesting a form like Maidenburgh, as Maiden Castle occurs in Dorset, 
though this last has nothing to do with girls. This alphabetical list, which 
probably contains about four thousand entries, is of course not intended to 
be an exhaustive list, but it probably gives a good idea of the nature of 
Scottish place-names. Some of these names are very quaint ; thus the 
Northumbrian Blink Bonny, the name of one of the triad of fillies which 
have won the Derby, is said to signify Belle Vue, a signification which 
would have certainly satisfied Mr. I 'Anson if he watched the race in 1857 i 
while Glowcr-o'er-em, the name of a farm which commands a noble view 
over Bamburgh and the Farne Islands is thus glossed: "Name of a hill 
with a fine view. Scottish glower is to stare, gaze." Possibly it was one 
of the spots whence men looked out over the storm-tossed sea during the 
five days in March, 687, when St Cuthbert lay dying alone and untended on 
Farne. There are separate chapters on Celtic, Norse, English and 
ecclesiastical names, while Roman, Norman, and purely modern names 
have a chapter between them. Englishmen may well leave the Celtic 
names to the dwellers north of Forth and Clyde. But with regard to the 
Norse names, as Mr. Johnston remarks : " Broad Scots, both in vocabulary 



Transactions for the Year I904. 



and pronunciation, approximates in scores of cases far more closely to 
Danish and Icelandic than modern English does." This witness is true. 
The present writer was once told by an officer of the Bergen Steamship 
Company that he brought some workmen from Glasgow to Norway to 
fit some of the steamers with electric light, that he then told the Scotchmen 
to talk broad Scots as broadly as they could, and they got on very 
well with their Norse companions with a little help from time to time. 
So there is some doubt whether certain place-names are Norse or English ; 
but Orkney and Shetland and large parts of the north and western coasts 
are thoroughly Scandinavian in their nomenclature. English names are 
of course common south of Forth and Clyde, except in the south-western 
land of Strathclyde Celt and Norseman ; but even so many names seem to 
be English that are not English, especially those which contain ing or ton. 
The ecclesiastical names are very interesting. In Orkney and Shetland 
we find papa used for a priest, just as every Russian parish priest is a 
pope now. Still more singular is Quanterness near Kirkwall, the See of 
the Bishop of Orkney, which is thus glossed: " From Icelandic Kantari, 
i.e. Canterbury, and meaning Bishop." Christianity came to Norway, 
Orkney, Shetland, and Iceland from England through the agency of the 
two Kings Olaf and certain combative bishops and priests, and so it came 
to pass that the bishops of these northern isles took the title of their office 
from Canterbury. The early Celtic missionary saints have left their mark 
on the place-names of the country. St. Ninian and St. Columba have 
each given a name to half a hundred churches, and even St. Martin, 
the teacher of St. Ninian, has his church; but in very many cases it 
is difficult to recognise the name of the saint in its present form. There 
are very few undoubted Roman names even in the south ; the Normans 
came to Scotland too late to call their lands by their own names ; the close 
intimacy between France and Scotland in later times left no mark in this 
way ; and the modern names are, as usual, tasteless and uninteresting. 
How far the book is a trustworthy guide it is impossible for a southerner 
to say, but it is evident that much care has been taken in its compilation 
and the antiquary as well as the historian and the philologist will find 
much that is both helpful and interesting in its pages. 

SOCIAL ENGLAND: A Record of the Progress of the People. Illus- 
trated Edition. Six volumes. London : Cassell & Co. 1901-04. 

The plan of Social England is probably familiar enough. The purpose is 
to show the social growth of the people as the history of the nation 
developed, and the purpose is thoroughly well worked out in a series of 
articles on various subjects by writers specially competent to deal with 
them. It is true that this method presupposes a fairly thorough knowledge 



t 



Notices of Publications. 



219 



of the outlines of English history, but the book does not profess to be an 
elementary one. It must be understood that this is not simply an illus- 
trated issue of the original edition ; it is essentially a new work, with an 
enlarged series of subjects, dealt with by additional writers. With regard 
to the illustrations, which form a new feature- in the work, they are so 
chosen and treated that they are not mere additions to the text, but enter 
into and form part of the story as it proceeds. They are chosen with 
evident care and sound judgment, and convey their lesson clearly and 
effectively. The first volume, for instance, contains pictures not only of 
great national monuments, such as Stonehenge, the Roman wall, or 
cathedrals and castles in later days, but also of flint implements and 
vessels of household use ; a page of Domesday, of the gospels and of law- 
books, with some very beautiful copies of illuminations ; the operations of 
husbandry and plans of houses ; so that there is hardly any aspect of 
social life which is not represented by picture. Each side of the life 
of the nation is thus dealt with in such a way that it would be quite 
possible to follow a single subject from the beginning to the end of the 
volumes, and anyone who did so would find himself very much helped by 
the pictures which form so important a feature of the history. It is 
doubtful where there is in existence another book which gives so clear 
and lifelike an account of the progress of the peoples who have lived in 
Britain from the earliest times until now. 



i 




i 



ON THE PARISH RECORDS OF 
THE CHURCH OF ALL SAINTS, BRISTOL. 



By E. G. CUTHBERT F. ATCHLEY. 

Near the centre of the old town of Bristol, not far from 
where once the high - cross stood, is the parish church of 
All Hallowen or All Saints. On the north side it is bounded 
by Corn Street ; on the west by Venny Lane, now called 
All Saints' Lane ; on the south and part of the east (chancel 
and south aisle) by another lane, but formerly by the 
cemetery ; while against the tower, which adjoins the east 
end of the north aisle, is and was a house. In 1464 it is 
recorded in the churchwardens' accounts that two houses 
next the steeple were burnt 1 by a drunken point-maker. 

Leland states that in the time of Henry II, Robert, Earl 
of Gloucester (a bastard son of Henry I), and Robert 
Hardinge translated the Fraternity of Kalendars from the 
church of the Holy Trinity (commonly called Christ Church) 
unto the church of All Hallowen. And after Hardinge had 
founded the monastery of St. Austin by Bristol, in 1148 — a 
house of Victorine black canons — to it was appropriated the 
church of All Hallowen, 2 and with them and their successors, 
the Dean and Chapter of Bristol, the rectory has ever since 
remained. This appears to be the earliest notice of the 
churtfh. When the tithes were granted to King Edward I 
for six years by Pope Nicholas IV, in 1290, towards the 
expenses of the Crusades, the portion of the Abbot of 

1 There has been some confusion between this fire and that which 
destroyed the Kalendar's Library in Journal Brit. Arch. Soc, 1875 ; xxxj, 264. 

2 John Leland, Itinerary, Oxford, 1769; vij, 94, 

16 

Vol. XXVII. 



222 



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St. Austin in this benefice 1 was assessed at £1 10s. od. and 
the tithe at 3s. od. 

The present building has been repaired and rebuilt in the 
eighteenth century, and suffered from "restoration" in the 
nineteenth, with the consequence that the medieval tomb- 
stones mentioned by Barrett 2 have disappeared. As it now 
stands, the church consists of a nave and two aisles, and a 
chancel more or less modern. The nave has five bays, two 
Norman, three Gothic. Resting upon the Norman pillars at 
the west end of the nave, and so filling up the western ends 
of each aisle above, intrude two buildings; below, they only 
diminish the width of the aisles by about half. That on the: 
north was the house of the Kalendars, while on the south 
was the vicar's manse, built by Sir Thomas Marshall, who 
died in 1434. Of the original buildings the doorway of the 
vicarage remains. At the east end of the north aisle is a 
square tower, which terminates in a cupola of eighteenth- 
century date ; William Worcester 3 mentions this square 
tower for bells (titrrim quadvatam pro campanis pulsantibus), and 
gives the length of the church as 23 rods, and the width as 
20 rods or 34 steps. 

In the vestry of this church is preserved a large bound 
volume entitled on the back, " Minutes of All Saints' Parish 
In the Reign of Edward IIII." It is manuscript, written on 
paper 21 centimetres across and 29 centimetres high. The 
leaves have been paginated in a modern hand. The water- 
mark is a cow's head eared and horned ; between the horns, 
arises a line crossed near its upper end by an X. The chief 
part of the book is written in a bold hand, clear and well- 
formed, which ceases after page 551, on which the accounts 
for the year March 27th, 8 Edward IV (1468), to March 26th, 
9 Edward IV (1469), end. This handwriting has heen 

1 Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae, Record Commission, 1802; 
p. 220. 

a W. Barrett, History and Antiquities of Bristol, Bristol, 1789 ; pp. 442, 

446. 

3 Itineraria Symonis Simeonis et Willelmi de Worcestre, ed. J. Nasmith t 
Cantabrigiac, 1778; pp. 216, 227-8. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 223 



ascribed to Robert Ricart, town clerk of Bristol 1 in the 
second half of the fifteenth century ; but on comparing it 
side by side with the Kalendar preserved at the Council 
House — a large portion of which has been written by Ricart, 
and which is known by his name — it became clear that 
there is a marked dissimilarity between the two hands. 
For instance, Ricart makes his small h's with one stroke of 
the pen, but the All Saints' writer uses two ; Ricart's h is 
rounded, and approximates towards the modern German 
cursive h, but the All Saints' writer makes his with sharp 
angles. He also uses the jugum (5) freely, which Ricart does 
not. On the other hand, on page 83 of the All Saints' MS 
itself, and in the above-mentioned hand, we read, in the list 
of Maurice Hardwick's benefactions, that " he laboured to 
compile and make this book, for to be a memorial and a 
remembrance for ever, for the Curates and the Church- 
wardens that shall be for the time, that every man to put in 
yearly his account for an evidence of the livelihood of the 
church ; and for to put in names of the Good-doers, and the 
names of the wardens of the church, and what good they 
doeth in their days, that now they might yearly be prayed 
for." To which is added in a later hand, " And Sir John 
Thomas helped too, and wrote this Book." At first sight this 
reads as though Thomas had written the whole of the book 
in the original hand, while Hardwick had got together and 
arranged the materials. 

Maurice Hardwick died in 1472 or 1473, and John 
Thomas did not become vicar until some years after. 

But there are a good many additions to the contents of 

1 The Main of Bristowe is Kalendar, Camden Society, 1872; p. iv. It 
has been a popular opinion amongst Bristol historians that Ricart was a 
member of the Fraternity of Kalendars, and many silly remarks have 
been made concerning "his monkish mind" and so forth. There does 
not appear to be the very least foundation for the notion, or for the 
kindred idea that he was in some way connected with All Saints. I 
have read every one of the numerous deeds preserved in that church, 
and his name never once occurs. The late Mr. Latimer told me that 
he had never been able to find any connection between All Saints and 
Ricart. 



224 



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this volume which are in the same hand as the note about 
Sir John Thomas; so that it is most probable that Hardwick 
wrote the original hand, which ceases some two years or 
more before his death, while Thomas wrote a large portion 
of the additions. 

There are 551 original leaves in the MS, but the first 
four have not been paginated ; consequently the last page 
is only numbered 1094. 

The binding is comparatively modern, about the end of 
the eighteenth or beginning of the nineteenth century. 

The contents of this volume are, briefly, (1) some 
ordinances by the parish, (2) a list of benefactors and their 
gifts, (3) inventories of church goods, and (4) churchwardens' 
accounts. 

The first regulation is a common one — against letting 
any of the books be taken out of the church. It is followed 
by an arrangement for providing the clerk's board and wages. 
The proctors or wardens were to appoint seven parishioners 
every year, going through the whole parish in turn, whose 
duty it was to provide the clerk's board. There was an 
assessment committee appointed for determining how much 
each parishioner had to pay towards the clerk's wages, 
composed of three persons, elected by the parish — " one of 
the worshipful, and two of the mean of the said parish." 
From its composition we may presume that the poorer 
parishioners were not unduly rated ; and if any parishioner 
refused to pay he was compelled to abstain from Husel on the 
following Easter. If he were still contumacious, the abstinence 
from Husel was to be prolonged until the dues had been paid. 

Then ensues a short set of rules for governing the clerk's 

behaviour and determining his duties. It is much shorter 

than the similar regulations drawn up by the vestry of the 

neighbouring church of St. Nicholas, or the Office of the 

Deacons of Coventry, or the Duties of the Clerks and Sexton 

of Faversham, and other similar documents. 1 In the first 

1 Dr. J. Wickhara Legg has printed these in the Appendices to his 
edition of The Clerk's Book of 1549 (Henry Bradshaw Society, 1903^, with 
many learned notes. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 225 



place, the clerk of All Saints, Bristol, had to be "true and 
profitable unto the church unto his power," in taking care 
of the vestments, books, jewels, and all other ornaments, 
in opening and shutting the church doors at the appointed 
times, and duly searching the church' to see that no one was 
hiding therein with intent to obtain a night's lodging gratis 
or other even less desirable purpose. He might perform the 
latter duty by deputy if he could find one " of true and sad 
disposition." The usual injunction to obey the vicar in all 
things lawful follows. He was to be " lovingly attendant " 
on him both during divine service and in visiting the sick, 
and to give up all oblations to the vicar, as well as everything 
lost in the church, iri order that inquiry might be made as 
to whom it belonged. The medieval clerks seem to have 
been under considerable suspicion of gossiping, and the 
rules that have come down to us sometimes make special 
point of their not making mischief between the vicar and 
his parishioners. We find this in the Faversham rules arid 
those of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, London, and we find 
it here at All Saints, where the clerk was forbidden to bear 
" tales between the vicar and his brethren, nor between him 
and his parishioners, nor between neighbour and neighbour 
whereby any occasion of strife or debate " should arise. 
Further, he had to see that the church was kept clean, 
both in its "roofs, windows, pillars, walls, and the ground, 
stalls, seges, and specially the altars." 

In the year 1488 (probably the spring of 1488-9), Sir 
John Thomas being vicar, and Richard Stevyns and Thomas 
Pernant being churchwardens, the parishioners found it 
needful to ordain that anyone who failed to turn up on the 
day announced by the vicar on the preceding Sunday for the 
audit of accounts, after the great bell had been tolled thrice, 
should be fined. If he belonged to the parish council, the 
fine was one pound of wax, if not, six pounds, unless the 
culprit had some reasonable excuse to offer. At the same 
time, apparently, there was some difficulty experienced in 
getting men to serve as churchwardens ; for it was enacted 



226 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



that whosoever was "chosen proctor by the most voice of the 
parishioners, if he refuse it that is so chosen, shall pay unto 
this said church of All Hallowen, to be put into the Treasure 
Coffer in money, without pardon or release of the whole or of 
part, 6s. 8d." And should he be chosen again in after years 
the same penalty was to be enforced as often as he refused, 
" unless his excuse by the parish may be found the more 
reasonable." And if any man refused to be " proctor of Jhc," 
i.e. warden of the service or gild of Jesus, he had to pay to 
the treasury thereof 35. \d. 

At the same time it was determined that " the advice and. 
consent of the Substance of the parishioners" should be 
obtained before the churchwardens let any house belonging 
to the church for a term of years, or abated any rent from 
any house, under a penalty of £20. Another abuse that had 
grown up towards the end of the fifteenth century was the 
increasing expense of the General Mind for the good doers 
to the church. In the earlier part of the century it varied 
considerably. Thus in 1408 it was \s. io^d., in 1428 it was 
2s. 6d., in 1429 35. iod., in 1433 only 25., while in 1437 it was 
as low as gd. In 1450 it was 2s. \d., but in 1473 as much as 
115. lod. was spent, which five years later was increased 
to 13s. 3^., and went on increasing still further until the 
parishioners at last objected. And here it may be mentioned 
that this was not a Protestant disapprobation of the affair, for 
the increased expenses were caused by extras for the dinner 
in connection with the General Mind, and not with the 
ecclesiastical part of it. Let us first see what the parish 
settled : " Henceforward the costs of the General Mind 
exceed not the sum of 135. 4^., and if they do the residue 
that cometh over shall be at the charge of the elder proctor 
in office, and not at the charge of the church." The costs 
of the General Mind in the year in which this economical 
resolution was passed (i.e. Christmas, 1487, to Christmas, 1488) 
were 205. yd., made up as follows : In pvimis, 2 bushells of 
flower, 25. 6d. ; i£ oz. of saffron, 14^. ; cloves and maces, 2d. ; 
balm, id. ; for bread to poor people, 6d.; for baking of the 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 227 



cakes, 8d. ; for a potell of wine to the cakes, $d. ; for a lb. 
sugar to the cakes, \d. ; for oil to the cakes, id. ; for 2 dozen 
ale, 3s. ; for spices to the same ale, 6d. ; for 2 gallons Roscolye, 
16^. ; for a quart claret wine to the mayor, id. ; for a gallon 
Roscolye, 8d. ; for 4 gallons and id. pot of osey, 35. 5^. ; for 
4 gallons of claret wine, is. 8d. ; to the vicar for his Dirge, \d. ; 
to 5 priests for their Dirge, 1 $d. ; to the clerk for his Dirge 
and bells, i^d. ; for offering at the mass, id. Next year the 
effect of the above rule is seen in the reduction of the 
expenses to 135. gd. As Richard Stevyns and Thomas 
Pernaunt were the wardens who presented the accounts 
for the year, Christmas, 1488, to Christmas, 1489, the rule 
would seem to have been passed shortly before Lent of 
1488-9. The following year the General Mind cost 13s. 3^., 
and in 1491 they only spent us. yd. 

Another matter in connection with the same was altered 
on the same occasion. Previously the General Mind had 
been held on Ash Wednesday, but in future it was deter- 
mined to keep it on the Thursday following, when the 
Dirge was sung, and the mass, as usual, on the morrow, 
on Friday. 

Further economy was effected by abolishing the Corpus 
Christi Dinner and substituting a payment in cash to the 
priests and clerks taking part in the procession. 

From page 7 to page 67 there are only headings to the 
blank leaves. Space is provided for " the names of the 
Conducts that hath books, vestments, and Chalices of the said 
Church." Conducts, sacerdotes conducti, were priests hired by 
the year 1 to sing masses for souls. Then follows space for 
the " Debtors that oweth good to the said Church," and for 
the names of those who held the " Keys of the Treasury." 
To this succeeds the list of the " Names of Good Doers" or 
benefactors, with their benefactions, given "to the church 
of All Hallowen in Bristol, unto the honour and worship of 
Almighty God, and increasing of Divine Service, to be showed 

1 Gul. Lindewode, Provinciale, Lib. Ill ; Tit. De celebratione missarum : 
Cap. Sacerdotes caueant : Verb. Pro defuncto : Antwerpie, 1525 ; fol. clxv verso. 



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Transactions for the Year 1904. 



and declared unto the parishioners on the Sunday before 
Ash Wednesday, at High Mass, and yearly to be con- 
tinued, as followeth : — Whereas it hath been of a laudable 
custom, and of long continuance used, that on this day — that 
is to say, the Sunday before Ash Wednesday — the names of 
.good-doers and wellwillers by whom livelihood, tenements, 
buildings, jewels, books, chalices, vestments, with divers 
other ornaments and goods as followeth, hath been given 
unto this church, unto the honour and worship of Almighty 
God, and increasing of Divine service, to be rehearsed and 
showed yearly unto you by name, both man and woman, and 
what benefits they did for themselves and for their friends 
and for others by their lifetimes, and what they left for them 
to be done after their days ; that they shall not be forgotten, 
but be had in remembrance and be prayed for of all this 
parish that be now, and of all them that be to come; and 
also for an example to all you that be now living, that ye 
may likewise do for yourself and for your friends while ye be 
in this world, that after this transitory life ye may be had 
in the number of good-doers rehearsed by name, and in 
special prayers of Christian people in time coming, that by 
the infinite mercy of Almighty God, by the intercession of 
our blessed Lady and of all blessed saints of heaven, in 
whose honour and worship this church is dedicate, ye may 
come to the everlasting bliss and joy that our blessed Lord 
hath redeemed you unto. Amen." 

Pages 69 to 74 are taken up with the names of those who 
have given "livelihood and tenements" to the church. In 
many cases the original deeds from which the catalogue was 
compiled are still in existence, either in All Saints or 
elsewhere. In other cases they have vanished, or at least, 
I have not been able to find them. Such deeds as remain, 
however, show that the compiler, who endorsed all the deeds 
which he entered in this book, noted the use to which the 
benefaction was put in the fifteenth century instead of that 
for which it was originally designated. For instance, John 
de Yate, draper, bequeathed some land to the service of 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 



229 



St. Mary of All Saints, 1 which was leased in 1286 or 1290 to 
one John Kyft, who had to pay 8s. silver to the Fraternity of 
Kalendars, i2d. to the support of a lamp burning before the 
altar of St. Margaret in All Saints' Church (the only mention 
of an altar therein with that dedication), and 35. to the 
service of St. Mary. The compiler, Sir Maurice Hardwick, 
or whoever he may have been, sets it down as "to find 
5 tapers before our Lady Altar," to which information a later 
compiler adds "at Jesus anthem." Therefore the statement 
of the compiler that Martin Draper gave i2d. out of a house 
in Lewin's Mead to find a lamp before the altar of the Holy 
Rood cannot be taken as evidence that there was an altar 
with that dedication about the middle of the thirteenth 
century, when Martin Draper lived. But on this see below. 

One quaint remark in this part of the volume deserves 
notice. No rent had been paid for a house in Marsh Street 
belonging to the church since the second year of Edward IV 
by the tenant, John Shipward the elder. "God amend 
him ! " adds the compiler. In 1484, however, his son delivered 
them their old possession again. Another matter of interest 
is a mistake which shows that the handwriting of 150 years 
before was not easily read by the men of 1450. It is recorded 
on page 74 that Harry Muellard gave a house in Wynch 
Street (now Wine Street) to Sir William Mooche, vicar of 
the church. But the original deed is preserved at All Saints, 
endorsed in the same hand as the entry in the book of records, 
" yn Wynchestrete, xiji." On inspecting this it became 
obvious that Hardwick, or whoever wrote the record, mistook 
the old-fashioned S for an M, and the names really are Henry 
Snellard and William Scoche. The mistake is the more curious 
in that four words ahead the S of Sanctorum is formed in the 
same manner, and should have given the clue. The grant 
mentions the name of a rector of the church of St. Lawrence,. 
Bristol, now destroyed, one William Mannig. The date of 
the MS is either 1290, 1286, or 1285. The last gift recorded 

1 This document is printed at length in Archaeological Journal, 1901 
lviij, 167. 



230 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



is that of a tenement in High Street, called " the Roze " 
(according to the sixteenth century endorsement of Agnes 
Fylour's will), given by (Thomas and) Agnes Fylour in 1467, 
on condition that the vicar and churchwardens of All Saints 
kept her obit year on 20th November, "after the tenor of her 
testament." The vicar on that occasion received in all 2*., 
half "for his wax at Dirge and mass brennyng," half for 
overseeing the obit, and ut habeat me recommendatam dotninicaUm 
inter alios dicte ecclesie benefactores, as it is expressed in her will, 
which is preserved at All Saints. 

The next section of the book is occupied with the "names 
of Vicars and priests that hath been good-doers unto the said 
church." The names are not all in strict chronological order, 
as the earliest comes second. Sir William Selk bequeathed 
in 1270 a number of interesting objects to the church. His 
will is now in the possession of Mr. Francis F. Fox, and has 
been printed in facsimile in the Transactions of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for 1 890-1 (plate xxxv, oppo- 
site page 314). The gifts comprised a mass-book, de usu Sarum 1 ; 
a grail, well bound, having a proc.essioner and ordinal, a troper 
for the whole year, together with one for our Lady's masses, 
and many other very useful matters, all in one volume; and 
another grail unbound, having a processioner and ordinal, 
and troper for the whole year, in one volume ; a volume of 
Constitutions and Penitentiary, a good psalter, and a manual, 
with a hymner and other useful matters. Besides these books 
there was a number of other things of varying value, chief of 
which were a little brass candlestick that formerly belonged 
to St. Thomas of Canterbury, and some powder of that saint's 
headpan. The entry of these is duly struck out in later ink, 
no doubt in obedience to Henry VIII's orders. Mentioned 
in the will, but not in the book of records, are several minor 
gifts, such as " a painted wooden cup for the Eucharist," and 

1 The use of Sarum was observed at the chapel of the Holy Spirit in 
Redcliffe Churchyard in 1254 (Hist. MSS Commission, Report on Wells 
Cathedral MSS, Appx., 1885 ; vol. 10, pt. iij, p. 173). The Rectory of 
Bedminster and Redcliff formed the endowment of a Prebend at Salisbury 
Cathedral, so that Sarum influence would have been strong in Redcliff. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 231 



*' a large chest to keep the Corpus Christi and the vestments 
in." The custom of hanging the pix over the high altar had 
evidently not been introduced at this date into All Saints. 
Other gifts were an unpainted wooden eagle, two processional 
crosses and their staves, his censer, his* processional Dragon 
(banner for Rogations), a painted tray or salver for holy 
bread, three pair of corporasses and their cases, two surplices 
and two rochets. Selk also gave 2s. rent assize out of some 
land in Skate-pulle, afterwards Marsh Street, to sustain a 
lamp, 1 burning in All Saints by night, for the souls of John Selk 
his father and Isabel his mother, as well as his predecessors 
and successors at All Saints. 

Sir Walter Isgar, vicar of All Saints, died December 1st, 
1 32 1. He gave half a breviary and an ordinal, and obtained 
the confirmation of all the indulgences pertaining to the house 
of the Kalendars. 

Sir Thomas Marshall 2 died June 3 7th, 1434. According 
to Barrett, there was in the eighteenth century (?), in the 
middle aisle of the church a stone with this inscription : 
"Hie iacet Thomas Marshall, vir bonae memoriae, quondam vicarins 
hums ecclesiae, qui obiit 17. die Junii A.D. 1434 cuius ammae 
propitietur Deus, Amen.'" The stone is gone now, as the church 
has been "thoroughly restored," so that one cannot verify 
the date. There was once a document concerning the 
foundation of the vicarage and his obit in the church, but 
that too is gone. Marshall's " good deeds " comprise the 
gift of a large mass-book, an antiphoner and psalter, a 
processioner and two pair of vestments. He also paid for 

1 " Ad Lampadem per noctem in eadem ecclesia ardentem." MS. 
deeds 24, 79, 160, 16S, at Bristol Museum Library. In the early part of 
the nineteenth century all these deeds were at All Saints. 

B A deed entitled Fundatio Mahsi Vicarii Omnium Sanctorum is in the 
registers of the cathedral church of Worcester (Morgan, vol. i., fol. 70), 
according to William Barrett, History and Antiquities of the City of Bristol, 
Bristol^ 1789 ; p. 438. The obit was to be kept January 7th. The list of 
medieval tombstones is on p. 446. 

3 On p. 78 of the MS the date is given as "Annodomini M°CCCC" 10 . 
xxxiiij 0 vij die Junij " ; Barrett, however, stated that on his grave the date 
was June 17th. 



232 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



the glazing of two windows in the south or Rood Aisle, one 
depicting the seven corporal works of mercy, and the other 
the seven sacraments. Moreover he put in a gable window 
in the quire " for ease of light, on the south side thereof, over 
the presbytery " or sedilia. Finally he built a vicarage, about 
1422 a.d., for himself and his successors to dwell in. 

Sir Richard Parkhouse, another vicar, gave a pair of 
light green cloth of gold vestments and two torches to the 
church in 1436. 

After the good deeds of Sir William Rodberd in 1453 — 
of which the most important was £6 135. \d. for the ceiling 
of the back of the church — and a small gift from Sir Harry 
Colas, fellow of the Kalendars, come the benefactions of 
Sir John Gyllarde, prior of that fraternity, who died June 
28th, 145 1. His own individual gifts were a paxbred, a 
processioner and four seats in the Rood Aisle. But in 
conjunction with one Richard Haddon he "let make" a 
tabernacle of gold and silver to set on the high altar on high 
festivals, with a figure of " Saint Saviour" and two figures of 
John Haddon and Christiana his wife, with angels, which 
was valued at £10. They also " let made of their own free- 
will" the chapel of our Lady on the north side of the church, 
commonly called Jesus Aisle, and " worshipfully glazed it with 
the story of Te Deum lattdamus," on behalf of the souls of 
the said John Haddon and Christian his wife, who had 
bequeathed twenty marks for the repair of the chapel ; but 
the aforesaid Gyllarde and Haddon " built of the new out of 
the ground the said chapel," at the cost of £227. They also 
lent £100 to the vicar and parish to rebuild a house in High 
Street belonging to the church, called "the Green Lattice." 
Over the new aisle they built a room for the Kalendars r 
Library, 1 which was open to the public on festivals in 1464, 
when the prior was at hand to explain obscure and doubtful 

1 Dr. John Carpenter, Bishop of Worcester, gave these rules in 1464 
(W. Barrett, History and Antiquities of Bristol, Bristol, 1789; pp. 453-4). 
Barrett says " at two hours before nine and for two hours after." Should 
it not have been " two hours before and after None " ? that is, from 1 p.m. 
to 5 p. m . 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 233 



passages to all who asked him, to the best of his ability ; and 
every week he was required to read a public lecture in the 
same library. 

The chauntry founded at the Lady Altar by John and 
Christian Haddon came to an untimely end, as one John 
Hawkys embezzled the deeds, and so " the chauntry is 
destroyed. God amend him ! " 

Sir Maurice Hardwick's greatest benefaction, to posterity, 
if not to his contemporaries, was undoubtedly the volume 
which is under consideration, and which we have discussed 
above. He seems to have been fairly wealthy, judging by 
the numbers of gifts and the period over which their donation 
extends. Besides a number of vestments and hangings, he 
gave an image of St. Ursula, made of wood, " to excite people 
to devotion," and gilded " the image of All Hallowen in 
burnished gold " and the Crucifix with the Sun." His 
orderly instincts, which appeared in the compilation of this 
book of records, were further seen in his gift of a coffer, with 
a lock and key, to hold the church deeds, "where before they 
lay abroad, likely to be embezzled and myschesed." Hard- 
wick also "procured, moved, and stirred " Agnes Fylour to 
give " her said house, in the which she dwelt in, in the High 
Street in the south side of the Green Lattice " ; at her death 
however, her son Thomas wished to break the will and aliene 
the house to his own use, even going so far as to promise 
*' the said Sir Maurice great good to assist him." But Hard- 
wick was not to be bribed, and with the churchwardens " by 
plea withstood him." 

Hardwick added four quires of vellum to the antiphoner 
lying before the vicar, and had all the chapters and collects 
for the year — temporale. sanctorale, and common — written 
thereon, and at the end of the said quires the benisons 
throughout the year. 

Chained to a pillar on the south side of the church, 
within the enterclose before the Rood Altar, was a porthors 
or breviary given by Sir William Warens, some time priest 
of Halleway's Chauntry, " to the ease of all manner priests 



234 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



to say their service when they have not their own books with 
them." 

Another benefactor in a small way was Sir Thomas 
Haxby, a brother of the Kalendars, who died in 1484. At 
one time he held the office of parish clerk, and the following 
excellent testimonial is recorded of him : " He was a well- 
willed man in all his days, and a profitable unto this church, 
and specially when he was common servant in this parish, 
that is to say parish clerk ; and that 28 years together no 
clerk in this town [was] like unto him in cleanness and in 
attending in those days : and as profitable he was unto the 
Kalendars." 

Master John Herlowe, 1 sometime prior of the Kalendars,. 
and parson of St. Stephen's, Bristol, gave seventy-five 
" flowers of gold " that cost 535. \d. for the lighting and 
garnishing of the high altar of All Saints' Church, as well as 
a book for the organ for use at matins and evensong. 

The ceiling of the roof of the quire was paid for " of his 
own goods" by Sir John Thomas during his vicariate, though 
properly that should have been done by the rectors, the abbot 
and convent of St. Austin. 

After forty-six blank pages comes another section devoted 
to lay benefactors, headed: "These be the names of all the 
good-doers and benefactors unto the said church, viz. parish- 
ioners et de aliis. parochibtts." In the forefront of these comes 
,a magnificent gift from one Roger the Gurdeler of a pix to 
hold the reserved Eucharist at the high altar and to carry 
the Husel to the sick. The original deed is still at All Saints, 
beautifully written on parchment, and dated December 24th, 
1303. It is endorsed in the same hand as the entry in the 
book of records.'- The full text may be seen in Archaeological 
Journal, 1901 ; lviij, 170 sq. It is described as "a Coope of 

1 Herlowe died on December 6th, i486. He was rector of St. Stephen's 
in 1473, but I do not know that he held the two benefices concurrently 
(Wadley's Notes, 160). 

2 In the endorsement of the original deed these two vessels are called 
" the Cowpe and the Cuppe." Coupe, O. Fr. Coupe, means a large bowl, 
originally a tub or barrel. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 235 



silver, gilt within and without, with a cover and a crucifix on 
the head, with precious stones worshipfully endued " (" unam 
Cuppam, cum Coopertorio, de argento deauratam infra et extra, cum 
una Cruce et ymagine argenteis similiter deauratis supra existentibus, 
cum longo pede, lapidibus omato, similiter deaurato, ponderis sexaginta 
et septem solidorum argenti^) "and a little cuppe . . . ygilt " 
(" et infra sanctem Cuppam quoddam vas argenteum, ad modum Cyphi 
fabrication, ponderis duorum solidorum et sex denariorum argenti"). 
At some later period a spoon was added, but there is nothing 
about it in the original grant. And for the better ward of 
the same a solemn curse was appended against any and all 
who aliened, sold, or broke the said Coope and Cuppe, 
pronounced pulsatis campanis et candelis accensis, by the then 
vicar, Sir William Scoche. 

The goldsmiths of Bristol, who lived in the High Street, 
gave a tabernacle in the middle of the high altar of silver- 
gilt, adorned with precious stones, containing a representation 
of the Coronation of our Lady, " with a ruby imperial over 
the head," valued at £20. This stone is described as a 
sapphire in the Latin inventory of 1395. 

Dr. John Carpenter, Bishop of Worcester (1444-76), 
in which diocese Bristol then was, granted forty days' 
indulgence on every principal feast when a chalice and 
paten presented by one Julian Papnam (Papenham ?) was 
" sung with." 

A gift on which a great many historians of Bristol have 
exercised their imaginative faculties is the following. 
William Wytteney, who appears to have been a cordwainer 
and to have died about 1448, made a painting on canvas 
(or some other such stuff) of the Dance of Pauls, at a cost 
of ^"43, "that every man should remember his own death." 
A similar adornment belonged to the church of the Holy 
Trinity, Long Melford, 1 in 1529, when there were " three- 
, long cloths hanging before the Roodloft, stained or painted, 
with the Dawnce of Powlis." There are payments annually 

1 J. P. Neale, Views of . . . Collegiate and Parochial Churches, London, 
1825 ; ij. 20. 



236 Transactions for the Year J904. 



at All Saints for unrolling it, hanging it up, and rolling it up 
again. It was hung on a "battlement" before the south 
door in the church (accounts for 18 Edward IV). 

Imagination has run riot in guessing what the Dance of 
Pauls could be. One writer 1 read it "Dance of Souls"; 
another, in correction, rightly reads Dance of "Powlys," but 
explains the word as "polls" or heads, and is sure it means 
a puppet dance. 2 There can be no question, however, that 
it really was a painting of the Dance of Death, copied from, 
or after the style of, that in St. Paul's Churchyard. " There 
was also," says Stow, 3 " one great Cloyster on the north side 
of" St. Paul's Cathedral Church, "of old time called Pardon 
Churchyard. . . . About this Cloyster was artificially and 
richly painted the Dance of Machabray, or Dance of Death, 
commonly called the Dance of Pauls. 1 " 

William Wytteney also gave a Primer 4 to the church, 
" which stood in the grate under Saint Christopher's foot. 
And the said book was stolen, and found at St. James' in 
Calais, and brought home and newly y-grated. And since 
[is] y- stolen again." So that even in that blessed period, 
when everybody was holy, &c, there were persons capable of 
stealing a Prayer-book out of a church. • 

The name of Thomas Halleway was associated with the 
church for a long time. He was several times churchwarden, 
and was " most well-willed to all good works of the church, 
to oversee the reparations of the church, four times a year 
coming in his coat [as] mayor, and after he was mayor." 
He founded a chauntry 5 at the altar of SS. John Baptist, John 

1 H. Rogers, The Calendars of All Halloiven, Brystowe, Bristol, 1846 ; p. 193. 
2 Journal of the British Archaological Association, 1875 ; xxxj 264. 
s John Stow, The Survey of London, London, 1633 ; p. 354. 

4 Mr. Rogers has written quite a pleasing novelette on the adventures 
of this Primer in his book on the Kalendars, pp. 193 sq. He reads " Seynt 
Jamys yn Galeys" into St. James at Compostella. But I cannot think 
that he is right in so doing. 

5 I have given some account of this chauntry, with as many of the 
original documents as could be found, in the Transactions of the Bristol and. 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, vol. xxiv, pp. 74 sq. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 



237 



the Evangelist, and Dunstan, and made the seats or pews 
before that altar at a cost of Besides his gifts to the 

chauntry he endowed the light before the Eucharist in the 
quire with 8s. a year, and gave to the, church "a worshipful 
jewel with two angels, and two stones of crystal, called a 
monstrant, to bear the precious sacrament, with divers relics 
closed in the same," of gold and silver, which weighed 57^ oz. 
One notice of it says that it was " to bear the blessed Sacra- 
ment in on Corpus Christi Day." 

The next benefactions of importance were given by one 
Harry Chestyr and Alson his wife, ancestors of several well- 
known families of the .present day. He died in 1471 and his 
wife in i486. The entry tells us that "in the worship of 
Jesus, to the foundation of a mass of Jesus by note to be 
kept and continued every Friday in this church, likewise an 
anthem, the said Harry and Alice have given to this church 
a tenement in Broad Street, where that sometime William 
Rowe, brewer, dwelt in ; to this intent, that they be prayed 
for every Friday at the mass by name, and also an obit to 
be kept for them yearly for ever on every St. Valentine's 
Day, on the which day the said Harry deceased, the year of 
our Lord 14?-?. " At some time the thirteenth-century bequest 
of John de Yate towards a lamp at St. Margaret's Altar, and 
to the service of St. Mary, was diverted " to find 5 tapers 
before our Lady Altar at Jesus Anthem." At the end of the 
fifteenth century Dame Maud Spicer "provided 3 tapers of 
wax before the image of Jesus, then to burn at Jesus Mass 
on the Friday and at the anthem at night." 

Jesus Mass was, as I have elsewhere shown, the Sarum 
Mass de nomine Jesu : and the anthem an imitation of the 
famous Salve Regina, which is found in some Primers of the 
sixteenth century. 1 

Ii\ the book of records the accounts of the Fraternity of 
Jesus are entered for 1490 and 1491, but there is little of 
interest in them. In 1500 the churchwardens' accounts show 

1 Transactions of the St. PauVs Ecclesiological Society, vol. v, pt. iij, pp. 
163 sq. 

J 7 

Vol. XXVII. 



238 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



that the singers of Jesus Mass received 20s. for the half-year, 
and in 1539 there are payments to the clerk, sexton, and the 
vicar for the same service. Mention is made of the Jesus 
Light in 1538. 

Let us continue the account of benefactions. Alice Chester 
enriched the church with much carving and valuable presents 
of hangings, ornaments, &c, amongst which may be named 
the great latten bason to wash relics in on Relic Sunday, a 
cross of silver-gilt enamelled with Mary and John, and a 
horse-cloth. And " being in good prosperity and health of 
body [in 1483], considering the roodloft of this church was 
but single, and nothing beauty according to the parish intent, 
she, taking to her counsel the worshipful of the parish, with 
others having best understanding and sights in carving, to the 
honour and worship of Almighty God and his saints, and of 
her special devotion unto this church, hath let to be made a 
new roodloft in carved work, fulfilled with 22 images, on her 
own proper cost ; of the which images be 3 principal, a 
Trinity in the middle, a Christopher in the north side, and 
a Michael in the south side : and besides this, the 2 pillars 
bearing up the loft, every one having 4 houses set on in 
carved work, and within every house an image." 

Costly too were the gifts of John Leynell and his wife 
Katherin, who seems to have been a draper 1 in High Street. 
Amongst other ornaments must be named the "great pair of 
latten candlesticks, called Standards, for the quire, where afore 
we had but two, and now we have four : and also where we 
were wont to borrow in time of necessity, and now, blessed 
be God and them, we have no need as for such stuff; the 
which candlesticks weigh 94 lbs., and cost 4 marks." 

And as the second best suit of vestments was of bawdkin 
and nothing like so fine as the best, Katharin Leynell gave 
the church a finer suit of blue velvet, adorned with flowers 
and branches of gold, and orphreys of red velvet with golden 
eagles thereon. Her dirge was kept for the whole month, 

1 T. P. Wadley, Notes ... 0/ the Wills . . . at Bristol, for Bristol and 
Glouc. Arch. Soc, 1886; p. 159. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 



239 



" and that by note, as other worshipful folk hath used before 
times, and likewise since her departing." Her husband died 
in 1474. 

Clement Wylschyr, 1 Mayor of Bristol, was three times 
churchwarden of All Saints, and died in January, 1492-3, 
in his year of office as Mayor. He desired to be buried in 
the Lady Chapel, or if there were no convenient place there, 
in any other place at the discretion of the parish and his 
executors. Actually he was buried before the altar of SS. 
John Baptist, John the Evangelist, and Dunstan. His wife 
Joan also was numbered among the good doers. 

Among the gifts of John Jenkyns, otherwise Steyner, inn- 
holder, to the church, was " a standing Note with a cover 
well gilt, with a black shell, weighing 37 oz., which the donor 
desired should never be alienated nor sold, 2 but to remain in 
the treasure coffer to the behoof and pleasure of the parish- 
ioners in the day of the General Mind of Good-Doers." 

Dame Maude Spicer, otherwise Baker, was a " singular 
benefactress " to the church, both in plate and vestments. 
Amongst other things, " she gave an eagle of latten for the 
Gospel to be read upon," and " two latten candlesticks to 
stand continually upon Saint Thomas' Altar." 

Such are the chief items in the record of benefactions. 

1 His will, abstracted by Mr. Wadley in his Notes on ... the Wills 
. . . at Bristol, Bristol, 1886; p. 167, is dated June 30th, 1488, and proved 
January 7th, 1492-3. See also The Main of Bristow ys Kalendar, Camden 
Society, 1872 ; p. 48. 

2 In The Great Orphan Book and Book of Wills at the Council House, 
Bristol, are the following references to " Notes ":— Fol. 12 verso : Lego 
Matilde Couele i Note apparatum cum argento ; Walter Tedistille, 1385. 
Fol. 25 verso : Unum Cphum meum vocatum Note ; Simon Haleway, 1389. 
Fol. 47: i Ciphum nuncupatum le Note; Walter Frompton, 1395. Fol. 133 : 
unum Ciphum cum argento ligatum vocatum Note ; Robert Lodelow, 1418 
Fol. 240 verso : unum Noote harnisatum cum argento et deauratum ; Edward 
Kyte, 1487. Fol. 241: unum Note cum cooperculo ; Agnes Kyte, 1487. 
Fol. 243 verso : unum Note, harnisatum argento cum cooperculo argenti et* 
deaurato; Edmund Newe, 1491. Fol. 254: The Nutte ; Thomas Elyot, 
1 5°5- J O. HaWiwell {Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words) defines 
Nut as a kind of small urn, and refers to Testamenta Vetusta, p. 365, for an 
example. 



240 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



After this list comes a second list of the same, but often 
with more information, and frequently with less. Then 
follows a memorandum that the Lord Abbot of St. Austin 
repaired the roof of the chancel about All-Hallow-tide, 
10 Hen. VIII. 

The next matter is an English inventory, dated March 
5th, 1395-6, followed by another dated March 1st, 1469. 
Both are (mainly) in the same handwriting, the original 
hand of the book. The earlier inventory is not very long, and 
the Latin original, which still exists, as a pair of indentures, 1 
is not always followed in the later English version. 

In 1395 there were but two mass-books— one bound in 
red, evidently that given by William Selk in 1270 de usu 
Savum ; and a second unbound, described as old. Of grails 
there were four — one bound with bosses, another in white, 
and a third old; the two given by Selk in 1270 may be 
among those. Besides these, there was a "little grail to 
serve our Lady mass," and another little one, "abridged." 
For the occasional services there was a manual, perhaps 
that one which Selk bequeathed ; and a martiloge, or 
martyrology. For divine service there were two porthoses 
or breviaries, and two half- porthoses — one with, the other 
without a psalter (according to the Latin version ; the 
English has both with), of which the old one was probably 
given by Walter Isgar, vicar of All Saints, in 1321 ; two 
antiphoners, both old ; an ordinal or pie, probably that given 
by Isgar ; four psalters, one given by a Thomas Norton, 
which the prior of the Kalendars had in keeping; a legend 
for the temporale, and another for the sanctorale ; and, in 
the English version, a processional. A later hand adds also 
two antiphoners. 

We next come to the vestments, which are very few for 
a church in so wealthy a town as Bristol. But the living of 
All Saints was a poor one, and in 1363 William de Lench, 
the then vicar, petitioned the pope for a license to hold a 

1 It is printed in full in Archaeological Journal, igci ; lviij, 173 sq. 
In every case I have expanded p'c' by error into price instead of precio. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 241 



benefice in the Bishop of Lichfield's gift as well as that of 
All Saints, which was only worth five marks, 1 or for a similar 
one in the gift of the Bishop of Hereford. 

There were but two complete suits^the best, of green and 
blue ciclatouns, with orphreys of ray velvet ; another of blue 
ciclatouns and plunket. 



TABLE OF VESTMENTS AT ALL SAINTS IN 1395. 





SUITS. 


single vestments. 




COPES. 


I. 


Green and blue 


1. 


A chasuble, unde- 


1. 


One of blue, striped 




ciclatouns, with 




scribed. 


2. 


One of ciclatouns 




orphreys of ray 


2. 


(English version 




with birds. 




velvet (cope, cha- 




only.) 


3- 


One, old, of cloth 




suble, 2 tunicles). 


3- 


A white vestment. 




of gold, with two 


2. 


Blue ciclatouns and 


4- 


Chasuble of cloth 




tunicles of old 




plunket (cope, 




of gold with birds 




r-lntVi nf cnl r\ 




chasuble, 2 tuni- 




in circles. 


4- 


Two copes and two- 




cles). 


5- 


Vestment of red 




albs for boys. 


3- 


Cloth of gold (cha- 




cloth of gold with 








suble, 2 tunicles, 




griffins. 








3 albs, 3 amices, 


6. 


A red vestment. 








3 fanons). 


h . 
1 ' 


A red ray satin 












vestment. 










8. 


A black vestment. 










9- 


A red satin chasuble 












with gold cocks. 










10. 


A yellow chasuble 












with a blue stripe. 










11. 


A silk chasuble of 












black and white 












diaper. 







It will be noticed that some of the single vestments in 

the above table are described as "vestment" and others as 

"chasuble" in the inventory, whether in the English or 

Latin version. The former term seems to include alb,. 

amice, stole, and fanon, with the chasuble, as in Edward's 

first prayer book. It can hardly be meant for a whole suit, 

considering the small values of the different items. 

1 Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers, Petitions, Rolls Series, 1896 ; 
vol. i, p. 429. 



242 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



The proportion of colours is very curious also, red 
predominating. In no case is the occasion for the use of 
the colour indicated, the only attempt in that direction 
being the term " best " applied to one of the" suits, 
suggesting, of course, that it was used on the highest 
festivals. 

The altar hangings comprise but one over-front, with 
the Coronation of our Lady painted on it, and a nether front, 
" with the figure of the Trinity " ; two riddells with angels 
painted on them, held up by iron rods at the altar's ends. 
No other front is mentioned ; but there were four white 
cloths, with red crosses, of buckram, perhaps the same as 
the " three Lent Clothes for the altars," of the English 
version. There were seven (twelve in the English) towels 
or linen altar cloths, of which two had frontlets attached, 
to lay upon the altars. 

The Lent veil hanging in the quire before the altar was 
of white and blue, paly (Latin version). 

There was a veil of black velvet with a red fringe, which 
served as a pix-veil, according to the English version. 

For images there were several mantles : two of red satin 
(with four gilt buttons) for the statue of our Lady and her 
Child in the chapel, and two more for a similar statue " in 
the pillar," as well as one of chequer velvet for the latter 
Child. There was also a red satin mantle for St. Anne's 
image " in the pillar." 

The plate was more numerous and valuable. At the head 
of the list comes Roger le Gurdeler's Cowpe and Cuppe of 
silver-gilt, a silver oilvat, and the silver-gilt tabernacle of the 
Coronation of our Lady given by the goldsmiths. There 
were five chalices, besides one belonging to the Fraternity of 
the Carpenters 1 ; two silver crewets, an ivory pix bound with 
silver, a censer and two ships (for incense) of latten, and a 
crop of silver-gilt. The candlesticks were of little value, 
only pewter or wooden, except an old iron one. 

1 I cannot find any further information about this gild and its con- 
nection with All Saints. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 243 



The inventory of 1469 is incomplete ; it is divided up into 
sections, many of which have only the headings. It opens 
with a miscellaneous list of ornaments, often of considerable 
interest — lich bells, wooden candlesticks, a chequer for the 
holy loaf, and then "Clappers all Judas bells." The accounts 
for 1413-14 record the payment of 2d. for mending these. At 
Wells Cathedral Church 1 they paid \d. for mending the 
"Judas bell" in 1414-15. At St. Margaret's, Westminster, 2 
they paid lod. in i486 " for making a new clapper to Judas 
bell," and at St. Nicholas, Bristol, 3 is the following item : — 
1555, Paid ffor a clapev [for good fryday in another hand'], 
viij^." In the Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedie, written during the 
first half of the sixteenth century, 4 " to jingle Judas bells " is 
spoken of. Judas bells seem to have been rattles or clappers 
of wood, used during the last three days of Passion Week, 
before Easter Day, instead of the ordinary bells. Mr. Tyack 5 
mentions some existing examples of wooden bells. The 
next item is "a Judas for the candles the three nights before 
Easter," for use at teiiebrae, the anticipated matins of the 
Thursday, Friday and Saturday. For the Easter Sepulchre, 
beside the thing itself, were five gilt "battlements," two gilt 
crucifixes for the ends, and four bolts of iron with two red 
" battlements." 

There was "a crown with four angels of tree painted," 
which is presumably the same as unum Castellum cum iiij 
angelis pro cvuce of the additions 6 to the Latin version of the 
1395 inventory; a " reredos to set Jewels on at the high 

1 Historical MSS Commission, Report on the MSS of Wells Cathedral, 
1885 ; p. 277. 

2 Quoted Notes and Queries, 1850 ; vol. i, series i., p. 195. 

3 Churchwardens' Accounts, in the custody of the vicar of St. Nicholas 
Parish Church, Bristol. 

* Notes and Queries, 1850 ; i, i, 235. 

5 G. S. Tyack, A Book about Bells, London, 1893 ; pp. 25, 177. 
Clappers are used instead of bells in all Catholic countries on the last three 
days before Easter, both in churches and in houses, from the Gloria in 
■excelsis of Maundy Thursday to the same on Easter Even. 

6 Archaeological Journal, lviij, 178, note 4. 



244 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



altar," which definitely shows the object of that ornament ;; 
three chairs for the quire ; a little stool and desk for the 
organs; desks for the high Altar, Lady Altar, St. Thomas's. 
Altar, and the singers at our Lady Altar. The high altar front, 
was hung from an iron bar, and the curtains there were on rods, 
terminating in fleurs-de-lys. There were iron rods for curtains 
at each of the low altars as well. The rods are called " iron 
riddells," a rather unusual use of the term, which usually 
signifies the curtains, and not the rods wherefrom they 
depended. 

For the pascall there was a bowl of tree (wood) and from 
the accounts we further find that it was hung by a cord over 
a pulley ; before (? with) the bowl they used a large wheel of 
wood for the purpose of holding this candle. The Judas or 
tree (i.e. the wooden core to stiffen it) weighed 28^ lbs. in 
1479. In 1445 they made four pensels or small banners of 
paper to adorn the pascall ; and in 1 523 four spears with bells 
for the same purpose. 

The " inventory of coffers and aumbries for Conducts," or 
stipendiary priests, has not been filled in. It is followed by 
one "of Lent cloths." They are either "stained," i.e. painted, 
with some mournful picture, 1 such as " our Lady of Pity," 
" the signs of the Passion," a crucifix, or are of blue and 
white. But two were of ray silk, one of black silk, another 
stained with dolphins, and the last a Vernacle wrought on 
silk. 3 

The "inventory of Altar cloths" contains the description 

of twelve of varying dimensions. Three were of diaper, 

the longest 5§ yds. long and just over a yard broad, the 

shortest 3^ yds. by f- yd., with crosses worked upon it. Of 

twill there were four, varying from 4^- yds. by i^yds. to 

2 1 -yds. by i^-yds. The rest were of plain linen, i.e. without 

diapering, varying from 4^- yds. by 1 yd. to 2^- yds. by 1 yd. 

1 " The clothes that are hanged up this time of Lent in the church 
have painted in them nothing else but the pains, torments, passion, blood- 
shedding and death of Christ, that now we should only have our minds, 
fixed on the Passion of Christ, by whom only we were redeemed" 
(Thomas Becon, Early Works, Parker Society, 1843; p. in) 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 



245 



One of these had crosses worked upon it. Besides these, 
there was a covering of canvas for the high altar (3! yds. by 
1 yd.) and another for the Lady Altar (3! yds. by 1 yd.) to 
protect the linen cloths left on the altars out of mass time. 

Besides these, there were three " towels " or great linen 
cloths, either to lay uppermost on the altar at mass time, or 
perhaps for huselling cloths. That of diaper measured 
9f yds. by | yd., the twill cloth 3! yds. by f yd., and a plain 
one 8f yds. by iyd. The "inventory of Bankers and cover- 
lets for the high altar " was never filled in. 

The "inventory of Candlesticks and Bowls of latten and 
pewter " does not contain any very valuable items. There 
were two great candlesticks of latten, besides the two great 
standards given by the Leynells, two others "for the high 
altar," two more for processions, and two iron ones standing 
at the Cross Altar. In the roodloft were thirteen bowls for 
the rood-lights. The list includes two ships of latten (for 
incense), and a bell of the same metal "for the high altar." 

This bell for the high altar is that known as the "sacring" 
or "saunts" bell. During the thirteenth century the practice 
of ringing a bell before the elevation or sacring became 
increasingly common all over Western Christendom. In 
1228 William, Bishop of Paris, 1 ordered one to be rung "at 
the elevation or a little before" to stir the faithful to prayer; 
Alexander, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 2 in 1237, to 
announce the advent of the Saviour; and William de 
Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester, 3 in 1240, to stir up the 
devotion of the sluggish and increase their affection. Friar 
John Peckham, in 1281, ordered the church bells to be struck 
at least on one side at the elevation, so that those who were 
absent might kneel on hearing the sound. Lindewode 4 says 
that this did not mean that more than one bell need be rung in 

1 Summa omnium Conciliorum, collecta per F. Barth., Carranzum, 
Parisijs, 1678 ; p. 800. Perhaps the Tenth Canon of Winchester in 1076 
is aimed at the practice (Wilkins, Concilia, i, 365). 

2 D. Wilkins, Concilia, j, 641. s 33 Wilkins, Concilia, j, 668. 

4 W. Lindewode, Provinciale, Lib. Ill : Tit. De celebratione missarum : 
Cap. Altissimus : Verb. Campane. 



246 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



each church, and also that that one should be rung which could 
be heard at the greatest distance. The Synod of Exeter, 1 in 
1287, required each church in the diocese to have a sacring 
bell, and a Legatine Constitution of about the same date 
makes a similar direction for Lombardy. 2 John, Bishop of 
Luttich, 3 ordered one to be rung three times at the sacring, 
so that the people might adore. 

The earlier versions of the poem known as the " Lay-Folk's 
Mass-Book " are acquainted with the custom, but it is not yet 
general. When "time is near of sackering, a little bell men 
use to ring." But in the later texts it is, "A little bell men 
is to ring," or " he will to us ring." 4 In the " Treatise of the 
Manner and Mede of the Mass " it is the signal for attention : — 

" Yet shall ye pray for anything 
Between the Sanctus and the sacring 
Till that the bell knell." 5 

While Lidgate instructs the layman — 

'"' When he ringeth the cross bell 
Pray then for another skill, 
That thou be worthy to see that sight, 
That shall be in his hands light." fi 

And the custom of ringing this bell as a warning before 
the sacring is further illustrated by a poem 7 on the death of 
the Duke of Suffolk, written c. 1450 : — 

" I pray some man do ring the bell 
That these foresaid may come to the sacring." 

As is often the case, customs that are quite innocent in 
themselves give rise to abuses, and from this custom of 
ringing a bell just before the sacring there soon arose another 
less desirable practice. At the sound of this bell clergy and 

1 Wilkins, Concilia, ij, 140. 

2 L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum Scriptorcs, Milan, 1726; t. viij, 
p. 1067. 

3 Marten and Durand, Thesaurus Nove. Anccdotorum, Lut. Parisiorum, 
1717 ; t. iv, p. 337. 

± T. F. Simmons, The Lay-Folk's Mass-Book, E.E.T.S., 1879 ; pp. 36-39. 

B Ibid., 144. r ' Ibid., 150. 

1 Political Poems and Songs, Rolls Series, 1859-61 ; vol. ij, p. 234. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 247 



lay folk alike forsook their devotions and rushed off to gaze 
at the elevated host. Grandisson of Exeter introduced some 
corrective rules (§ 27) aimed at this practice into the code 
of Statutes, 1 which he drew up for his college of St. Mary 
Ottery in 1339, forbidding the ringing of the sacring bell at 
any masses while quire services were in saying, lest any 
should " go out or turn to gaze at the sacrament." But 
whatever may have been the effect of this prohibition at St. 
Mary Ottery, elsewhere the practice spread unchecked. 

The "inventory of stained cloths for the altars and the 
Sepulchre " is more interesting. It begins with the cloth 
painted with the Coronation of our Lady, which figured in 
the inventory of 1395 ; but the companion one of the Trinity 
has disappeared. The other fronts, which presumably 
belonged to the high altar, were a cloth "with popinjays 
and scriptures" and two sets given by Sir Maurice Hardwick, 
the compiler of the book. One of these was of red damask- 
work, with a crucifix and Mary and John, and the other 
of white, with the Coronation of our Lady and other 
imagery-work. The "pair of altar cloths of St. Ursula" 
mentioned in the list of his benefactions do not appear in 
the inventory. For the Lady Altar were a pair of blue 
damask-work and one with popinjays and scriptures. Cloths 
of blue damask-work belonged also to the rood altar and 
St. Thomas' Altar, as well as a cloth with popinjays and 
scriptures. St. John's Altar similarly had a cloth with 
popinjays and scriptures, and probably the second set of 
blue cloths is mistakenly attributed to the Cross Altar, and 
should belong to the former. It also had a set painted with 
the Nativity and Passion of Christ, and a single white cloth 
with the image of St. John the Baptist. 

For the Easter Sepulchre there was a cloth painted 
with " St. Mary Magdalen, and four knights," and another 
powdered with flowers of gold. 

1 George Oliver, Monasticon Dicecesio Exoniensis, Exeter and London, 
1846, p. 270: " Quo casu prohibemus ne campanelle ad elevacionem sacra- 
menti pulsentur, quod qui canentes in choro non exeant nec se divertant ad 
videndum sacramentum, sed devote officio suo intendant." 



248 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



To adorn the quire at every high feast Sir Maurice 
Hardwick gave four stained cloths of red and yellow, on 
which were wreaths and "the Arms of the Passion," and 
in the middle of the arms the words, DULCIS EST JHESU 
AMOR MEUS. These cloths were of some considerable size, 
measuring 13I- yards long by i£ yards broad. 

For obits there was "a black cloth of stained work," 
with a white crucifix and a "scripture of Jhc"; and this 
seems by rights to have belonged to Halleway's Chauntry, 
and only been lent to the church. Alice Chester, finding that 
it was the only one worth anything, gave the church another, 
made of black worsted, on which were the letters H.C. and 
A.C. (i.e. Harry Chester and Alice Chester) and the "scripture" 
in gold letters, ORATE PRO ANIMABUS HENRICI CHESTER 
ET ALYCE UXORIS EIUS, and over it a stained cloth crosswise 
with a crucifix. 

Only one of the riddells stained with an angel remained 
in 1469 of those in the inventory of 1395 ; but the high altar 
was provided with a pair of white and purple silk, another of 
stained work powdered with gold, and a third pair of stained 
work with popinjays. The nether altars were not so well off. 
Our Lady's Altar had a pair of blue and green silk, and a 
stained pair of blue damask. Of like stuff were those at 
St. Thomas' Aitar and the Cross Altar, while those at 
St. John's Altar were stained with the Passion. 

We now come to the books, and with these the church 
was well provided. Three antiphoners, one large one lying 
before the vicar in the quire heading the list ; two port- 
hoses and two psalters ; three legends, six processioners 
(and two abreviated ones added later), and six grails (another 
added later) represent the books for the quire. Two ordinals, 
two manuals, and a martiloge, a hymner added later, and a 
collectar containing anthems noted, and all the epistles and 
gospels, given in 1496 by Sir John Thomas ; four massbooks, 
besides that belonging to Halleway's Chauntry, and one 
(abreviated) given later by William Tornowe complete the 
list, which should have been continued with " all other 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 249 



books not occupied." The details about the books in the 
earlier inventory are hardly sufficient to enable us to identify 
them in the later one. 

In ornaments for the ministers the church was still only 
fairly well off — nine vestments and three suits. The following 
table gives their description : — 

TABLE OF VESTMENTS AT ALL SAINTS IN 1469. 



1. Cloth of gold of tissue (2 

copes, chasuble, 2 tunicles ? 
with albs, apparels and 
stoles). 

2. Blue velvet with branches 

of gold, given by J. & K. 
Leynell, orphreys of red 
velvet with splayed eagles 
(2 copes, chasuble, 2 tuni- 
cles, with albs, apparels 
and stoles. 

3. [Black bawdkin with or- 

phreys of green (cope, 
chasuble, 2 tunicles), given 
by John Pers in 1431, but 
not in the inventory.] 



single vestments. 

1. A pair of light green cloth of 

gold, orphreys of purple 
bawdkin, given by Sir 
Richard Parkhouse, 1436. 

2. A pair of sad green, orphreys 

of red cloth of gold, given 
by Sir Thomas Marshall, 
1434- 

3. A pair of sad blue, with 

garters, orphreys red, given 
by the same. 

4. A pair of black with gold 

stars, orphreys white pow- 
dered with lilies bought in 
1406. 

5. A pair of red dimity, or- 

phreys of yellow dimity. 

6. A pair of sad purple, orphreys 

old, of cloth of gold. 

7. A pair of old cloth of gold, 

orphreys of yellow ribbon. 

8. A pair of old cloth of gold, 

orphreys of fustian naples. 

9. A pair of white for Lent. 

10. A pair of green tartaron 

with red orphreys and 
peacock feathers, given by 
Thomas Cogan. 

11. A pair of black with boars, 

orphreys of green oak 
leaves. 



250 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

The remaining vestments — a white damask suit given in 
1496, a suit of blue bawdkin and another of black worsted 
entered in the book c. 1494, a blue satin vestment given 
in or after 1493, a pair of green dornick given c. 1491, 
and an incomplete suit of blue of about the same date — 
are all additions. 

The proportion of colours is as follows in the two inven- 
tories, eliminating additions : — 



TABLE OF COLOURS IN THE TWO INVENTORIES 
OF 1395 AND 1469. 





1395- 


1469. 


SUITS. 


SINGLES. 


COPES. 


SUITS. 


SINGLES. 


: Cloth of Gold 


1 


2 


2 


I 


! 2~ 


1 Blue 


X 


O 


I 


I 


1 I 


Black 


0 


2 


O 


I 


2 


Green 


I 


O 


0 


O 


3 


Red (purple, &c.) ... 


0 


3 


O 


O 


2 


White 


0 


I 


O 


° 


0 


White for Lent 


0 


O 


O 


O 


1 


Yellow 


0 


I 


O 


O 


1 


Unnamed 


0 


I 


2 


O 


1 


Total 


3 


IO 


5 


3 


13 



The "inventory of Fringes and Banners" consists of three 
" frontells " or frontlets, i.e. the apparel to the altar cloth 
which hangs down to conceal the attachment of the frontal 
or nether-front ; two more for adorning the Easter sepulchre ; 
another for hanging over the head of the image of All 
Hallowen 1 at every principal feast, and a cloth to hang 

1 i.e. of the Holy Trinity, as an old man holding a crucifix between 
his knees and a dove before his breast. In 1511 Warham found that 
at Lydd in the deanery of Lymme "they lack a principal image of 
Alhallowen," and enjoined them "to provide an image of the Holy 
Trinity, to whose honour the church was dedicated " by a certain date 
(British Magazine, 1846; vol. xxx, p. 264, §404). 



i 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 251 



behind at the same times, given by Sir Maurice Hardvvick in 
1471. 

There are two banners of stained work of All Hallowen 
and the Ascension, and another of cloth of silver ; one of 
blue silk with a figure of All Hallowen* of gold for the cross, 
and at a later date (c. 1500) another of blue sarsenet with 
gold flowers, the image of All Hallowen and the letters T. P. 
given by Thomas Pernaunt. 

The jewels are many and costly. There is a silver-gilt 
cross weighing 220 oz., the tabernacle of the Coronation of 
our Lady already described, another (also at the high altar) 
of silver-gilt with a figure of St. Saviour, and two figures of 
John and Christian Haddon, and angels ; both of these are 
valued at ^"20. The monstrant of silver-gilt given by 
Thomas and Joan Halleway, weighing 57^ oz., has been 
referred to above. To Roger Gurdeler's pix has now been 
added a spoon to match, the total weight being 45 oz.. 
There is a pair of silver censers and a ship of the same 
metal, and a pair of silver candlesticks weighing 75 oz. 

The chalices and patens are enumerated separately : 
five silver-gilt, one parcel-gilt, another all gilt given by the 
Leynells, and two belonging to Halleway's Chauntry. These 
are followed by a list of the corporas-cases, seven in number 
— one blue (another of the same colour given later by 
Katharin Leynell), one black, two green, one yellow, and 
one "old case with a lap-over." All but one contained a 
corporas-cloth. Besides these there is " i black corporas 
with a crown of gold," which may be a corporas-case, but 
seems to be an example of the rich corporasses which were 
coming into use in defiance of the canon law during the 
fifteenth century, and which developed into the modern 
chalice-veil. To hold the paten and bring in the sacred 
vessels are two pateners of needlework. 

The "inventory of pillows," inventory, of paxbreds and 
crewets," and "inventory of linen cloths for the best vest- 
ments " are not filled in. To these follow six inventories of 
deeds. 



252 



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for the Year 1904. 



A list of the churchwardens and the good deeds done in 
their days is the next entry in the book, and followed by the 
churchwardens' accounts for the year 1407 (?) to 1482, with 
a few omissions. There is preserved in the church another 
series of accounts of 1446, 1449 to 1601 (also not quite 
complete), besides others of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. These are in loose quires, indifferently cared for. 
The items are usually much fuller in the original than in the 
copy entered in the bound volume, and obscure places are 
often considerably illumined. 

It will be convenient now to describe the church and 
its adornments as depicted in scattered items in the 
accounts. 

There are certain payments and receipts in them which 
are annual items. Such are receipts for seats or pews, for 
burials or graves, and for "the crown and the cross." The 
former explain themselves. The crown and the cross seems 
to be the best cross, and the payment' was for its use in the 
funeral processions. The Latin inventory of 1395 has an 
addition, " Jtem unum castellum cum iiij angelis pro cruce" and 
in the inventory of 1469 is the item, "i Crown with iiij Angels 
■of tree painted,'" which seems to be the same thing, as we saw 
before. 

There seem to have been special collections made on 
Palm Sunday, Good Friday, and Easter Day every year, and 
generally on Shere (or Maundy) Thursday and Easter Even 
as well. On Palm Sunday it was usually for the suffragan's 
wages, and later for the sexton's. On Good Friday at first it 
is said to have been at the cross, i.e. at cross-creeping, when 
it was customary to offer small gifts of money and kind ; and 
later these were devoted "to the reparation of the Jewells." 
For the other days the object varied : sometimes it is said to 
be for wax, sometimes for the pascall ; and frequently to be 
"the duties of them that were huselled " in the case of all 
the gatherings (except those on Good Friday), and specially 
those of Easter Even and Easter Day. 

Of annual payments, there is the usual contribution to the 



i 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 



253 



•cathedral church, entered as either "to the mother church" 
or "to our Lady of Worcester"; payments to the raker for 
cleaning away the church dust, for besoms and brushes, for 
the church wax (i.e. candles), for rushes and straw to cover 
the church floor, and for washing the church linen and 
scouring the candlesticks, &c. Keeping or watching the 
sepulchre, coals, bread, and ale for the watchers, bearing the 
banners in the Rogation processions, and a number of items 
for that on Corpus Christi Day are also yearly entered, until 
King Edward VPs time. 

Upon the high altar on principal feasts would be the two 
silver-gilt tabernacles already described, with the rest of the 
"jewels," standing upon the reredos. After i486 it was 
further adorned with Prior Herlowe's seventy-five gold 
flowers for holding tapers. The candlesticks set upon the 
altar were of latten on ordinary days, but they had also a 
pair of silver, which probably served for great feasts. 

In 1411 two angels were painted "at the high altar" 
(perhaps those on the riddells already referred to), and there 
was a front, to the gilding of which one John Lord gave 105. 
{died in 1514) and "the man of Lichfield that died at the 
New Inn" in 1515 also a small sum. 

Some of the altar hangings were very magnificent, as, 
for instance, the set given by Dame Maud Spicer sometime 
between 1492 and 1496, containing apparel both for the 
-over-part and the lower-part, made of Bruges satin, with 
flowers and a crucifix of gold set out on the same, with 
two " frontells " or frontlets of black velvet, with M's of 
gold crowned and "JHC" on them, fringed below with silk 
of changeable colours, and two curtains of blue satin for 
the altar ends with silk fringes of divers colours, which cost 
in all £y 18s. yd. 

The Eucharist was reserved over the high altar in the 
fourteenth and following centuries, as was the common 
(though not universal) custom in England 1 and the north 

1 William Lindewode, Provinciate, Lib. Ill : Tit. De custodia eucharistie : 
Cap. Dignissimiim : Verb. Cum clausura: Antwerpie, 1525 ; fol. clxxix. 

18 

Vol. XXVII. 



254 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

of France at this period. The pix given by Roger Gurdeler 
in 1305 has already been described. In 1520 the chain by 
which it was suspended was of silver. The lamp that hung 
in a bason before the Eucharist in the quire 1 was endowed 
in 1397 by one Philip Excestre, Thomas de Wyndesore 
being vicar. The royal license for the same is still at All 
Saints, and is printed in the Archaeological Journal, 1901 * 
lvii 179. It was further endowed by Thomas Halleway in 
founding his chauntry. 

It was customary in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
for the lowermost cloth on the altar to be woven of hair, 2 to 
serve as a protection to the finer linen cloths laid over it. 
Such a cloth was bought in 1450 for the high altar, and 
again on the restoration under Queen Mary in 1554. 

Four standard candlesticks stood in the quire before the 
altar, as at the neighbouring church of St. Nicholas and 
many others. The candles for the standards weighed 4 lbs. 
in 1480 and 5 lbs. in 1492. In 1495 were purchased a dozen 
tan skins to make cases for the standards and the gospel- 
eagle. The latter, of latten, weighing 2 cwt. 1 qr., cost £8,. 
and was given by Dame Maud Spicer. The standards 
required bars of iron to stay them in 1527. 

By the high altar was a buffet, to hold the jewels, in 
1542. In 1560 the stone altars were for the second time 
pulled down, a "communion table" replacing that in the 
quire in 1562. The Decalogue had been set up at the east 
end in the previous year. 

In the chancel, by Winchelsey's orders, the parishioners 
had to provide the principal image, " to wit, that of the saint 
to which the church was dedicated : provided that," says ■ 
Lindewode, " such image is imaginable. 3 For when the 

1 For further information on the subject of the ceremonial use of 
lights in the Anglican Church, see Some Principles and Services of the Prayer 
Book Historically Considered, edited by Dr. J. Wickham Legg, Rivingtons, 
1899 ; pp. 1 sq. 

a See Transactions of St. Paul's Ecclcsiological Society, 1900 ; vol. iv, 
pp 152 sq. 

3 Lindewode, Provinciate, Lib. Ill : Tit. De ecclesiis edificandis : Cap. 
Ut parrochiani : Verb. Imaginem principalem. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 255. 



church is dedicated in worship of All Hallowen, I do not 
think that an image representing all the saints could possibly 
be made, but either many ought to be made or none." At 
All Saints, Bristol, they had an ima^e of All Hallowen (i.e. 
of the Trinity, Ipresume) instead, as appears from an entry 
in the accounts for 19-20 Edward IV: " These be the costs 
of the aumbries in the quire afore All Hallowen, and for 
ceiling of the arch, and for ceiling of the wall before the Rood 
Altar as it followeth." The image of the saint of the place 
was usually on the north side of the high altar, and one of 
our Lady often on the south. 

There are frequent references to an image of "our Lady 
in the pillar," to irons about it, robes for it, &c. The Latin 
inventory of 1395 distinguishes between the image of our 
Lady and her Child " in the chapel" and that "in the 
pillar." There was also an image of St. Anne " in the pillar," 
but where these were does not appear. There was a bason 
with a light in it hanging before one of the images of our 
Lady in 1478. 

On the south side of the quire was the presbytery, under 
a gable-window made by Sir Thomas Marshall. (On page 79 
of the MS. the window is said to have been " at his own 
cost," but in 1407 (?) there is recorded the receipt of £6 from 
two persons for the same.) In the same year the accounts 
record the making of the presbytery, and in the following 
were bought " four cushions of stained work with eagles " 
for the same and the two chairs for the quire bought at the 
same time. It is evidently the same thing as the seats for 
the priest and his assistants, now more commonly known 
as the sedilia. 

The year 1407 saw also the setting of children's seats in 
the quire, and the making of a pulpit. In 1520 two new 
forms were made for children in the quire. 

A Dr. Harper presented the church with a great press 
for copes and vestments, which stood in the quire in the 
sixteenth century. - 

The north aisle was the Lady Chapel, called in the latter 



256 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



half of the fifteenth and in the sixteenth centuries more often 
by the name of Jesus Aisle, and the altar therein Jesus Altar. 
In the middle of the thirteenth century it would appear that 
there was no Lady Chapel, 1 as the mass of St. Mary was 
said at the high altar. In 1333, on Friday after the feast of 
SS. Peter and Paul {i.e. June 30th), John [Snowe], iVbbot 2 of 
St. Austin's (and the other parties concerned) granted per- 
mission to build domum supra murum plage sen partis borialis 
.eiusdem Ecclesie ab hostio . videlicet partis eiusdem et columpna eadem 
obiecta deorsum pvotensam triginta pedes in longitudine et versus vicum 
qui dicitur Com strete ex transverso columpne predicte viginti et 
tves pedes in latitudine continentem, provided that pvefata Ecclesia 
subtus domum predictum was not made strictior, brevior, ant 
angustior. About a century later, on November 14th, 1443, a 
conference was held in the chapter-house of the Greyfriars of 
Bristol between thirty-two parishioners of All Saints, including 
the wardens, and the prior and brethren of the Kalendars, 3 
concerning constructionem et fabricam domus cuiusdam modo ut 
speratur de novo construende et levande, supra quamdam Capellam 
beate mavie situatam in ecclesia Omnium Sanctorum antedictam, in 
parte boriali eiusdem^ in se extendendam a Campanili ecclesie illius ex 
parte Orientali . usque Domum Kalendarum ex parte Occidentali. 
After some "altercation" between the parties as to the 
division of the repairs and up-keep, it was settled to the 
satisfaction of all persons concerned, and on November 
16th, the feast of St. Edmund Abp., 1443, a tripartite 
agreement 4 was drawn up granting the permission from 
Walter [Newbury], Abbot of St. Austin's, with the assent 

1 Item lego domum meam . . . ad perpetuum iuvamen luminaris 
in eadem ecclesia ad missam beate virginis Marie ante summum altare 
(Will of Alice Halye, 1261 a.d. See Archaeological Journal, 1901 ; lviij, 163). 

2 MS. deed 233 at Bristol Museum Library, endorsed, "Inter Nos 
4t fratrcs Kalendarum Bristollie de domo situata super Muros ecclesie omnium 
Sanctorum," and sealed with the Kalendars' seal on green wax. Indented. 

3 From a MS. at All Saints, a "public instrument " drawn up by one 
Richard Morgan, clerk, of the diocese of Worcester, and public notary. 

4 One of the indentures is at the Bristol Museum Library, MS. 235, 
sealed with the Kalendars' seal on red wax, endorsed in the hand in which 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 257 

and consent of his convent and the parishioners of All Saints. 
After reciting the charter of his predecessor, John [Snowe], 
it sets forth that the now prior and one Richard Haddon, 
executors of the will of John Haddon and Christina his wife, 

eandem Domum prosternere intendentes, et quasdam fenestras vitreas, 
ad lumen ecclesie predicte amplificandum, in dicto muvo ubi eadem 
Domus de antiquo constructa existit, de novo constniere et levare 
proponunt. Sic quod eadem ecclesia ad honor em Dei maiores pulcri- 
tndinem et decorem poterat adipisci. The Kalendars on their part 
undertake to pray uberius et libencius for the souls of the afore- 
said, and all faithful departed. Permission is then granted 
to them to rebuild the house supra quamdam Capellam beate 
Marie in ecclesia predicta in dicta parte Boriali, in se extendendam a 
Campanili Ecclesie illius ex parte Ovientali, usque Domum predictam 
prioris et confvatrnm ex parte occidentali ; after which the arrange- 
ments agreed on about repairs, &c, follow. 

These proceedings show that the north aisle was the 
Lady Chapel, and that over it Sir John Gillard (then prior) 
and Richard Haddon built a room for the Kalendars, as is 
related in the book of records under the benefactions of those 
two "good-doers," This room is referred to in the same 
book as their "library." "The Library" is also mentioned 
in the accounts for 1586-7. The windows were glazed with 
the story of Te Deum Laudamus by them ; a new window had 
been put in in 1407. 

There seems to have been a cupboard under the altar,, 
or in the wall at the end of it. In 1407 hinges were bought 
for this altar, and in 1477 the lock of the little mister door 
at our Lady Altar's end was mended. In 1434 the riddells 
for this altar are mentioned, and again in the inventory 
of 1469. 

On the south side of the Lady Altar was an image of 
Jesus, over which Alice Chester "let made in carved work a 
tabernacle with a Trinity in the middle," about 1470. She 

the chief part of the records has been entered, " Evydenc' of \>e Kalendare 
for )ie Repacyon of \>e Gutter' nexte pe Strete." Another copy is preserved 
at All Saints, with the remains of several seals. 



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1904. 



also "let gild on her own cost our Lady Altar joining to the 
said image of Jesus." On the north side of the same altar 
she set up a tabernacle with three stories of our Lady, one of 
our Lady of Pity, 1 the second of the Salutation of our Lady, 
and the third of the Assumption of our Lady. All were 
gilt. 

In 1474. the hoop before our Lady's Pity was mended. 
This held up a curtain run on rings (1481), and painted with 
three stories of our Lady. In 151 1 they set a hoop of iron 
over the carving of the Assumption. There was a candlestick 
before it, which was mended in 1523. The rope for the Salve 
bell in the tower ran by this image (1480). This bell was to 
call the people to the singing of the famous anthem Salve 
Regina every night after Complin. 

There was an image of our Lady and her Child in the 
chapel, but its position is not indicated (1395). Mantles 
were provided for it, and a lamp hung in a bason before it, or 
that "in the pillar," it is not clear which (1437, H74)- 

Near the south end of the altar, under the image of Jesus, 
was a door leading to the vestry, presumably in the same 
position as the present vestry under the tower (1521, 1541). 
There was a loft or gallery somewhere there called Jesus Loft 
(1539), perhaps across the first bay of the nave next to the 
roodloft, or else on a screen before the altar. 

Before the altar hung a lamp in a bason (1450, 1500), and 
there was a coffer in 1437 to hold tapers and torches standing 
near it. In 1474 mention is made of " one of the misters 
afore Jhesu." 

The most noteworthy altar-cloths were a set given by 
Alice Chester, the overfront representing our Lord rising out 

1 A fair image of our Blessed Lady, having the afflicted body of her 
dear son, as he was taken down off the cross, lying along in her lapp, the 
tears, as it were, running down pitifully upon her cheeks, as it seemed, 
bedewing the said sweet body of her son, and therefore named The Image 
of our Lady of Pitty (J. P. Neale, Views of . . . Collegiate and Parochial 
■Churches, London, 1825; vol. ij, The Church of the Holy Trinity, Melford, 
p. 13). Cf. the shorter description of a similar image in the Description 
. . . of all the . . . Rites . . . of Durham, Surtees Society, 1842 ; 
P 33 

i 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 



259 



-of the Sepulchre, sometimes called our Lord's Pity, with a 
netherfront and two curtains all " of one work." 

In the 8 Edward IV there was a large expenditure for 
" the stuff and the handiwork of your new seges in our Lady 
chapel afore Jhesus." The items cover^.nearly three pages in 
the original quire. It would appear that the work was 
hurried on as quickly as possible, since they provided " tallow 
candles for to give light to the carpenters on evenings and a 
mornings to work by." On Saturday, October 8th, John Hill, 
the carpenter, received 3s. 4^. for six days' work, and his man 
6d. for three days. On Saturday, October 15th, he received 
2s. S^d. for five days' work, and his man lod. for the same 
time. On the following Saturday he had another 2s. 8%d. for 
the same amount of work, and his man lod. ; John Gryffethe, 
another carpenter, receiving 2s. 8%d. " for 5 days work in the 
week of St. Luke." On the 29th Hill only had 25. 5^., as he 
had only worked four and a half days, and his man gd. John 
Griffethe had the same as Hill. On the 5th, 12th, and 19th 
of November similar payments were made. The pews seem 
to have had doors, as hinges (jemmews) and locks were 
bought ; also " 3 clamps of iron, the which bindeth the seges 
unto the church wall." The mason was called in at the same 
time to make "the stapp afore Jhc." Yet it seems a long time 
to take to make but " 3 segys." The cost was 56s. 

In 1474 2d. was paid " for the mending of a sege under- 
neath the Kalendars beneath in the church," perhaps one of 
these; and in 1477 another sum of Sd. "for the mending of 
the seges next to the Kalendars' door in the nether end of 
the church," which also may refer to these. On the other 
hand, there may have been many pews in the aisle and in 
the nave. 

In 1480 the wall of the north aisle before the image of 
Jesus was ceiled. When the altars were restored under 
Mary, Jesus Altar was set up with the others. 

It was a custom every year to provide a breakfast for the 
priests and clerks that sang our Lady Mass in Lent. 

In 1430 there was made a long desk in this chapel, 



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probably the same as the "desk for the singers at our Lady 
Altar " of the inventory of 1469. 

The altar of the holy rood was situate in the south aisle, 
where now is the monument to Edward Colston, the great 
philanthropist and good churchman. The south aisle is 
commonly called the Cross or Rood Aisle. A deed endorsed 
"the Alms house i2d. 2 Evidences" mentions that one 
Hugh Kict left i2d. rent assize to support a lamp burning 
daily before the altar of the holy rood in All Saints. The 
deed was drawn up in the mayoralty of Simon Clerk, 
i.e. 1268 a.d. according to Ricart's Kalendar. Martin Draper 
also contributed to the same, about the middle of the 
thirteenth century, if we can trust the statement in this 
present book. 

During the fourteenth century we hear nothing of the 
Rood Aisle, but in the early part of the fifteenth it was 
rebuilt. William Worcester * records that his uncle, Sir 
Thomas Botoner, Fellow of the Kalendars, who died when 
he (William) was about six years old, was buried in the 
eastern part of the south porch, but that he believed his 
bones were removed at the time of the building of the new 
aisle. As -William Worcester was born in 1415, this would 
show that the south aisle was rebuilt about 1421. 

To the building of this aisle one John Forges, cook, 
subscribed 6s. 8d., John Pers in 143 1 the sum of twenty 
marks. Thomas Halleway and his wife Joan subscribed ^"20 
to it. Thomas Fyler (died in 1425 ?) and his wife Agnes 
(died in 1467) gave the roof. Sir Thomas Marshall in 1434 
paid for the glazing of two windows in the aisle, one of 
the seven works of Mercy and the other of the seven 
sacraments. The window over the altar was glazed in 1437. 

Chained to a pillar inside the enterclose of the altar was 
a breviary given by Sir William Warrens in 1482. 

After the death of her husband in 1471 Alice Chestyr 
erected a new front (probably a reredos) for the Rood Altar 

1 Itineraria Symonis Simeonis et Willelmi de Wovcestre, Cantabrigiae, 
1778 ; p. 190. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 261 



in the south aisle. It had five principal images— one of 
St. Anne, the second of St. Mary Magdalen, the third, 
of St. Giles, the fourth of St. Erasmus, and the fifth of 
St. Anthony. It was all gilded " full worshipfully." She 
also gave a cloth of the Passion of our Lord to be drawn 
before the altar at certain times, after the pleasure of the 
vicar and the parishioners. In 1478 there was put up an 
iron rod or wire for the cloth to hang by before the altar v 
and from which it was suspended by forty- two rings. It 
would seem to have hung in front of the reredos, and not 
to be the netherfront, as 3d. was paid "for setting in of 
the irons in the wall." Four staples of iron were bought 
at the same time for holding up the riddells at the 
altar ends. 

Under the end of the Rood Altar was a little mister 
or cupboard, for the door of which a new key was bought 
in 1477. 

There was a lamp in a bason hanging before this altar; 
in fact the earliest allusion to the altar is in an endowment 
of the light before it. 

In 1474 mention is made of " the little vestry door at 
the Rood Altar end." This little door is still to be seen 
at^ the north end of the Colston monument. Over it Alice 
Chestyr had set " a crucifix with Mary and John." 

Sir John Gyllarde, Prior of the Kalendars, who died 
in 145 1, presented the church with four seats in the Cross 
Aisle, which cost him £3 ; and John Haddon, whose 
executor he was, made the Story of the Doom, a very 
favourite subject in the later Middle Ages, in the same 
aisle. A good example of this may be seen over the 
chancel arch at St. Thomas's, Salisbury. 

There remain two more altars which were still in existence 
in the sixteenth century, and a third of which we know no 
more than that one John Kyft, in the latter part of the 
thirteenth century, left a rent to sustain a lamp burning 
before it. All further traces of it have disappeared. The 
other two— dedicated the one to St. Thomas, and the other 



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to SS. John Baptist, John the Evangelist, and Dunstan — 
were most probably situate one on either side of the quire 
door under the roodloft. In the accounts for March 25th, 
1549 — March 25th, 1550, is a payment of 4s. \d. "for white 
liming where the roodloft stood, and for stopping the holes, 
and for breaking down the two altars, and for paving where 
they stood." And in an inventory of the goods of Halleway's 
Chauntry (which was founded at the second of the two 
altars), dated March 27th, 1457, is mentioned " a little 
tye that standeth between the vicar and the said altar." 
This would place St. John's Altar on the south and St. 
Thomas's on the north side of the quire door. i\n arrange- 
ment of this sort was very common ; at the church of St. 
Mary, Guilden Morden, Cambridgeshire, the entercloses of 
the altars in this position may still be seen. 

There was also an altar in the vestry in 1524. 

In 1430 a new table (reredos) was carved and painted 
for St. Thomas's Altar, and fifty years later, at the cost of 
435. 4^., they made " a new front otherwise called a reredos, 
with three houses (for three images) " at the same altar. 

Dame Maud Spicer gave a pair of latten candlesticks, 
"to stand continually upon St. Thomas's Altar," in the last 
decade of the fifteenth century. They bought a canvas 
cloth in 1 52 1 to cover the linen altar-cloths out of mass 
time, and a hair cloth 2 yards long to lay on the altar 
underneath them. The inventory of 1469 mentions two 
cloths of blue damask-work, and one with popinjays and 
"scriptures," as belonging to this altar. In 1526 they 
bought a desk for it. 

On the vicar's side of the quire, under the roodloft, 
stood the altar of SS. John Baptist, John the Evangelist, 
and Dunstan, as it is termed in the official documents 
relating to the foundation of the Chauntry of Thomas and 
Joan Halleway 1 thereat. It was the morrow-mass altar, 

1 For some account of this chauntry, and a nearly complete set of 
original documents concerning it, see the Transactions of Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for 1902 ; vol. xxiv, pp. 74 sq. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 



263 



and one Thomas ap Howell gave the table of alabaster (or 
reredos) that stood upon it. The morrow-mass bell and its 
apparatus were given by Thomas Halleway, who also paid 
for all the pews before it. In 1457 belonging to the chauntry 
at this altar were " two stained cloths for the altar, performed, 
one of the Passion above, and another beneath of the three 
Kings of Cologne ; with two riddells, one on one side of the 
Passion, and another in the other side, with two false cloths 
in the back side of them. Also another stained cloth beneath 
for the said altar of St. John Baptist." In the inventory of 
of 1469 the former are described as " of the Nativity and 
the Passion of Christ," and the latter "of white, with an 
image of St. John the Baptist." Besides these, there was 
a cloth with popinjays and scriptures, and probably a set 
of blue cloths for the same altar. 

To lie upon it was "an hair to the said altar," and a 
double set of altar linen : " two altar-cloths of canvas for to 
lie next the altar, two altar-cloths of crest cloth to lie 
upon the canvas, and two altar-cloths of Brabant [linen] 
for to lie above " : and to save the trouble of putting the 
cloths away out of mass time, "a canvas to the said altar 
to hele him withal." 

In 1436 they made entercloses about all the nether altars, 
for which purpose they bought, amongst other things, a 
load of freestone. 

We first meet with the enterclose in the accounts of 1407, 
and in those of 1430 the rood screen and loft were put up at 
considerable cost. Twelve dishes or bowls of latten were 
brought from London to hold the rood lights. There are 
payments besides to the painter, the plasterer, and the 
glazier. In 1473 they put up a new loft and enterclose for 
55s. 8d., and put the organ in it. Ten years later Alice 
Chestyr presented the church with a magnificent one, which 
has been already described. In 1549-50 the loft was pulled 
down, to be re-erected under Mary, and again pulled down 
after her death. 

There are the usual payments for rood lights, and for 



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candles in the loft on Christmas morning. No description 
of the images and of the rood have survived, but there are 
payments for the cloth before the rood on Palm Sunday and 
its cord. "At the end of the procession on this day, 1 when 
the people are once again entered into the church, then doth 
all the people kneel down, and the priest plucking up the 
cloth wherewith the crucifix was covered, and making it open 
to all that are there present, singeth a certain song \_Ave Rex 
nostev~]. And so endeth the procession." On this day also 
the roodloft was used for the chanting of the Passion by a 
body of priests and clerks. It does not appear that the 
gospeller was up there, but he read the words of our Lord, 
while the chorus of high voices chanted those of the Jews or 
the disciples, and others sang the words of the Evangelist. 
But at Long Melford the priest who read the Passion on 
Good Friday stood in the roodloft. 

The chief use of the roodloft was, however, to hold the 
organs and the singers, at any rate in the later Middle Ages. 
In 1454 there were several payments for the organs, but 
whether these were in the roodloft is not stated. In 1472^ 
however, they bought new organs and set them up in the 
roodloft, at a cost of over ^"14, and a desk was set up there 
at the same time. It seems that they did not pay the whole 
sum down, as three years later there is the record of a pay- 
ment of 135. \d. to Robert Bonnoke, "in part payment of the 
said organs " ; and the wardens continue : " We could not 
have deliverance of our organs till the time that Bonnok was 
paid, the which we ask allowance for." In the accounts 
presented in 1519 there is mention of " a book at the organs," 
and in the following year of " the window in the organ loft." 
Whether this was identical with the roodloft does not appear. 

1 Thomas Becon, Early Works, Parker Society, 1843 ; p. 116. 

2 J. P. Neale, Views of . . . Collegiate and Parochial Chinches, London, 
1825 ; vol. ij, Melford, p. . And the gospel was undoubtedly read from 
the roodloft on Corpus Christi Day at Wingham Collegiate Church, at the 
end of Henry VIII. 's reign or thereabouts, and a cross was carried before 
the reader {Sacristy, 1871 ; vol. i, p. 376). 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 



265 



In 1520 they bought new organs, and a plank and stool for 
the same, which perhaps were " the organs in the quire " 
which were mended in 1523, and the little organs of 1531. 
Three years after the organs were re-formed. That the organs 
were not destroyed in the Puritan triumph of Edward VPs 
reign is evident from these items : — 

"1549 — 1550. For making 2 peyses (weights) for the 
organs, 2d" 

" 1550 — 1551. For a cord for the organs, amount 2d." 
Occasionally we find payments to the organist, e.g. in 
1479, 1561, and 1562; and to the organ-blower, e.g. in 1556 
and 1557. 

Among the numerous good deeds of the Spicers in the last 
quarter of the fifteenth century may here be mentioned their 
decoration of the lower part of the nave. They spent 30s. 
"for the painting of two stories on two pillars of the lower part 
of the church, the one story over the font of the Baptising of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and on that other pillar of the other 
part of the church a figure otherwise an image of St. 
Christopher." 

It is now generally recognised that pews or seats 1 in 
churches are not an innovation of the sixteenth century, so 
that no surprise is felt at the receipt of 25. for two seges in 
the earliest of the churchwardens' accounts, those for 1407, 
that have survived at All Saints. From that time seats form 
a source ot revenue of varying amount. In those for 1455 the 
sum realised was us. 2d. It would seem that the sums paid 
were usually not annual rents, but for life tenancy, for the 
names do not reappear as a rule, and persons are mentioned 
as owning seats for which no sum appears in the receipts of 
that year. For instance, compare the following lists of those 
who paid for seats from six consecutive years, the 3rd to the 
9th of the reign of Edward IV : — 

1 William Lindewode, Provinciale, Lib. Ill : Tit. De ecclesijs edificandis : 
Cap. Ut parrochiani : Verb, Intevius : Antwerpie, 1525; fol. clxxxiij. The 
repair of the nave of the church within was understood by him to include 
whitewashing the walls and making seats. 



266 



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3-4 Edward IV. 
Howell ap rysse (for chang- 
ing his seat and his wife's), 
8d. 

William Bennett, yd. 
Thomas Abyngton (for his 

wife's seat), 8d. 
John Lemsstyr, cook (for his 

and his wife's), i6d. 
Jsabell Skey, 6d. 
Thomas Golde, \d. 

5-6 Edward IV. 
The harpmaker, for his and 

his wife's, 8d. 
Jsabell of the " almosse 

hows," \d. 
Thomas Denne for his and 

his wife's, lid. 
Katherine Hardware, \d. 
John Myllan, one for him 

and his wife, 8d. 
John Aleyn, one for him 

and his wife, I2d. 
Jsabell Payne, <\d. 

7-8 Edward IV. 
Kateryn Hardewarewoman 

for a year's rent for a 

sege, 3s. \d. 
Giles Hardewareman and 

his wife, i6rf. 
Thomas Welsche's wife, 

U. (?) 

Walter Trevet and his 

wife, 2s. 
Thomas Nores, 8d. 
Richard Aleyne and his 

wife, idd. 
Davy hosteler for his wife's, 

rid. 



4-5 Edward IV. 
Thomas Abyngton, for his 

seat, 8d. 
Jennett Barbur, 6d. 
Jennett Bennett, 6d. 
Davy Ostelar, for his wife's, 

8d. 

Davy Ostelar, for his own t 
I2d. 



6-7 Edward IV. 
Mariore Mony, yd. 
Jenet Roberdes, 8d. 



8-9 Edward IV. 
John Pynner, 25. 8d. 
Jhon Chestyr, i6d. 



i 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 267 



And in the accounts for the year 3-4 Edward IV we find 
these items : — 

" Payde for a borde of elm to mende thomas taylors 

modours seeg and Jennett golde seeg, iijtf." 
" Payde for the mendinge of Kateryne Cynell seeg, jd." 

Again in those for 6-7 Edward IV : — 

" Payde for the mendynge in thorrms Denne seeg, ij^." 

In the accounts for 1496-7 there are payments for the 
new pews and 

" p d for takyng hop of the hold puys, 6r/." 

In those for 1529-30 there is a payment to the sexton for 
making clean "the new pews." In 1532-3 they bought for 
4s. " four bundles of mats to dress the steps before the high 
altar and the rest that was left set by the pews side in the 
church." In 1534 there was one called "the Almshouse 
pew." Others were: "The blind woman's pew" in 1518, 
"the Poor Womens' pew" (1569), and "the Shriving pew " 
(1590). The last appears to be an example of an Elizabethan 
confessional box. 

Besides the images already mentioned, one comes across 
that of St. Nicholas (1448) and of St. George (1521). In 
Michaelmas quarter, 1538, they set up "the Five Wounds" 
and took down "the images." 

Besides the vestments mentioned in the inventories, others 
are mentioned in the accounts and elsewhere. Dame Maud 
Spicer, for instance, gave a single vestment of red cloth 
of gold that cost her £6 6s. 8d., and another of light blue 
damask, with the Five Wounds on the cross. The second 
best suit was but of bawdkin, until Katharin Leynell gave 
a finer suit of blue velvet, with branches of gold, and orphreys 
of red velvet having gold eagles displayed on them. When 
vestments got dirty it would seem that they could be washed,, 
as was the second suit in 1475. 

In 1495 they spent 33s. 2d. on repairing the church 
vestments : the items are numerous, and include ribbon, 
fringe, tuke, lockram, black say, copper-gold, silk, buckram,. 



268 



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red Cyprus of " borgens," blue satin of Cyprus, bread to 
scour the boars, &c. A cering candle for waxing purposes is 
also mentioned. 

In the accounts presented in 1501 are mentioned the blue 
copes, a blue vestment, the black vestments, the white copes, 
and items for making the black vestments ; and in the 
expenses of Corpus Christi Day : "To 2 young men for 
bearing of the two white tunicles, 2d" Lenten vestments 
were made that year, of white fustian. The blue vestments 
and the black cope are again mentioned in 153 1. 

In 1524 they bought a new press for copes and set it 
in the vestry, as well as a new frame with misters for 
vestments. 

With the accession of Queen Mary came the revival of 
decency in public worship, and we read of the purchase 
of "a cope to wear the Sundays," "two vestments for 
the week," and "the copes and vestments of cloth of 
tissue." In 1555 they bought "a cope of red velvet 
embroidered with gold" and "a blue vestment" with the 
same adornment. One item further deserves notice, apropos 
of the modern custom of wearing a square Italian cap on 
the head with the mass vestments : — 

" J 555-5^' Paid for satin to make a parell for the 
amice to put on the priest's head, and for mending 
the copes, 45. \d." 

Of the surplices, rochets, &c, little need be said. That 
the former were not of the indecent and scanty proportions 
at present popular in high church circles is evident, as the 
vicar's took ten ells of linen in 1445, the clerk's eight ells of 
Normandy linen in 1487, and of dowlas in 1527, and the 
suffragan's or second clerk's five ells in 1518. The clerk's 
only took three ells of lockram 1 in 1500. In 1467 one surplice 
took nine ells of holland, and in 1477 the same. A rochet 
took four ells in 1487. 

We read of a surplice without sleeves in 1474, and 

1 Probably a surplice without sleeves. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 269 

surplices for children ; and for priests, men, sexton, and 
children in 1542. 

In 1557-8 was made a damask alb; it was against this 
sort of thing that the rubric in the book of 1549 requiring a 
white alb plain was directed. * 

There are numerous allusions to the books in the accounts. 
Amongst them we may notice the five carol books and five 
song books of square note in 1525, two five-part masses in 
1526, and five pricksong books of eight masses in 1527, when 
they also had four books of masses and anthems of trebles 
and means for children. The song for St. Nicholas night 
was the prose Sospitati dedit egros, sung after the ninth respond 
at St. Nicholas matins, December 6th. At St. Nicholas 
Church, the next parish, the clerk used to have the avails or 
tips "on St. Nicholas night going with Sospitati." 

The following obits were kept in All Saints' Church in the 
sixteenth century : — 

Thomas Fylour and Agnes his wife, November 20th. 
Henry and Alice Chester and Humphrey Hervy, 

February 14th (1st obit). 
Thomas Spicer and Dame Maud his wife, February 15th. 
Good Doers (Thursday after Ash Wednesday). 
Henry Chester and Humphrey Hervy, March 3rd 

(2nd obit). 
William Newbury, May 10th. 

Dame Joan Pernaunt, May 26th (first in 1535 — 1536). 
Thomas Hallewey and Joan his wife (special chauntry). 

There was also a chauntry founded early in the fourteenth 
century by one Roger Turtle; but only one document exists 
now at All Saints connected with it, the directions for its 
foundation, and that, with the record of the licence, 1 is all 
that remains. In this document Roger Tortle confirms to 
God, the church of All Saints, and to Sir Henry de Faireford, 
chaplain, and brother of the Kalendars, and to his successors 
a certain messuage, &c, in Corn Street, to the foundation 
1 Calendar of the Patent Rolls, 1327-1330, Record Series, 1891 ; p. 310. 

I 9 

Vol. XXVII. 



270 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



of a chauntry in the said church about the third hour, 
i.e. 9.0 a.m. 

There were many other obits kept only for a short term 
of years; John Lord's priest, who owned a buffet in 1518, 
belonged to one of these. In Queen Mary's days they 
kept up the obits of Spicer and Pernaunt, and three in 
1559-60. 

The bells numbered two in 1470, the great bell and the 
second bell ; but by 1533 they had four, which were then 
recast and a fifth added. The old great bell weighed 15 cwt., 
but in the new set the heaviest was only 13 cwt. 1 qr. 25 lbs. 

Public dinners were as much in vogue in medieval 
England as now, and all business of importance seems to 
have required drinks or a banquet. Thus when in 1475 
they "paid to Horn for the deed of Margery Mony's place 
that Amy Howell dwells in — for we should not else have had 
it out of his hands — 6s. 8^.," they also "paid for wine unto 
him to please him with, 8d." The recorder, about the same 
time, brought and delivered to them two deeds from Thomas 
Fylour of London, and was consequently given a gallon of 
wine. Two Londoners left the church bequests in 1479, and 
35. 4^. was spent on a dinner to receive them. 

Those priests and clerks who took part in the Lenten 
Lady Mass had an annual dinner. Judging by the bill of 
costs in 1503/4-1504/5 they fed fairly well: — 

For a Dinner to the priests 
& Clerks for our Lady Mass 

Jn primis for 2 pigs ... ... ... i2d. 

Jtem for 2 ribs of beaf ... ... ... lod. 

J tern for 2 " costs " of mutton ... ... $d. 

Jtem for bread ... ... ... ... 6d. 

Jtem for ale ... ... ... ... ... 6d. 

Jtem for wine ... ... ... ... I2d. 

Jtem for fire and spice ... "... ... 3^. 

Summa, 45. 6d. 

On the day of account from .1499 onwards there was a 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 271 

supper for the parishioners. In 1539 they provided the 
following : — 



For 5 shoulders of mutton for the supper 


2S. 


For 2 " lownds " of veal ... . v , . 


lod. 


For a lamb ... 


2od. 


Paid for a dozen of chickens 


2od. 


Jtem for a couple of capons 


25. 


Jtem for bread 


8d. 


For a dozen of ale ... 


13d. 


Jtem for spices 


gd. 



During the Corpus Christi procession there was a station or 
halt for wine, in the Marsh, during the sixteenth century ; and 
after it was over, a dinner or a breakfast (it is called both) 
was provided. With the dinner at the time of the General 
Mind we have already dealt. 

Occasionally we read of special collections for some 
specific object, as for instance in 1430 the receipt of £5 85. 6d. 
"given of divers people of the parish for the great candle- 
sticks" is acknowledged. On Palm Sundays a collection 
was made for the suffragan's wages, and later on for the 
sexton's. The suffragan was the name given in Bristol to 
the second or assistant clerk, and at All Saints he gradually 
took on the name of the sexton. But at other churches they 
seem to have been distinct persons. In 1477 the old suffragan 
became beadman by command of " the goodmen of the 
parish." In the later obits' accounts the beadman becomes 
the bellman. It was his duty to cry the obits, and ask for 
the bedes (or prayers) of his hearers on behalf of the deceased. 

On All Saints' Day the Mayor and Sheriff 1 of Bristol were 
used "after dinner to assemble with all the whole council at 
the Tolsey, with many other Gentles and worshipful com- 
moners, such as appeareth there at that time; and from thence 
to go Into All Hallowen Church, there to offer, and from 
thence to walk all in fere unto the Mayor's place, there to 
have their fire and their drinkings with spiced cake bread 

1 The Maire of Bristowe is Kalendar, Camden Society, 1872 ; p. 79. 



272 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



and sundry wines : the cups merily serving about the house : 
and then from thence every man departing unto his parish 
church to evensong." 

The accounts for 1437 mention the procession on Sunday 
before St. Lawrence's Day (i.e. August 5th) " for breaking 
of the siege of Calais " on June 26th preceding. Amongst 
other events referred to are the ringing at the death of 
Henry VII (February 22nd, 1509), ringing at the procession 
for the capture of the French King on February 24th, 1525, 
and for the birth of Edward VI in October, 1537. Accord- 
ing to Seyer, there was a general procession in Bristol of 
joy on the St. Luke's Day following, which is evidently 
referred to in the payment to children for bearing up the 
copes included in the item for ringing. In 1539 the relics 
were sent to the bishop. . 

In the summer of 1574 Elizabeth visited Bristol, 1 and 
the accounts record a payment for ringing for her. In 1578 
the local ship Swallow was captured by the Turks, and the 
payment to the man of Plymouth who was captured by the 
same seems to refer to this. In 1596 they contributed to 
John Claudius' ransom in Candia. 

Several large fires occurred in Elizabeth's reign, and 
All Saints' parish helped with their contributions. In 1595 
three towns were burnt in Cornwall, Wolverhampton on 
May 3rd, 1596, and Stratford-on-Avon on May 24th. 

The following list of vicars has been compiled from the 
various notices in wills, deeds, and churchwardens' account, 
which I have had occasion to examine in getting up this 
paper : — 

Stephan de Gnohussale was there in 1254 (see Archaeo- 
logical Journal, 1901, lviij, p. 159). 

William Selk was there in 1261 (Will of Alice Halye, 
see ibid., p. 164). Made his will in 1270 (see Trans. Br. and 
Glo. Arch. Soc, 1 890-1, plate xxxv). 

1 The whole Order hoive our Soveraigne Ladyc Queene Elizabeth was 
receyved into the Citic of Bristoive in 1574 is printed in the first volume 
of J. Nichols' Progresses . . . of Queen Elizabeth, London, 1788. 



Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol. 273 



William Scoche was there c. 1290 (? 1285) (see Archaeo- 
logical Journal, 1901 ; lviij, 170: in 1303 ibid.). 

Walter Isgar died as vicar in 1321 (MS. Records,, 
P. 78)- 

William Lenche was there in 1363 ''(Calendar of entries 
in Papal Registers, Rolls Series, 1896; vol. i, p. 429); m 1366 
(Lease of a tenement in High Street, at All Saints) ; in 1385. 
(Will of Walter Derby in Great Orphan Book, fol. 15). The 
statement on page 315 of the Records that he was vicar at 
the time of the earlier inventory, 1395-6, must be a mistake. 
The original Latin version does not mention him. 

Robert Amfray, presented on December 4th, 1388 
{Calendar of Patent Rolls,' 1385 — 1389, Record Series, 1900;. 
P- 537). 

Thomas Marchall, vicar, and Reginald Knap and Thomas 
Hsilewsiy, proctors, with the consent of several comparishioners, 
grant to Philip Excestre 16s. silver annual rent from a 
tenement in High Street, the Green Lattice, September 16th, 
16 Richard II, 1392. The official witnesses are Thomas 
Knap, mayor, John Bannebury, sheriff, John Burton and 
Richard Hanteffbrd, bailiffs and chamberlains. There are two> 
other documents dealing with this money, dated October 
17th, 13 Richard II, and September 20th, 16 Richard II. 

Thomas de Wyndesore was there January ]6th, 1396/7 
(Archaeological Journal, 1901 ; lviij, 178). 

Thomas Marchall was th'ere in 1407 (perhaps earlier) 
according to the churchwardens' accounts attributed to that 
year, and died June 7th (? 17th), 1434 (Records, p. 78). He 
witnessed two deeds at All Saints on Christmas Eve, 142 1,. 
and August 10th, 1422, respectively. 

Richard Parkhouse, who followed Marshall, died August 
8th, 1436 (Records, 79). 

William Rodberd, his successor, died June 6th, 1453 
(Records, 80). 

William W r ere, his successor, died or left m 1454 or 1455 
(judging by the headings of the accounts). 

Maurice Hardwyk, his successor, came in 1455, and died 



274 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



in 1472 or 1473 (Records, 82. He gave several things to 
the church on April 4th, 1471, recorded on p. 84). 

William Howe (1474 was the second year of his coming, 
Records, 85) was present at the accounts-audit in 1479. 

John Thomas was the vicar when the accounts were 
presented in 1480. He was vicar in 1492 (Will of Thomas 
Baker), and in 1494 (Records, 1094). 

Richard Bromefeld, or Bremefeld, was there in 1507 
(Records, 614). 

John Flook was there in 1525 and in 1530 according to 
three deeds at All Saints. 

Humphrey Hyman was there in 1543 an0 ^ I 544 according 
to two deeds at All Saints. 

William Hastlen was there in 1569 and 1590 according to 
the accounts. 

John Knyght was vicar in 1591 and 1596 according to the 
accounts. 

Francis Arnold was vicar in 1597 and 1600 according to 
the accounts. 

Such are the chief matters of interest in these valuable 
records of the parish of All Saints from the fourteenth 
century on to the seventeenth, and one may conclude with 
the quaint remark at the end of the accounts for the year 
19-20 Edward IV, 1480: — 

''Paid forthwith, 
& so discharged every man pleased." 



HERALDRY READ AT BREDOtf,' STRENSHAM, 
PERSHORE, DUMBLETON, AND DIDBROOK, 
May, 190k. 

By F. WERE. 



BREDON CHURCH. 

MITTON CHAPEL. 

W. side. Achievement above tomb. Quarterly i and 4, 
" Azure a griffin segreant or," Reed; 2 and 3, "Argent 
three crossbows 2 and 1 gules, bows sable strings or," Reade; 
over all a crescent for difference. Crest : Eagle displayed 
armed or, which includes breast. On each side of tomb are 
two smaller shields: S. as above; N. quarterly 1, "Sable 
on a cross within bordure both engrailed or five pellets," 
Grevill; 2, " Ermine a fess chequy or and azure,' Ardern ; 
3, "Sable a cross engrailed or," Willoughby ; 4, "Gules a 
fess between six martlets or," Beauchamp. Giles Reed does 
not appear in the Visitations of the Harleian Society, but 
Glazebrook, in his Hiraldry of Worcestershire, page 460, gives 
his descent : he was of Mitton, and also lord of the manor 
of Walton Cardiffe, in Gloucestershire, in 1608 (Rudder, 
page 787). The 1 and 4 are the arms of the Reeds of 
Brimshill Castle, co. Hereford ; 2 and 3 imply an early 
intermarriage with the Reades of co. Gloucester. He 
married Katherine, daughter of Sir Fulke Grevill, first 
knight, whose ancestor Lodouecus married Margaret, 
daughter and coheiress of Giles Ardren, of Drayton, 
the 2 quartering ; whilst Sir Fulke married Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Edward Willoughby, the 3 quar- 



276 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



tering ; and she brought in the 4 quartering, Beauchatnp 
of Beauchamp's Court. 

S. side. "Azure a chevron ermine between three trefoils 
slipped argent," Parsons, impaling Parsons. Charles 
ob. 1732, and Mary ob. 1739. I cannot find this marriage, 
but Gloucester Visitation, 1682, says Mercy, daughter of 
Charles Parsons, Esq., of Bredon, ob. 1777, <zt. 72, married 
Thomas Cox ; so he probably married one of the Parsons 
of Kemerton, co. Gloucester, whose arms were the same ;. 
but it seems to be an error blazoning the trefoils as 
"slipped," since that is the coat of Meade. 

I discovered a loose shield on window-sill just before 
leaving, but the light was so bad, and it was defaced, I had 
not time to read it. Perhaps it was Reed impaling 
Brydges^ which is known to have been there, or part of 
the broken-up Sutton monument. 

CHANCEL. 

Windows. N. " Chequy gules and or a chief ermine," 
Tatteshall. Possibly an old lord of the manor. "Barry 
of six argent and sable ? purpure," query. S. " Gules 
a fess ? or between three lozenges argent," query. Possibly 
the fess and lozenges might have been charged or diapered. 
"Gules a fess between six crosses croslet 3.2.1 or," Beau- 
champ, ? of Elmley. 

Brass. Four shields. 1 : "(Argent) ten torteaux 4.3.2.1," 
See of Worcester. 2: "(Argent) on a chevron (sable), a 
crescent for difference, in chief a label of three points 
(gules)," Prideaux. 3: "Per pale a lion rampant between 
three fleurs de lys (? counter-changed)," query. Glazebrook 
says, page 451, Dr. John Prideaux, Bishop of Worcester, 
1641-50, married first Mary, daughter of Dr. Taylor. I 
can find no Taylor arms like this; it is really Goodwyn. 
4 : " (Argent) masonry and a chief indented (sable)," 
Reynell ; and the same authority says the Bishop married 
secondly Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Reynell, of West 
Ogwell, Devon. 



Heraldry. 



277 



Adjoining is a flat stone with a shield bearing grand 
quarters 1 and 4. Quarterly 1 and 4, "... a lion rampant 
. . . query; 2 and 3, " . . . chevron between three 
crescents query Pole ; 2, " . . . ten roundels 

and a label of three points . . . query Babington; 
3, " . . . ? two chevrons between three roses, may be 
cinquefoils pierced query, impaling Prideaux, as 

before — it bears the date 1559, so nearly a hundred years 
antecedent to the bishop. 

S. wall. Three shields. 1 : Quarterly 1 and 4, "Argent 
a cross molme sable in dexter chief, a mullet ? or for 
difference," Copley; 2, "Or a fess embattled sable," query 
Abberbury, a quartering of Throckmorton and a Suffolk 
family — Thomas Copley's father was of Suffolk; 3, "Sable 
three bars argent," query, possibly Eaton. [The pedigrees 
of the Copley family are numerous, but they do not bring in 
these quarterings. Can the last have anything to do with 
the barry coat in the window?] Impaling, "Per chevron 
argent and sable in chief two moorcocks (Worcester Visitation) 
proper," Middlemore. Thomas Copley married secondly 
Eleanor, daughter of William Midelmore, of Hacklow. 

2 : Achievement, the 1 without the impaling. Crest : 
A covered cup or. 

3 : The same as 1 without and impaling, " Gules on a 
canton argent a fieur de lys sable," Newport. T. Copley's 
first wife was Margaret, daughter of George Newport. 

Flat stone. Achievement. "(Or) a cross quarterly (gules 
and sable) in dexter chief, an eagle displayed (of the third)," 
Webb, impaling " (Argent) on a chevron (gules) between 
three owls (sable) as many lozenges (ermine), on a chief 
(of the second) three trees eradicated (or)," Haselwood. 
Armories read these trees as branches, and Papworth as 
nuts, but it is evidently a canting coat. Crest : Demi buck 
salient (argent) attired (or). Motto: "Mors mi hi lucrum." 
Rev. John Webb, jun., ob. 1724. 

The tiles in the face of the steps of the sacrarium will 
form the subject of a separate paper. 



278 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



STRENSHAM CHURCH. 

CHANCEL. 

N. side, three shields. 1 : " Argent a chevron between 
three crosses croslet fitchy sable," and baronet's inescutcheon 
in chief, Russell; with escutcheon of pretence, " Ermine on 
a chief indented azure three ducal coronets or,'' Litton. 
Sir Francis Russell, Bart., 6b. 1705, and the last of the line, 
married Anne, daughter and heiress of Sir Rowland Litton, 
Knt, of Knebworth, Herts. 

2 : Achievement and the fourteen shields, seven on each 
side of the S. side. Monument. 1, Russell. 2, " Argent 
billetty and a lion rampant sable ducally crowned or," De la 
Planches. Sir John Russell, Knt., Master of the Horse to 
King Richard II., oh. 1405, married Agnes, daughter and 
heiress of ? James Planches. Brass would say Agnes was 
third wife, but Wovcestev Visitation, p. 117, says Sir John's 
daughters were Elizabeth and Margaret, not his wives. 3, 
" Gules a saltire argent (may be argent a saltire gules) within 
a bordure azure bezanty," Hodington. Agnes, daughter 
and heiress of Thomas Hodington, married William Russell, 
son of Sir John. 4, " Azure three fishes (salmons) naiant in 
pale or," Cromeleyn. Lucy, daughter and heiress of Sir 
Richard Cromeleyn, Knt., and Margaret Somerie married 
Sir Richard Hodington. 5, " Or two lions passant azure," 
Somerie. Margaret was daughter of Roger and Nichola 
D'Albini, according to Wovcestev Visitation, p. 118; but 
according to Burke daughter of Amabel, daughter and heiress 
of Sir Robert de Chaucombe, Knt., Roger Somerie's second 
wife; Gloucestev Visitation, relict of Ralph, Lord Bassett. 6, 
"Gules a lion rampant or," D'Albini. If Burke's genealogy 
is right, and it seems to be backed up by Glazebrook, then 
this quartering and the rest belonging to it, have no place 
here. 7, "Or a cross engrailed azure," Peverell, Count 
de Boughan. 8, " Azure three garbs or," De Meschines. 
Maud, daughter of Hughde Meschines, Earlof Chester, married 
William, Earl of Arundel. 9, " Azure a wolf's head erased 



1 



Heraldry. 



279 



argent," Lupus. 10, "Argent three mullets gules/' Knovill. 
This is a later Hodington quartering, and ? should take the 
place of 6, as Sir Baldwin Hodington married Joane, 
daughter and heiress of Sir John Knovill, Knt. 11, "Barry 
wavy of twelve (really six) azure and argent (generally argent 
and azure, may be gules) on a bend sable three bezants," 
Golafre. Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Golafre, married John, son of Sir Baldwin Hodington. 12, 
"Argent on a bend gules three round buckles or," Cassy. 
Agnes (Worcester Visitation), Janna (Gloucester Visitation), 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Cassy, of Adesbury, married 
Walter Hodington, son of the last John. 13, " Argent on a 
bend azure three cinquefoils or," Cokesey. Elizabeth, 
daughter and ? heiress of Walter Cokesey, of Mitton, married 
Thomas Cassy, so comes in with 12. 14, "Argent on a bend 
engrailed plain cotised sable three mullets of the first," 
Thurgryn. Joane, daughter and heiress of Henry Thurgryn, 
married Thomas Hodington, son of Walter 12. 15, "Gules 
a sword fessways argent, hilted or between an esquire's 
helmet in chief of the second, and in base two garbs of the 
third," Cholmley. Sir Thomas, or Sir John, oh. 1574, married 
Frances, daughter and coheiress of Lord Chief Justice 
Roger Cholmley. Crest : Demi lion rampant ? or holding in 
dexter paw a cross croslet fitchy sable, as in the arms. 

3 : Russell, impaling Litton. Defaced, but on lozenge, 
"Gules seven lozenges conjoined 3.3.1 vair on a canton or 
a mullet of six points sable," Guise, impaling Russell. 
Sir John Guise, third baronet of Elmore, co. Gloucester, 
married as his second wife and her third husband Anne, 
daughter and coheiress of Sir Francis Russell, last baronet ; 
he oh. 1732, she oh. 1734, so in Gloucester Visitation, 1682-3. 

sacrarium. 

N. wall. Quarterly 1 and 4, "Argent a chevron sable 
between three crescents gules," Withers ; 2 and 3 "quarterly 
gules and vert four pheons in cross in point, ? proper 
really argent," Trubshaw ; with escutcheon of pretence, 



28o 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



quarterly 1 and 4, " iVrgent on each of three mounts 
entrailed, really vert a raven sable," Ravenhill ; 2, "Argent 
three bars wavy gules, realty barry wavy of six argent and 
gules," Dansey; 3, "Argent a chevron gules between three 
crosses croslet fitchy sable," error for Russell, as the 
chevron should be sable. Monument said that Frances 
Russel was last descendant of the house and relict of Richard 
Nash, D.D., she ob. 1774 ; this is all wrong, as Sir Francis 
was the last male and his three daughters the last females,, 
of which Anne has been recorded under Guise. Mary married 
Thomas Jones, and Elizabeth married William Dansey ; she 
was the granddaughter of the last. Frances Ravenhill, as 
the escutcheon of pretence says, was the daughter of John 
Ravenhill, ob. 1754, an< ^ Catherine Dansey, daughter of 
Elizabeth above and relict of the Rev. Dr. Nash, when she 
married Sir Charles Trubshaw Withers. I believe all these 
families died s.p., but she should have been styled Frances 
Withers, not Russel, or else Frances Russel Ravenhill. 

N.E. wall. Brasses. Three shields. 1 : 1, Russell ; 
2, Planches ; 3, Hodington ; 4, Golafre ; 5, Cassy ; 
6, Cokesey ; 7, Thurgryn ; 8, Cromeleyn ; impaling quar- 
terly 1 and 4, "(Azure) on a fess engrailed (or) between 
three spear heads argent a greyhound courant (sable)," 
Umpton ; 2 and 3, " Gules two chevrons argent," Fettiplace. 
Sir John Russell married Edith, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Umpton, of Wadley, Berks. Worcester Visitation, 1569, 
p. 119, 2 and 3. Nash and Grazebrook give the chevrons 
as "or" and the family as Walderscheff. They ought to 
be " argent," and are so given in Symond's Diary, when 
they would be Fettiplace, as Hugh Umpton married Sybil], 
daughter and heiress of William Fettiplace, of Stokenchurch, 
co. Oxford. In Metcalfe's Knights Sir Thomas Umpton was 
knighted when Anne Boleyn w 7 as crowned, and his arms are 
given with the chevrons argent. 

2 : Achievement. As 1, without impaling and crest, 
A covered cup. 

3 : Umpton, impaling Fettiplace. 



Heraldry. 



281 



CHANCEL. 

S. side. On top, Russell, impaling quarterly, " Argent 
and gules with fret or, over all on a bend sable three 
escallops of the first," Spencer. Worcester Visitation, 1569, 
Sir Thomas, may be Robert, of Strensham, married Alice, may 
be Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Spencer, of Yarnton, 
co. Oxford; he ob. 1632, she ob. 1618. Crest: A double 
plume of feathers, five in chief, alternately gules and azure, 
and the five in base azure and gules. In the middle, Russell 
and crest and Spencer with crest, Out of a ducal coronet 
or a griffin's head argent gorged with a bar gemel gules 
between two wings displayed of the second. Below, on each 
side, are seven shields containing the quarterings of Russell, 
as mentioned on the first 2 of Russell. 

S. Avail. " ? Azure, a cross flory or in chief a crescent 
for difference," Ward, Rev. Samuel, ob. 1705; rector thirty- 
five years. " Ermine on a chief indented sable three escallops 
or," Taylor, John, 1848. Crest : Demi lion rampant proper, 
semee of escallops sable, holding between the paws a saltire 
of the last, surmounted by an escallop argent. Motto : 
" Fidelis que ad mortem." 

Hatchments, W. side of Chancel Arch. 1 : Taylor, as 
before. 2 : Royal Arms, with supporters couchant, query 
George IV. 3 : Taylor ; with escutcheon of pretence, " Sable 
a fess ermine between three estoiles or," Skeye. this is 
also given as "Azure a fess engrailed ermine between three 
estoiles argent," impaling quarterly 1 and 4, "Sable a 
chevron between three pickaxes or millpecks argent," 
Moseley ; 2, " quarterly per fess indented sable (query 
gules) and argent, in dexter chief a lion passant guardant or," 
query Croft; 3, "Gules two lions passant argent between 
nine crosses croslet fitchy 3.3.3 or," Acton, co. Salop. 
Mr. James Taylor, ob. 1852, married first Louisa, daughter 
and coheiress of Samuei Skeye, of Spring Grove, co. Wor- 
cester ; and, secondly, Anne Elizabeth, daughter of Walter 
Michael Moseley, of Buildwas, Salop. 



282 



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NAVE. 

S. wall. On lozenge : quarterly 1 and 4, " Barry wavy 
of six argent and gules," Dansey ; 2 and 3, Russell, 1733. 
See Withers monument before. 

The shields off the brasses are all gone, but there is a 
loose one in the vestry, which is " (Gules) a chevron between 
three bulls' heads cabossed argent armed or," Baynham. 
Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Baynham, married Robert 
Russell, Esq., oh. 1502. 

The tiles in the nave floor are scattered about, several 
being duplicates, but the varieties of those heraldic are few, 
and include the following : — 

1 : "Tincture (azure), two keys in saltire (or and azure), 
surmounted by, or surmounting, a sword in pale, point 
downwards, metal (argent), hilted of the second," SS. Peter 
and Paul, Gloucester Bishopric. 

2 : What looks more like four shields within a bordure 
charged with crosses croslet ; but one of them is ensigned 
with a mitre, and they could be relaid so as to form this 
coat. " Paly of six argent and gules (sable now) on a 
chevron azure (metal now) three crosses croslet ensigned 
with a mitre or," Carpenter, Bishop of Worcester, 1444-76.. 

3 : " Tincture (azure), a cross flory between four 'martlets, 
metal (or)," Edward the Confessor. 

4 : Berkeley, with crosses patty. 



PERSHORE ABBEY. 

S. TRANSEPT. 

E. wall. Gauntlet in fess holding sword erect proper 
enfiiing a boar's head argent, Howe crest. 

Hatchment. "Azure three boars' heads couped close, 
2 and 1 between ? nine crosses croslet argent," Craddock. 

Hatchment, S. wall. " Barry of six or and sable, in 



Heraldry. 



283. 



chief a rose for difference," Marriott ; impaling, " Gules a 
fess between three boars' heads couped erminois," Beckett. 
Crest : Talbot passant sable collared and chained or. 
Motto: "Virtute et fide." Lieut. - General Thomas 
Marriott, ob. 1847, married Anne, third daughter of Sir 
John Beckett, Bart. 

Hatchment, W. wall and tomb. " Argent on a chevron 
between three owls sable, as many lozenges ermine," Hasel- 
wood ; impaling, " Argent a fess, and in chief a mullet 
between two roundles sable," Dyneley. Thomas Hasel- 
wood, of Wick Warren, near Pershore, ob. 1624, married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Dineley. " ? Buck trippant 
between three cups or chalices," on each side the initials 
D. and S. 

Hatchment. " Ermine on a fess gules a lion passant 
or," Probyn ; impaling, quarterly 1 and 4, "Gules three 
eagles' legs erased ? or," Bund ; 2 and 3, " Azure a chevron 
ermine between three crosses croslet" (so I read it), really 
" trefoils argent," Parsons. William Bund married Mary, 
daughter and heiress of John Parsons, of Overbury, co. 
Worcester ; dimidiated with "Or on a chevron between three 
six-pointed mullets gules, a cross patty of the field," Willis. 
The Rev. William Probyn, vicar of Pershore, married Mary, 
granddaughter of the above William Bund, but as the Willis 
did not come in till much later, it really has no proper 
marshalling here. 

There was a quarterly coat on a tablet impaling what 
might be Haselwood, which bore the incription, " Percival 
Haslam, 1814," but it was too defaced for me to be sure of 
the reading. 

Hatchment, S. aisle, S. wall. " Or three bears' gambs 
erased 2 and 1, within bordure engrailed sable," Bedford; 
impaling, " Sable a chevron chequy or and gules between 
three cinquefoils argent, on a chief ermine a Catherine wheel 
of the third," query Houson. The Rev. W. K. Riland 
Bedford married Maria Amy, youngest daughter of Joseph 
Houson. 



284 



Transactions for the Yeaa 1904. 



N. nave, W. end. Achievement. Quarterly, 1 : Hasel- 
wood, as before. 2 : " Argent a chevron between three 
squirrels sejant gules," Lovell. According to Le Neve's 
Knights, p. 226, the animals are conies, and that Edmund, 
who possibly was great-grandfather of Fulk Hasehvood, 
married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Mr. Thomas 
Lovell. 3 : In Nash's Worcestershire Plate this quartering is 
given as "Per pale or and argent a chevron counterchanged (!) 
between three fleurs de lys (? azure)." In Rutland Visitation, 
1618, it is given as "Or on a chevron azure between three 
fleurs de lys sable as many bars gemelles . . ." ( ). But 
I suppose it must be taken to represent Billington, as Le 
Neve says the Billingtons bore " Per pale or and azure three 
fleurs de lys between a chevron charged with two bars gemel 
all counterchanged; " but he adds this is forged, where it is 
stated that Edmund Haselwood of Maydwell married . . . 
daughter and heiress of Jno. Billington of . . . ., as it is not 
known to be a Billington coat, and Edmund really married 
Jane Chauntrell. 4: In Nash, "Argent a chevron and in 
chief two trefoils slipped sable'' ; in Rutland, ". . .a chevron 
between in chief two trefoils and in base a fleur de lys sable," 
( ). According to Le Neve's pedigree it looks as if 

3 and 4 had been substituted for 3, "Argent on a canton 
gules an owl (? rose) of the field," Bradstone, as Bryan 
Haselwood married Ursula, daughter and heiress of John 
Bradstone ; and 4, Lazencroft, given by Le Neve as 
" Argent a chevron sable between three blackbirds on a 
chief azure as many burstalks slipped on each the same 
number of burs or," which is the foundation of the modern 
Haselwood coat, their old arms being, he says, " Argent 
a chevron between three oak (really hazel) leaves vert." 
This last may possibly be the real 4. Impaling, quarterly 
of ten. 1 : Nash says, " Argent two bars sable." I read 
it, " Barry of six argent and azure," as Fulk Hazelwood 
married, secondly, Dorothy Hungerford. This should be 
"Sable two bars argent, in chief three plates," Hungerford. 
2: Nash, "Per pale indented argent and sable (really gules 



Heraldry. 



285 



and vert) a chevron or," Heytesbury. Sir Walter Hunger- 
ford, Knt., married Maud, daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Heytesbury, Knt. 3 : I read as blank, but Nash says, I 
think, ermine. This is not a usual quartering; most probably 
would be Peverell. 4: Nash says, arid I read it the same, 
"Ermine two bars sable," really "Barry of six ermine and 
gules," Hussey. 5 : Nash says, " Ermine a lion rampant 
within bordure sable," and I read it the same; but it is really 
" Ermine a lion rampant gules within bordure sable bezanty," 
Cornwall. 6: Nash, "Argent two bars, and in chief three 
roundles sable," and I the same ; it is really " Bars and 
roundles gules," Moels. 7: Nash says, and I read it the 
same, " Sable a chevron or." No such quartering comes in 
in either Gloucestershire or Wiltshire quarterings, so it must 
remain a query. 8: Nash says, and I read it so, " Or three 
torteaux 2 and 1, and in chief a label of three points ? azure, 
Courtenay. 9 : Nash and I read it, " Argent a lion rampant 
sable within bordure gules " ; lion generally crowned and 
bordure azure, Burnell. 10 : Nash says, and I read it, 
" Or a saltire engrailed sable," Botetourt. Esquire's helmet, 
but crest gone. 

Gravestone. "(Argent) a cross raguly (gules)," Lawrence, 
Francis, 1733, on esquire's helmet on wreath. Crest : A demi 
fish, tail uppermost, couped and erect. 

I am sorry to say that I had no more time to read the 
heraldry, so this is only part of what I suppose to be in the 
church. 



DUMBLETON CHURCH. 

Early in 1904 Mr. A. St. Aubyn Weston asked me to read 
the heraldry in Dumbleton Church, as he thought it was 
going shortly to be restored ; so accompanied by Canon 
Bazeley in May I visited the church, and the following day 
I visited Didbrook Church, my notes on which I append. 

20 

Vol. XXVII. 



286 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



NAVE. 

N. wall. " Sable a chevron argent charged with baronet's 
escutcheon between three scalps and attires of the second," 
Sir Richard Cocks ; impaling, " Gules on a saltire argent 
a rose of the first," Nevill. Frances, ob. 1723, youngest 
daughter of Colonel Richard Nevill, of Billingbear, co. 
Berks, married Sir Richard Cocks, second baronet. 

S. wall. Hatchment. Achievement of Charles Cocks, 
Esq., M.P., created baronet 1772, and Baron Evesham as 
Lord Somers in 1784, and died 1806. Tierce, 1: "Argent 
a fess gules between two bars gemel wavy azure," Eliot. 
2 : Quarterly 1 and 4, as Cocks above ; 2 and 3, " ? Vert a 
fess dancetty ermine," Somers. 3 : " Azure a lion rampant 
argent between seven fleurs de lys or," Pole ; stands here 
for Pole-Carew, as Lord Somers married, first, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Richard Eliot, co. Cornwall, and sister of the 
first Lord Eliot ; and, secondly, Anne, daughter of Reginald 
Pole-Carew, co. Devon ; so this is an example of wrong 
marshalling, as the quarterly coat of the Cocks and Somers 
ought to be the baron impaling the two femmes. Crest : 
On a mount proper a stag lodged reguardant argent, a 
baron's coronet, and two supporters lions, ? ermine collared 
with the Somers coat. Motto : " Prodessi quam conspici." 

Hatchment.. Cocks as above, impaling " Gules two esquires' 
helmets in chief proper, and in base a garb or," Cholmeley. 
Sir Robert Cocks, fourth baronet, ob. 1765, married Elizabeth, 
second daughter of James Cholmeley, Esq., co. Lincoln. 

Chancel Arch W., S. side. Hatchment. Quarterly 1, 
" Azure a lion rampant between eight fleurs de lys argent, 
over all a bend gules," Holland ; 2, " Argent a chevron 
gules between three water bougets sable," query Hill or 
Yarde ; 3, "Gules a lion rampant argent between three 
crescents or," query Salisbury; 4, "Gules six bezants 
3.2.1," Zouche ; 5, "Azure six lions rampant 3.2.1 or," 
query Longespee ; 6, "Argent two bars azure within bordure 
engrailed sable," Parr; impaling, "Argent three bars gemel, 



Heraldry. 



287 



and in chief three lions rampant barways sable," Willett. 

1 cannot find an example of these Holland quarterings or 
pedigree to prove 2 and 3 quarterings ; but this hatchment 
must represent Swinton Colthurst Holland, of Dumbleton, 
as he married Anne, daughter of the Rev. William Willett, 
of Newcastle-under-Lyme ; the fourth quartering (Zouche), 
generally ten bezants and a canton, implies the marriage of 
Baron Robert Holland, 1314, with Maud, daughter and 
coheiress of Alan le Zouche, of Ashby ; and the fifth Sir 
Roger le Zouche's marriage with Ela, daughter and (?) heiress 
of Stephen Longespee ; the sixth is given in Hunter's 
Fam. Min. Gen., vol. i., p. 176, as William Holland, of Road, 
in the parish of Prestwich, oh. 1603, married Jane, daughter 
and heiress of . . . Parr, of Road, which Holland was of 
the Denton, Lancashire, family. 

Chancel, N.. Achievement. Quarterly 1 and 4, "? Or a 
lion rampant azure," Percy; 2 and 3, " Gules three lucies, 

2 and 1 haurient argent," Lucie. Crest : On cap of dignity 
gules turned up ermine a lion statant (azure). Supporters : 
dexter, a lion rampant azure ; sinister, a leopard (may be a 
lion) rampant guardant, ducally crowned or and collared 
(gobony argent and azure). Below, the above impaling 
Cocks, as before, without baronet's inescutcheon. Sir Charles 
Percy, Knt., third son of the Earl of Northumberland, buried 
July 9th, 1628, married Dorothy, oh. 1646, daughter of 
Thomas Cocks, of Cleeve, Esq. 

E. end of S. aisle, by pulpit. On a lozenge : Cocks, as 
before, Miss Dorothy, oh. 1767. 



DIDBROOK CHURCH. 

N. side. Hatchment. Quarterly 1 and 4, "Sable on a 
fess between three elephants' heads erased argent as many 
mullets of the first," Pratt ; 2 and 3, " Or two bends 
sinister gules in fess point, bendwise an escallop sable" 



288 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



(really the escallop should be in chief and the bends dexter), 
Tracy; impaling, "Or on a fess azure a saltire throughout 
argent, between in chief a bull's head erased (Papworth 
' couped '), and in base a lymphad with oars sable," 
Richardson. Crest : An elephant's head erased argent. 
John Pratt, Esq., son of Lord Chief Justice Pratt, married, 
secondly, Dorothy, daughter, and I suppose heiress, of the 
Hon. Robert Tracy, of Coscomb, co. Gloucester, but I cannot 
find the Pratt-Richardson marriage. 

S. side. Quarterly 1 and 4, Argent a greyhound 
passant, and in chief a mullet sable for difference," Holford ; 
2 and 3, "Azure a lion passant argent, on a chief indented 
(Papworth 'engrailed') or three mullets sable," Stayner; 
impaling Richardson as before, only the fess is gules. Crest : 
On mount a greyhound's head sable. Sir Richard Holford, 
Knt., married Elizabeth, daughter, and I suppose heiress, of 
Vice-Admiral Sir Richard Stayner, but I cannot find this 
Holford- Richardson marriage. 

I failed to see Bigland's Cornwall and King of the 
Romans' shields in E. window, and Tracy impaling 
Dowdeswell, 1 735. 



EFFIGIES IN GLOUCESTER CATHEDRAL. 

By CANON BAZELKY and MARGARET LEY BAZELEY. 
1901 — 1903. 



GLOUCESTER RURAL DEANERY. 

THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF THE HOLY AND UNDIVIDED 

TRINITY, 

FORMERLY THE CONVENTUAL CHURCH OF THE BENEDICTINE ABBEY 
OF SS. PETER AND PAUL, GLOUCESTER. 

I. Robert, Duke of Normandy. 
(Carved about a.d. 1250.) 

i. 1 Royal and military. Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Wood, Irish bog oak. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The duke wears a moustache. The body is protected 
by a hooded hawberk of mail reaching nearly to the knees. 
Over the coif de maille, which is fastened by a strap passing 
through the mail across the forehead and down the right side 
of the face, is a coronet ornamented with strawberry leaves 
and fleur de lys, but not arched. The mail is not shown on 
the top of the head. Over the hawberk is worn a sleeveless 
surcoat, open in front from the loins downwards. This is now 
painted red, and is plain. The guige, or strap for support- 
ing the shield, crosses the right shoulder and passes toward: 
the left arm. The end of the strap is broken. There is no 
trace of the shield. The duke grasps with his right hand 
the handle of a long sword, which lies on the left side of the 

1 This and the following numbers represent the questions, 1 — 15, 
asked in a schedule and given in the Transactions, vol. xxv., p. 149. 



2Q0 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



body. The sword appears as though partly drawn out of 
the scabbard. The sword-belt crosses the body from the 
right hip to the left thigh, and is affixed to the sheath. The 
thighs and knees are clothed in tight-fitting breeches of cloth 
or leather. On the heels are spurs fastened by a leather 
strap. The original prick-spurs are gone. The legs are 
crossed at the thighs, the right leg being above the left. 

6. Under the head is a cushion. 

7. There is nothing at the feet. 

' 8. The effigy rests on an oblong wooden box of late 
fourteenth or early fifteenth - century workmanship. It 
probably superseded the sarcophagus in which the body of 
Duke Robert rested for awhile in front of the high altar. 
Around the upper edge of the box is a frieze of narrow- 
pointed leaves and round flowers with a seed in the centre. 
On the sides and ends of the box are ten shields with coats 
of arms disgracefully repainted. Nine of these are said to be 
the attributive bearings of the nine champions of the world : 
(1) Hector, (2) Julius Caesar, (3) David, (4) King Arthur, (5) 
Edward the Confessor, (6) Alexander the Great, (7) Judas 
Maccabaeus, (8) Charlemagne, (9) Godfrey de Bouillon. 

The bearings, which in some cases it is difficult to describe 
heraldically, are as follows, beginning with the dexter side : — 
1. Gules, a spear between two lions combatant or. 2. Or, a double- 
headed eagle displayed sable, beaked gules. 3. Azure, a harp or. 
4. Gules, three crowns or. 6. On the sinister side : Gules, a lion 
sejant in a chair holding a battle-axe or. 7. Or, three ravens in pale- 
sable, beaked and legged gules. 8. Or, an eagle displayed sable, 
dimidiated with azure, semes de lys or. 9. Azure, a cross fleury de 
lys between on the dexter side two wreaths and on the sinister side, 
issuing from the f ess-point, two staves fleury de lys or. 10. France 
and England quarterly. 

In the Lansdown MS. 874 in the British Museum is an 
etching by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald 1610, of this 
effigy and box. It differs from the above description in the 
following points : — On the breast of the surcoat are two lions, 
or. The sword lies diagonally across the body. No shield 




R. W Dusdale, Photo. 

ABBOT SERLO. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



291 



or shield strap is visible. There are rowell-spurs on the heels, 
unlike the present ones. The arms differ as follows : 1. Gules 
a pile azure between two lions rampant or. 2. No tinctures are 
given. 9. Per pale azure and gules, a cross, fleury de lys or between 
on the dexter side a wreath and a crown ve#t, on the sinister side two 
fleur de lys or. 

10. The effigy and box are painted as above. On the 
door is " W m - Davidson pinx* 1791." 

11. During the Civil War the effigy was broken in pieces 
and sold to Sir Humphry Tracy, of Stanway. At the 
Restoration it was mended and replaced in the cathedral. 

12. The effigy is at present confined in an iron cage, and 
is locked up for additional security in Abbot Boteler's Chapel. 
N.B. — The cage has been since removed. W. B., 1905. 

13. It is described in Leland's Itinerary. See also Trans. 
B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xiii., pp. 252, 253 ; vol. xiv., p. 238, 
&c. ; Records of Gloucester Cathedral, vol. i., pp. 99-101, &c. 

14. It is illustrated in Lansdown MS. 874 ; Fosbrooke's 
History of Gloucester, &c. 

15. The style of the armour has led later writers to 
attribute the date of the effigy to the reign of Henry III. 
The figure is very similar to an effigy of Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall, found at Hayles Abbey in 1900, if we may judge 
from the fragments. The crown with its strawberry leaves 
and fleurs de lys is similar to that which was introduced 
by Henry IV. ; it has no arch or Maltese crosses such as 
appear in later royal crowns. If a new ducal crown had 
been made for the effigy, as is supposed, after the Restoration 
it would have had eight strawberry leaves only. It would 
seem from an inscription in the Chapter House, " hic jacet 
robertus curtus," that the body of Duke Robert was 
removed from the presbytery and buried in the Chapter 
House long after the dissolution of St. Peter's Abbey. 

II. ? Abbot Serlo. (Carved about a. d. 1250.) 

1. Ecclesiastical. Abbot vested as a priest with the 
addition of a pastoral staff, &c. 



292 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



2. Recumbent effigy on a bracket. 

3. Oolite. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure is bareheaded and tonsured, with stiff, 
curly hair and beard and large, prominent ears. The face 
is very flat. 

Costume. — Amice, with stiff apparel and folded linen; alb, 
falling to the feet in five folds. No apparel is visible on 
the lower hem. The sleeves of the alb are hidden by the 
chasuble. Stole gradually widening to two inches at the 
bottom is narrower than the maniple. Chasuble, of the 
usual form falling to within about eight inches of the feet. 
Pastoral staff, without sudarium, pointed at the base, the 
top part broken off. On the feet are sandals and pointed 
shoes. In the right hand, resting on the breast, is the figure 
of an Early English church with pointed gabled roofs, 
narrow lower lights and trefoils above. The eyes are open. 

6. The head rests on a cushion with tasseis. 

7. There were originally two figures with hoods and long 
robes with very full sleeves leaning against the soles of the 
abbot's feet. One is very much mutilated. The remaining 
one at the left foot of the abbot may be a monk, as suggested 
by Haines, or possibly a nun. The right hand rests against 
the cheek, and the left hand appears to support the base of 
the canopy. 

8. The figure lies on a slab within a triple canopy. 
Beneath the slab is a bracket, with similar moulding to 
the fourteenth-century veiling or casing of the presbytery. 
The figure and canopy are carved out of one stone, which 
would seem to have originally formed the coped lid of a 
coffin. 

The arch of the canopy immediately above the head 
of the abbot is cinquefoiled, and is supported by shafts 
with capitals. The shaft on the right side of the abbot 
remains intact ; on the left side it has been cut away 
by the builders to form the roll of a moulding. The 
lower arch terminates near the brow of the abbot in 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



293 



two diminutive heads, one of which has the characteristic 
heavy curled locks of the Edwardian period, such as appear 
on the effigy of Edward II. ; the other head may possibly 
be a woman's. Below these heads were two foliated bosses, 
one of which remains on the left side'of the abbot's face. 
The foliage represents maple leaves, and is of the character 
we find in Decorated architecture, natural, not conventional. 
There is no deep undercutting, such as we find in Early 
English work. Above this arch is another arch with straight 
sides beautifully crocketed, with a trefoil in the spandrel. The 
finial of this arch has been ruthlessly cut off. The natural 
foliage, the Edwardian mode of wearing the hair, and the 
crocket work belong to the latter part of the thirteenth century; 
so I am inclined to assign a date not earlier than 1280 to the 
upper part of the monument. On either side of the canopy 
arches is tracery with a circular hollow, out of which appears 
to rise an angel with wings, having curly hair confined by 
a fillet, and long robes with circular openings at the neck. 
The top of the slab with part of the canopy is said to have 
been cut off to make room for the older bishop's throne, now 
in the nave. The lower part is inserted in the moulding of 
the wall casing. 

9. Leland 1 says " Serlo, Abbot of Gloucester, lyeth under 
a fayre marble Tombe on the South syde of the Presbitery." 
Fosbrooke also gives a view of the monument as a vignette 
on the title-page of his History of Gloucester. It is there 
described as the tomb of Aldred. 

Councel, p. 132, says : " On the south side of the choir is 
a shelf monument for Bishop Aldred, of Worcester, who 
built the old church ; his effigy is carved in freestone on the 
tomb." 

In Haines' Guide to the Cathedral it is spoken of as the 
" mutilated effigy of an abbot, without mitre, holding church 
with pastoral staff on left side, two monks at feet and two 
angels in pediments of a triple canopy placed horizontally. 
Probably the monument of Henry Foliot (abbot 1228-43, 
1 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xiv., p. 239. 



294 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

in whose time the church was rededicated), and placed on a 
bracket by Abbot Parker. 

We are inclined unreservedly to accept Leland's testimony, 1 
founded on the report of the monks of St. Peter, with whom 
he conversed, that this figure represents Serlo, the great 
Norman abbot, who rebuilt the eastern limb of the church 
from its foundations in 1089 — noo. 2 It is probable that the 
coffin containing Serlo, with the " Decorated " effigy of the 
abbot on the lid, lay under one of the arches between two 
round pillars on the south side of the presbytery, and that 
when Abbot Horton (1351-77) veiled the east end of the 
church with Perpendicular stonework he prepared the 
bracket and moulded the coffin lid to fit it. The bones of 
Serlo probably lie below the floor in the ambulatory. The 
bracket so closely resembles the rest of Horton's work that 
we cannot believe that it was executed at any other time, 
certainly not in the sixteenth century by Abbot Parker. 

It is ridiculous to suppose that the monks in the time of 
Edward I. would have carved an effigy of Abbot Foliot as 
a founder of the abbey because some sixty years before 
their time during his rule the abbey was rededicated, 3 or 
because the vaulting of the nave was completed. 4 Nor is 
it likely that for these reasons the gifted Perpendicular 
builders of the time of the third Edward would have altered 
the construction of the south wall of the presbytery and 
have given Foliot such a place of honour as the figure now 
occupies. 

With regard to Aldred, if it be true what the historian 
relates, that he rebuilt the church from its foundations and 
rededicated it to Saint Peter, 5 then this Saxon Bishop of 
Worcester and Archbishop of York certainly deserves some 
monument at Gloucester. But he was buried in his minster 
of York (1067) and not at Gloucester, so his effigy would not 

1 Trans. B. and G. Arch Soc, vol. xiv., p. 
2 Hist, ct Cart. Mon. S. Petri, Glouc, vol. i., p. 12. 
3 Id., vol. i., p. 28, Sept. 18, 1239. 
4 Id., vol. i., p. 29, a.d. 1242. r> Id., vol. i., p. 9. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 295 



have been carved on a coffin lid. Moreover, he would have 
been represented as an archbishop, and not merely as a 
priest with a pastoral staff. 

10. The effigy shows signs of painting : the chasuble 
was certainly blue. 

11. The pastoral stafl, the shaft, &c, of the canopy on 
the abbot's left side, one of the angels at the head, and one 
of the monks at the feet have been broken off. 

12. The effigy rests on a bracket affixed to the south 
wall of the presbytery. (See 9, above.) 

13. This effigy is illustrated and described by Mrs. 
Bagnall-Oakeley in Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. x., p. 59. 
It is illustrated in Fosbrooke (see title-page), and illustrated 
•and described in Britton's History of Gloucester Cathedral, p. 68 
and title-page. It is also referred to in Trans. B. and G. 
Arch. Soc, vol. xiii., p. 70. 

14. Condition fairly good. 

15. Serlo was educated in the Norman Abbey of Bex, 
and was chaplain to William the Conqueror. He was made 
Abbot of Gloucester in 1072, and finding Aldred's church 
still incomplete and ready to fall, and the monastery greatly 
impoverished, he prevailed on the king and many of his 
Norman nobles to assist him in rebuilding the church and 
adding greatly to its endowments. Enough of the church 
was completed in 1100 to warrant its dedication by Sampson, 
Bishop of Worcester. 

Serlo died in 1104. Willis, in his Mitred Abbeys, says 
Serlo was buried under a marble tomb on the south side 
of the presbytery ; he is doubtlessly right, but he only follows 
Leland. 



III. Edward II. (Carved about 1350.) 

1. Regal. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Alabaster. 

4. Life-size. 



296 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



5. The king is bare-headed, with the heavy side-locks 
peculiar to the times of the three Edwards. Around the 
head is a jewelled coronet, adorned with strawberry-leaves. 
The king wears a tunic, of which only the sleeves appear, 
these being tight to the arm. Over this is a long, flowing 
robe with sleeves of surplice shape, cut square at the neck 
and reaching to the ankles. The robe has pocket-holes 
or slashes at the sides, through which straps appear. Over 
the robe is thrown a regal mantle or pall, on which the 
figure reclines. His right hand grasps a sceptre, the head 
of which is fairly perfect ; his left hand holds an orb. His 
feet are encased in pointed shoes, which have no apparent 
fastening. 

6. Two pillows with mutilated tassels. The upper pillow 
is supported by two angels, seated, with flowing curly hair 
encircled by a band, wings, long robes, and bare feet. 

7. A lion, which looks back at the king. 

8. The lower part of the exquisite tomb, on which the 
figure rests, has a series of ogee-arched recesses, cinquefoiled 
with crocketed heads. These recesses or niches originally 
held twenty-eight statuettes. Above this the canopy 
consists of two stages of ogee-headed arches, interfoliated. 
and crocketed, and surmounted by finials with buttresses 
placed diagonally, and terminating in pinnacles. A bracket 
at the north side of the tomb seems to be a hundred years 
later than the rest of the tomb. It was used for the offerings 
of the pilgrims. 

9. " E. II 1327," at the east end. (Edward II., 1307-27.) 

10. On each of the pillars of the presbytery, adjoining 
the tomb, is a frieze of six white harts ducally chained and. 
gorged, on a brown ground. 1 There is no other painting 
except the letters. 

11. Three fingers of the right hand are missing; the 
strawberry leaves of the crown are most of them broken ; 
the lower part of the sceptre is mutilated ; the upper part 

1 See Records of Glow. Cath., vol. i., p. 102, and Hist, et Cart. Mon. 
S. Pet. Glove, vol. L, p. lx. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 297 

of the monument has been restored by Oriel College, Oxford, 
which claims the king as its founder. 

12. Within the third bay westwards, on the. north side 
of the presbytery. 

13. Illustrated in Fosbrooke's History of Gloucester, fob, 
p. 125. Described very indifferently in Arch. Journal, vol. xvii., 
p. 297. ? Illustrated by Carter in 1809. (See M. of G. L., 
vol. i., p. 273.) Described in Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, 
vol. xiii , p. 254. 

14. See above, 11. 

15. Edward II. was murdered at Berkeley Castle on 
September 21st, 1327. His body was brought to Gloucester 
a few days later by Abbot Thokey. The following notes are 
taken from Smyth's Lives of the Berkeleys, vol. i. : — 

" In the custody of the Deane and Chapter of Glouc. is 
a faire manus* Chronicle summarily collected by Walter 
Frocester, a monke in the Abbey of Glouc. living at this time 
within fifteen miles of Berkeley, after Abbot of that monastery, 
deduced down by him to the twentyeth year of Kinge Eduard 
the third, who writeth thus, viz*: — 

" ' Eduard the second, sonne of Eduard, began his raigne 
in the year 1307, in the 19th whereof hee was dekinged ; 
Taken at Neath Castle in W T est Wales, but brought to bee 
kept at Kenellworth, And the third of the nones of Aprill, 
was translated from Kenellworth to Berkeley Castle, where 
when many conspired for his delivery About the feast of 
S* Matthewe the Evangelist was most . . . wickedly mur- 
dered, and buryed in the Church of S* Peter here with us at 
Glouc 1 "; And in another place thus: — 

" ' Et post mortem pradicti regis, &>c. And after the death 
of the said kinge, his venerable body (which the next 
monasteries of S* Augustine of Bristol, S* Mary of Kings- 
wood, and S* Aldelme of Malmesbury, for dread of Roger 
de Mortimer and Queene Isable and theire complices feared 
to receive), was by John Toky then Abbot of this Church 
of blessed S* Peter of Gloucester with his chariot honorably 
adorned with the arms of the sd. church brought from the 



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Transactions for the Year 1904. 



Castle of Berkeley to the Church of the said Monastery of 
Glouc. ; And by the whole Convent solemnly attired was 
with the procession of the whole City honorably received 
and in the North part of the Church there neere to the great 
Altar, buryed. (See Hist. S. Pet. I., 44.) This Abbot Toky, 
mine author succeeded, then a mpnke there, and present at 
his funerall, of which Abbot, then a very old man, and ot 
the benefitts hee received from the sonne for this honor done 
to his fathers body, J :he marginald record declareth." 

" The Accompt of this said lord's Receiver (William Aside, 
Receiver to Lord Berkeley) for the yeere following in the 
second of Eduard the third sheweth what hee paid for 
dyinge of the white canvas black for coveringe the chariot 
wherein the body of the Kinge was carryed from Berkeley 
Castle to Glouc: what the cords, the horse collars, the traces, 
and other necessaries perticularly cost, used about the 
Chariot, and conveyinge of his body thence to Gloucester 
. . . for a silver vessel to put the king's hart in 37s. o8d. 
In oblations at severall times in the Chappie of the Castle 
of Berkeley for the kings soule 2id. In expenses of the 
Lord Berkeleys family goinge with the king's body from 
Berkeley to Glouc. 18s. 09^." 

IV. Unknown Knight. (Carved about a.d. 1410.) 

1. Military. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. A bascinet encircled with an orle, i.e. a wreath or 
padded roll, to lighten the pressure of the tilting helmet. 

A moustache. To the bascinet 
is attached by a lace or chain 
passing through the rim the 
camail. Round the neck a collar of SS with pendant. 
Instead of a jupon are breast and back-plates, over which, 
it may be, is a padded sleeveless jerkin, for there are no signs 




Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



of connecting straps or hinges. To these is attached a skirt 
of six taces not overlapping, with buckles on the left side and 
a hinge on the right. This reaches to the middle of the 
thigh. Beneath the skirt is seen a fringe or edging of mail. 
The arm is protected by epaulieres «of three plates, by 
brassarts with straps inside, by fan-shaped elbow pieces with 
roundels, wrist-plates fastened by a strap round the arm, and 
gauntlets. There are gussets of mail at the armpits. Round 
the hips is a belt of about twenty square pieces; on the 
central piece is a shield bearing a cross, on which some have 
imagined there is a leopard's head erased — the arms of 
Bridges of Coberley. To the belt was attached a sword in 
its scabbard, the central part of which alone remains. The 
legs are protected by cuisses, genouillieres with roundels at 
the sides, jambs with straps, and sollarets with gussets of 
mail cn the insteps and straps. The eyes of the figure are 
open. 

Notes on the S S collar, with a drawing, will be found in 
Records of Gloucester Cathedral, vol. i., p. 113. 

6. The body reclines on a mattress, the head resting on 
a tilting helm with a horse's head as a crest, and a mantle 
with tassels. The hands are folded as though in prayer. 

7. At the feet is a lion. 

8. The canopied tomb has an ogee arch with foliated 
crockets and finial. It is panelled at the sides and back and 
has a vaulted roof without bosses at the intersections, like 
the roof of the south transept. On either side of the arch is 
a canopied niche for a statue of a saint. Above the arch is 
a cornice ornamented with single and double roses and oak- 
leaves. 

9. There is no inscription. The county historians 
attribute this effigy to Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, who died in 1372, but he was buried at the Abbey 
of Walden. Moreover, the skirt of taces, of which we have 
an example here, does not appear until the first decade of 
the fifteenth century, and the SS collar was instituted by 
Henry IV. as a Lancastrian badge. The late Canon Lysons 



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fancied that he could detect a leopard's head in the middle 
of the cross on the buckle of the knight's belt, and as avgent, 
on a cross sable a leopard's head or was the heraldic bearing of 
the Bridges family of Coberley, he conjectured that this figure 
represented one of them. Thereupon he attributed it to Sir 
John Bridges, who fought at Agincourt, and died in 1437. 
But no example of the camail or tippet of mail has been 
found later than 1410. Moreover, there are certainly no 
traces of a leopard's head or any other bearing on the cross 
at present. It would appear, therefore, that some other 
Gloucestershire knight has to be found who, with his lady, 
wore the Lancastrian badge of the S S collar, who bore this 
crest of a horse's head, and who died in the first decade of 
the fifteenth century. 

10. There are no traces of painting, gilding, or gesso 
decoration. 

11. The fingers and nose are mutilated and nearly all 
the sword is gone. 

12. On the south wall of the nave opposite tne eastern- 
most bay of the south arcade. The effigy is said by some 
county historians to have been brought from Llanthony 
Priory, but the apparent date of the tomb coincides with 
that of the effigy. 

13. Described in Records of Gloucester Cathedral, vol. i., 
*p. 116, and in Britton's History of Gloucester, p. 72; engraved 

in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, vol. i., pi. lxv., p. 195, and 
in Fosbrooke's History of Gloucester, fol. ed., p. 127. 

14. See under 11. 



V. Unknown Lady. (About a.d. 1410.) 

1. Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone of a lighter colour than the accompanying 
effigy. 

4. Life-size. 



i 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



B"\5« Flowing hair encircled by an orle with diagonal 
ornamentation, a collar of S S much 
smaller than her lord's, but with similar 
pendant. Neck bare. Tunic cut straight 
across the neck. An ornament runs down the front of the 
tunic similar to the belt of her lord. '* The tunic, although 
tightly fitting the chest, hangs in folds below. No seam is 
visible. A mantle lies open without any fastening, partly 
covering her upper arms. The shoes are very pointed. 

6. Under the head are two cushions, one round and the 
other square. 

7. Under the feet, a pet dog with a jewelled collar. 

8. See above, under knight. 

9. No inscription. 

10. No painting, &c. 

11. Nose, and arms below the elbow are gone. 

12. See above. 

13. See above. 

Note. — At first sight the difference in the colour of the 
stone suggests that these two effigies do not belong to one 
another ; but the collar of S S, the two orles, and the 
similarity of the ornamentation of the lady's tunic to that of 
the knight's belt are proofs of the close connection of the 
two persons. 

VI. Abbot Seabrook, a.d. 1457. 

1. Ecclesiastical (a) mitred abbot. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Alabaster. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The abbot wears the following vestments: — A mitre 
{mitm pvrtiosa), the front horn of which is sadly mutilated, it 
has jewels round the edges and a jewelled ornament in front, 
an alb extending to the feet, a maniple and fringed stole, a 
tunic and dalmatic. Over all is a chasuble, very full and 
long. Between the right arm and the right breast is the 

21 

Vol. XXVII. 




302 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



pastoral staff, enveloped in a vexillum or banner of the 
cross. The shoes are plain and very pointed. The hands, 
which were folded on the chest, and the wrists- have been 
broken off. 

6. Under the head are two round cushions, the upper 
one with buttons and the lower one with tassels. These are 
supported by winged angels with long flowing albs fastened 
on the chest with a diamond-shaped fibula or brooch. They 
also wear amices. 

J, At the feet is a lion. 

8. The effigy lies on an altar-tomb in a recess constructed 
in the wall of a chapel. The recess has a wide arch decorated 
with cinquefoils, and a vaulted roof or ceiling ornamented 
with quatrefoils. The walls, on either side and above, are 
panelled. Above the arch are five panels containing sexfoils 
with spandrels and a battlemented cornice. The mutilated 
altar and reredos of the chapel remain, together with 
five canopied niches for saints and a vaulted ceiling 
ornamented with sexfoils. On the south side of the 
chapel is a piscina, and above the canopied ceiling of the 
altar is a frieze with lions and quatrefoil flowers. A door- 
way leads into the chapel from the sacrist's room. 

9. There is no inscription. Thomas Seabrook, iVbbot 
of St. Peter's, 1450-57. 

10. There are no traces of painting, &c. 

11. The heads of the angels, the lion's face, the abbot's 
hands and wrists, and the upper part of the pastoral staff 
have been broken off. The nose of the figure has been 
mutilated. 

12. The chapel in which the effigy lies is below the 
organ loft. The effigy has been replaced in its original 
position. For a time it was wrongly placed above the base 
of the altar. 

13. This effigy is illustrated in Fosbrooke and in Trans. 
B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. ix., p. 60. It is described in 
Transactions, vol. xiii., 254, and in Britton's History of 
Gloucester Cathedral, p. 73. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



14. See 11, above. 

15. Thomas Seabrook succeeded Reginald Botiler as, 
abbot of St. Peter's, Gloucester, in 1450. He took down 
the upper part of the Norman tower, and possibly also a 
spire which had been added to it by Helias, the sacrist, 
c. 1230, and began the building of the present tower, which 
is the glory of our Severn land. He died, however, in 1457, 
before it was finished ; and Robert Tully, a monk of St. 
Peter's, afterwards Bishop of St. David's, completed it. 
(See Records of Gloucester Cathedral, vol. ii., 128, 9.) The 
presbytery was repaved with tiles in Seabrook's time, and 
some bear his arms — ermine a cinqnefoil sable. It is stated in 
the Monasticon that when Bishop Benson repaired the choir 
in 1741 Abbot Seabrook's coffin was opened. A pastoral 
staff which lay on the body was removed and very improperly 
given away by one of the prebendaries of the cathedral. It 
is now in the custody of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Newcastle. (See Haines' Guide, pp. 88, 89.) 

VII. Osric, King of the Northumbrians. 
(Carved about a.d. 1530.) 

1. Regal. Osric, King of the Northumbrians. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone, oolite. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The king has long, flowing hair and beard, but no 
moustache or whiskers. On his head is a high crown, 
ornamented with crosses and fleurs de lys with little trefoils 
between ; the crown is jewelled, having large stones and 
two small ones alternately. He wears a tunic, the sleeves 
of wmich only appear, and a long, flowing robe with wide 
sleeves, fastened with a cord and tassels, the lower part 
of which lies on his waist. The robe extends to the feet ; 
the shoes are broad-toed ; a fur tippet and collar, the former 
with inverted border, cover his neck and chest. In his right 
hand is part of a mutilated sceptre or shaft, the base of 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



which remains. In his left hand is the model of a church 
with low, square central tower (with four round-headed 
lights on three sides), nave, and two transepts. The nave 
has a large doorway, and two small windows at the west 
end, each of two lights ; the transepts have each four 
windows on the west side, and a large doorway and two 
windows at the end. 

6. The head rests on a cushion with large tassels, 
supported by two winged angels wearing a monk's gown 
and hood with a cord at the waist, over which the gown 
is pulled up. On their heads are fillets rising to what 
appears to be a broken cross on the brow. 

7. There is a lion at the feet. 

8. The altar-tomb on which the figure rests has on 
each side six square compartments with inner squares 
set diagonally ; these are foliated, and in the centre is a 
late Tudor shield with no carving or painting. Above 
the figure is a Tudor canopy with foliated groining, con- 
taining eight shields similar to those below. In the foliated 
spandrels on the north side are — (1) Abbot Parker's arms, 
a stag between three phaoiis, and (2) a cross between four lions 
rampant, attributed to Northumbria. On the south side 
are — (1) Abbot Parker's arms as before, and (2) the arms 
of St. Peter's Abbey. Above the canopy are a frieze of 
leaves, six pinnacles and upright leaves. 

9. The inscription on the pillar at the east end of the 
tomb is: " Osricvs Rex . . . Hujus Monasterii." The 
words "primus fundator " have become obliterated. Osric, 
King of the Northumbrians from 718 — 729. 

10. There are no remains of gilding or gesso decoration. 
The letters of the inscription are painted. 

11. The left foot has been broken off and mended; the 
angel on the left side has lost its head ; the effigy has lost 
two finger-tips from the right hand and the tip of its nose. 

12. The effigy lies in the presbytery, on the north side 
•of the high altar. 

13. Illustrated and described in Fosbrooke, title-page 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



and p. 127, and in Britton's History of Gloucester Cathedral, 
pi. xxii. and p. 66. It is also described in Trans. B. and G. 
Arch. Soc, vol. xiii., p. 258. 

14. The monument is in good condition. 

15. Osric was the son of Alchfrid, a prince of North- 
umbria, and of Kyneburh, daughter of the Mercian king 
Penda. Bede tells us that Alchfrid, who was one of the 
sons of Oswy, shared the responsibilities of kingly rule 
with his father, and was an earnest supporter of St. Wilfrid,, 
in opposition to Colman, the disciple of Columba and 
St. Patrick. As " Rex " in 664 Alchfrid bestowed Ripon, 
with the land of forty families, on St. Wilfrid, and he sent 
him to France to be consecrated Bishop of the North- 
umbrians. 1 But later on, as Bede tells, Alchfrid caused 
trouble to his father. In the churchyard at Bewcastle, in 
Cumberland, there is the tall shaft of a memorial cross 
set up in 670, and on it the figure of a man, and over the 
figure these two inscriptions : " 4* This thin token of 
victory Hwaetred Wothgar Olwfwolthu set up in Memory 
of Alchfrith once King and son of Oswy «|* Pray for the 
high sin of his soul." And these two inscriptions tell all 
that we know about the end of Alchfrid, who was evidently 
dead in 670. 2 When Oswy died in 670 Ecgfrith, another 
son, succeeded him. 

Alchfrid had five children — Osric, Oswald, Oshere, 
Kyneburh, and Eadburh — who were probably brought up 
at the court of their uncles, Wulfhere and Ethelred. The 
latter had married a daughter of Oswy, so that his wife was 
their paternal aunt. On Ethelred's succession in 675, he 
seems to have made Osric "Rex" or Viceroy of the 
Hwiccas, a people inhabiting what is now Worcestershire 
and Gloucestershire, and he very generously placed many 
of the crown possessions of Mercia at his disposal for 
the endowment of the infant church of the Severn Vale. 
Osric founded a bishopric at Worcester, and monasteries 

1 Bede, H. E., book iii , § 227. 
2 Conversion of the Heptarchy, by the Bishop of Bristol, p 203. 



306 Transactions for the Year 1904. 



at Bath, Gloucester, and Pershore. He made his sister, 
Kyneburh, Abbess of Gloucester. She died in 710, after 
a rule of twenty-nine years, and was buried in front of the 
Altar of St. Petronilla in the church of the abbey. Oswald, 
his brother, became Abbot of Pershore. About 685 Osric 
was summoned to Northumbria to assist his uncle Aldfrid 
as king, and his other brother, Oshere. became. Viceroy 
of the Hwiccas i?i his place. After the death of Aldfrid 
in 705, Osric seems to have acted as regent of Northumbria 
during the reign of his young cousin, Osred. Osred was 
murdered in 717, and a year later, after the brief misrule of 
Ccenrad, Osric became King of the Northumbrians, and 
reigned till his death in 729, when he must have been about 
75 years old. 

Doubts have been raised of late as to the identity of 
Osric, Viceroy of the Hwiccas, with Osric, King of North- 
umbria ; but the monks of Gloucester had no such doubts. 
Abbot Parker placed the attributive arms of the kingdom 
of Northumbria, three lions in pale, on the tomb of him 
whom he describes as " Osricus rex primus fundator hujus 
monasterii 681." The History of St. Peters Abbey tells us 
that Kyneburh died nineteen years before her brother, and 
that Osric died in the twelfth year of his reign as King of 
Northumbria, and was buried near his sister in front of the 
Altar of St. Petronilla in the Abbey Church of Gloucester. 

For many years after the destruction of St. Petronilla's 
Chapel the body of Osric rested in the Lady Chapel. It 
was not until the days of the last abbot, William Parker, 
that a place was found for Osric as founder on the north 
side of the high altar in the presbytery, and a chantry chapel 
was constructed for his tomb. 

The effigy is rudely carved, perhaps in imitation of an 
earlier figure. The church on his breast is certainly intended 
to represent a church more like Serlo's at the beginning of 
the eleventh century than what the " Perpendicular " builders 
of the fifteenth century left as a heritage to Abbot Parker 
and to us. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



3o7 



VIII. William Parker, Abbot of Gloucester. 
(Carved about a.d. 1535.) 

1. Ecclesiastical. - 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Alabaster. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure is vested in full pontificals —mitra pretiosa, 
amice, alb quite plain, reaching to the feet ; tunic, open on 
the left side, but not apparently on the right ; dalmatic, open 
on both sides ; chasuble. The tunic and dalmatic have been 
painted at the bottom edges to represent a fringe ; the. 
dalmatic has been painted at the side edges as well as at 
the bottom. The feet are encased in square-toed shoes. 
Below the right arm is the pastoral staff, the head orna- 
mented with Gothic tracery and figures of abbots with mitre 
and staff. A vexillum is wrapped round the staff. On the 
right foot are the remains of a buskin. Over the left arm 
hangs the maniple., 

6. Under the head are two pillows ; the upper one is 
supported by two winged angels with amice and alb. 

7. At the feet is the abbot's crest— a buck. 

8. The effigy lies on an altar-tomb, which has three 
panels and four niches for statuettes on either side, and a 
panel and two niches at„ the bottom end. In the middle 
panel on each side are Abbot Parker's arms : Sable, <a buck 
trippant argent between three pheons or, within a bordure engrailed of 
the second. The two remaining panels on each side contain 
the symbols of the Passion: (1) a ladder, scourging post, 
scourge and spear with sponge ; (2; a heart between two 
hands and two feet pierced. The scourge is wanting on the 
left side. In the friezes above are the Tudor rose, the pome- 
granate, a lion's head, oak leaves, fleur de lys, and the initials 
" W. M." At the end of the tomb is a cross formed from a 
trea, with the branches roughly lopped off near their base. 
At the head the Norman pillar has been mutilated to receive 
the effigy, and the abbot's arms are placed here surmounted 



3 o8 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



by a mitre. The effigy lies in a late Gothic chapel, at the 
east end of which are the remains of an altar. The floor is 
paved with tiles, on some of which appear (1) a buck trippant 
within a square with oak leaves in the spandrels ; (2) the arms of 
the Abbey of St. Peter : — two keys in saltire and a sword in pale ,. 
handle in base ; (3) the arms of Abbot Parker as before. There 
are other tiles with inscriptions similar to these in the Lady 
Chapel which have been brought from Llanthony Priory. 

9. No inscription. William Parker, alias Malvern, 
Abbot 1514-39. 

10. There are remains of painting on the fringe of the 
tunic and dalmatic. 

11. The angels' heads are gone. One of the tassels, the 
horns of the buck, the lower part of the maniple, and the 
hands have been broken off. 

12. The effigy lies in a chapel on the north side of the 
presbytery. 

13. It is illustrated in Fosbrooke and described in 
Rudder, p. 175, and in Trans, B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. ix., 
p. 60, and vol. xiii., p. 256. 

14. Very good. 

15. William Parker, called also Malvern, either because 
he or his ancestors had some connection with the Priory of 
Great Malvern, or because they served as parkers in 
Malvern Chase, was Abbot of St. Peter's, Gloucester, from 
1514—39. His name appears in a list of the monks of 
St. Peter's in 1510 and in 1514; he was master of the works, 
or chief architect. He was elected abbot on May 14th in 
that year. As St. Peter's was a mitred abbey the abbot was 
entitled to a seat in the House of Lords, and William Parker 
was summoned by the king to meet him in Parliament on 
the 23rd November. He took part in later years in the 
debates in Parliament and Convocation on the king's divorce, 
the repudiation of the pope's supremacy, the surrender of 
the clergy, and the dissolution of the monasteries. He sat 
in Parliament for the last time on June 28th, 1539. When 
the abbey was surrendered on January 4th, 1540, Parker was 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



3°9 



not present. That sad duty was performed by the prior and 
thirteen monks. 

Willis, in his Mitred Abbeys, speaks of him as contuma- 
cious, and thereby losing his pension «.nd the chance of a 
bishopric. But a manuscript note found in a book belonging 
to his great-great-nephew asserts that the king promised 
him the bishopric of Gloucester, but that he died before the 
appointment could be made. There is a time-worn, weather- 
beaten effigy of a priest in Notgrove churchyard which is 
said by tradition to have covered the abbot's grave in the 
church. Others have thought that he was buried in North- 
leach Church, where many of his kinsmen rest. There are 
two broken croziers built into the wall of the choir of this 
church which may have some reference to the sacred office 
he held and lost. At all events, he does not appear to have 
been buried in the stately tomb which he prepared for himself 
in his life-time. Two Elizabethan bishops — probably Richard 
Cheiney, who died in 1579, and John Bullingham, who died 
in 1598 — are said to lie there. The pomegranate, the badge 
of Queen Katherine, would lead us to suppose either that 
the tomb was built before her divorce in 1533, or that 
Parker wished to show honour to her when she was no 
longer acknowledged by Henry VIII. as his queen. 

IX. Richard Pates, 1588. 

Under the south window of the south transept is a monu- 
ment supported by columns, on which are the figures of a 
man kneeling, in the dress of an Elizabethan lawyer, with a 
child behind him, and of a woman, also kneeling, with three 
children behind her. 

These figures have been allowed well-nigh to perish, and 
are scarcely discernible. They represent Richard Pates, the 
founder of the Cheltenham Grammar School, who died in 
1588, aged 73; his wife, and children. 

Over his head are the following arms: Arg. a chevron 
sable between three pellets ; on a chief of the first three crosses patee, 
fitche of the second. 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



X. Godfrey Goldsborough, Bishop of Gloucester 

A.D. 1604. 

1. Ecclesiastical. Bishop Goldsborough. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone, painted oolite. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The figure wears the dress of an Elizabethan bishop 
— a rochet which is seen at the neck, over this a chimere, 
and lawn sleeves fastened at the wrist with black ribbon ; 
above all a scarf round the neck and falling to within nine 
inches of the feet. The collar of the chimere is turned back 
over the scarf. Above this is a ruff with a band, and on the 
head is a skull-cap with flaps over the ears. The figure wears 
a full beard, whiskers, and moustache. The eyes are open. 
The shoes have square toes and thick soles, and are partly 
covered by the folds of the chimere. 

6. Under the head is a cushion with four tassels. 

7. Nothing. 

8. The figure rests on an altar-tomb 3 ft. 6 in. high, 
divided in three panels on each side and one at the end, 
Every panel is ornamented with scroll-work. In the central 
panel on each side is a shield bearing or, three chevrons gules ; 
on the middle, chevron a bishop's mitre of the first ; at the foot of 
the tomb are quarterly, 1 and 4, azure a cross fleury argent ; 
2 and 3, or, three chevrons sable in fesse point on a cinquefoil 
counterchanged a crescent argent. In each of the other panels 
is a semi-oval. The edge of the slab is ornamented with bars 
and pellets alternately. At the back of the bishop's head 
is a monumental tablet ornamented with scroll-work and 
human heads. The architrave is supported by two Corinthian 
pillars, and above all is a shield, within a circle, with the 
same arms as are on the side of the tomb impaling the arms 
which appear at the end of the tomb. Obelisks rise from 
brackets on either side of the inscription, and there is one at 
the apex of the monument. 

9. See Rudder, p. 157. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



10. The face and hands are painted flesh-colour, the cap 
and vestments black, the pillow and sleeves white. 

11. There are several chips in the scarf, and two finger- 
tips are missing. 

12. The effigy lies in the chapel of St. Petronilla on the 
south side of the Lady Chapel below the minstrel's gallery. 

13. It is described in Rudder, p. 157, and Fosbrooke, 
p. 127, and illustrated in Fosbrooke; described in Transactions, 
vol. xiii., p. 257. 

14. The monument is in excellent condition. 

15. "Godfrey Goldsborough, D.D., of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, Archdeacon of Worcester, Rector of Stockton, 
Archdeacon of Salop, Prebendary of London, Hereford and 
Worcester, the last of which he held ' in commendam ' with 
this See, became Bishop of Gloucester in 1598. He was 
consecrated at Lambeth on November 12th of that year, and 
governed until his death on the 26th of May, 1604." 1 

XI. Thomas and Christian Machen, a.d. 1614-15. 

1. Civilian. Mayor of Gloucester, in gown of office. 

2. Kneeling effigy. 

3. Stone, painted. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Bare-headed. Ruff of three folds. Black velvet doublet, 
padded and ornamented, with buttons in front, reaching below 
the waist ; sleeves also padded, with a small frill at the wrist. 
Breeches of black velvet, known as trunk hose, tied with 
black ribbon bow with Vandycked edge. Over all a robe of 
scarlet cloth with short sleeves, edged with fur; the robe 
turns back in front, showing a lining of wide fur ; the back 
of the sleeve opening is slashed, and lined with fur. 

8. The mayor and his wife kneel, facing one another, on 
either side of a reading-desk, on which lie two books. Above 
them is a horizontal canopy supported by two Corinthian 
pillars, and between two semicircular-headed arches stands 
1 Britton's History of Gloucester Cathedral, p. 36. 



312 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



the figure of Time with broken scythe and hour-glass. 
Below the effigies are four adult sons, kneeling on cushions, 
with doublets and breeches similar to their father's, with 
swords, cloaks and ruffs. There are three infant sons with 
ruffs. There are four adult daughters in a similar costume 
to their mother's, except that they have no caps ; their hair 
is turned back over a pad. Two infant daughters with caps 
and straight gowns complete the family. 

9. " Here lie buried the bodies of Thomas Machen Esq. 
late Alderman of this City of Gloucester, thrice Maior of the 
same, who departed this life the 18 day of October 1614 
in the 74th yeare of his age, and of Christian his wife with 
whom he lived in the estate of marriage 50 yeares and had 
issue 7 sonnes and 6 daughters. She departed this life 
June 29, 1615 in the 70th yeare of her age. Res pedit hue 
morimur Mors ultima linea verum." 

10. The figures are painted. The hair of Time and 
other parts are gilded. 

On shields at the top of the monument are : — 

(1) Vert j on a pale gules, between two horseshoes, each horseshoe 
between three stub-nails, two in chief and one in base, all meeting 
with their points to the shoe, argent, a sword in a scabbard azure, 
hilt, pommel, and studding or. On the point of the sword a cap 
of maintenance, gules, turned up ermine. On a chief per pale, 
or and pur pure - a boars head couped argent; in his mouth a quince 
apple between two denii roses, the dexter gules and the sinister argent, 
both barbed vert, each issuing rays from its centre pointing to the 
boars head, or. These were the arms of the city of Gloucester 
granted by Christopher Barker, Garter King of Arms, on 
October i8th, 1538. 1 

(2) Quarterly 1 and 4, " Or, a chevron indented gules bctK'ccn 
three leaves vert ; " 2 and 3, " Argent, three flowers in a vase proper." 
These are not the arms given lor Machen in the Heralds' 
Visitation of 1623. 

Mrs. Machen wears a black gown, the front of which is 
very similar to that of her husband's doublet, except that 
1 See Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. ii., p. 138. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 313 

it is not ornamented ; the sleeves are tight, with plain linen 
cuffs at the wrists; the bodice is heavily frilled below the 
waist, and the dress falls in heavy folds. There are epaulets 
on the shoulders, and a train falls from the neck. On her 
head is the Paris head-dress, worn over a close-fitting cap. 

Mrs. Machen is described in the Heralds' Visitation as 
" the daughter and coheire of . . . Baston of Swell in 
Com. Gloc." 

11. The heads of the figures have been repaired. 

12. The monument is affixed to the north wall of the 
east end of the north aisle of the nave, where the " Mayor's 
Chapel" once stood. 

13. The tomb and effigies are described or referred to in 
Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. ii., p. 238, and vol. xviii., 
p. 263 ; Fosbrooke's History of Gloucester, fob, p. 138. They 
are illustrated in Fosbrooke's History of Gloucester and Trans. 
B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xviii., pi. 5. 

14. The effigies are always in danger of splitting open, 
owing to the insertion of an iron bar, which expands 
as it rusts. 

15. A pedigree of " Machen " is given in the Visitation of 
Gloucestershire, 1623, published by the Harleian Society, p. 106. 
The will of Thomas Machen, dated September 9th, 1614, was 
proved December 3rd, 1614, and his wife's, dated June 21st, 
1615, was proved November 14th, 1615. 

XII. John and Anne Bower, a.d. 1615. 
1. Civilian. 

2 and 3. A painting on wood panelling. 

4. The largest figures are about 2 ft. high. 

5. The man has short hair, a moustache, and beard. 
There is a ruff round his neck with a single fold. He wears 
a cloak with a fur border hanging down the whole length of it. 
His inner garment has tight sleeves edged with a frill at the 
wrist; he appears to wear trunk hose. The wife wears a black 
dress, tight to the waist and from thence flowing in folds to 



314 Transactions for the Year 1904. 

her feet. She also wears a cap and a broad-brimmed black 
hat, a ruff and frills of the same material at the wrists. The 
daughters have similar dresses, except that they wear Paris 
hats instead of a broad-brimmed hat. Of the nine sons five 
have ruffs. The first appears to be in clerical dress with a 
mantle and large falling collar. The next one has armour on 
his arms, wrists and legs, a breast-plate, skirt of plate, &c. 
The third has armour above and red trunk hose. The fourth 
and fifth have falling collars, armour on arms and chest, and 
tight knee breeches. The sixth and seventh have trunk hose, 
and the ninth has knee breeches. The eighth wears a collar. 

8. The two large figures are kneeling at a table with an 
open book between them ; behind this is a niche with pillars, 
on which are their arms : Sable, a cross patee arg. 

9. The inscription is given in Fosbrooke's History of 
Gloucester, fol., p. 136. 

10. The figures and the arms are painted. 

12. Against the west wall of the north transept. 

13. Described in Britton, p. 72. 

14. Fairly good. 

15. Bower was an alias of the Robins family, but nothing 
is known of this branch of it. 

XIII. Elizabeth Williams, A.D..1622. 

1. Lady. 

2. Effigy, semi-recumbent, resting head on right hand. 

3. Alabaster. 

4. Life-size. 

5. She has curly hair, covered by a frilled cap. She 
wears a ruff in two folds and a tight-fitting bodice buttoned 
down the front. It is open at the throat and turned back, 
showing lace underneath. To the bodice is attached the 
skirt, gathered in by means of a cord, which is fastened in 
a bow at the waist. The bodice has tight sleeves buttoned 
at the wrist, Over these are pleated linen cuffs. Round her 
neck she wears a scarf which hangs down on both sides and 



1 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



a sleeveless mantle with epaulets. Over this is a cloak which 
covers the back of her head and cap and falls down her back 
in folds. In her left hand she has a book with broken straps. 
She wears high-heeled shoes cut square at the toes. By her 
side, lying on a cushion, is an infant in swaddling clothes 
tied round with a ribbon fastened in a bow. The child has a 
bonnet with a cap inside and a round bib, which is continued 
at the back of the head. 

6. Her head rests on her right hand. The elbow rests 
on a cushion. 

7. There is nothing at the feet. 

8. She lies within a semicircular-headed recess under a 
cornice supported by pillars of black marble. In the 
spandrels are— on the dexter side, or, a chevron cotised sable, 
between three sprigs with roses and leaves proper ; on the sinister 
side, ermine a f esse sable, a crescent for difference: 

9. See Fosbrooke and Rudder, p. 173. 

10. The arms are tinctured. 

11. A few chips have been knocked out of the book and 
cuffs, and initials have been cut all over the figure. 

12. Below the fourth window from the east on the north 
side of the Lady Chapel. 

13. Illustrated in Fosbrooke; described in Transactions,. 
vol. xiii., p. 257. 

14. In good condition, but see 11 above. 

15. Elizabeth Williams was the youngest daughter of 
Miles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester from 161 2-1624, 1 an< ^ was 
the sister of Margery Clent, whose monument appears on the 
opposite side of the Lady Chapel. She married John 
Williams, gentleman, and died at the age of seventeen in 
1622. 

XIV. Margery Clent, a.d. 1623. 

1. Lady. 

2. -Mural effigy, kneeling. 

3. Alabaster. 

1 See under Margery Clent. 



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4. About a third of life-size. 

5. Her costume is very similar to that of Elizabeth 
Williams. She has curly hair showing at the sides under a 
frilled cap. She wears a tight-fitting bodice fastened with 
buttons down the front, opened at the throat, and turned 
back with two revers. Her skirt is full. She wears a belt 
and a cloak, which is turned over her head like a hood. The 
cloak is fastened over her left arm with a clasp. In her left 
hand is a handkerchief with gold edging. 

6. Her head is supported by her right arm resting on a 
cushion on a table or pedule, on the side of which is carried 
an hour-glass. 

8. The monument consists of a semicircular arch with 
cornice, above which within a wreath is a lozenge, or, a 
chevron cotised sable between three roses leaved and stalked gules. 
On each side of the figure are two Corinthian pillars 
surmounted by obelisks. Below her are three panels, in 
the central one on black marble the inscription. 

9. Memories Sacrum. 

In obitum Margeriaa Clent, Jacobi Clent, Generosa Conjugis 
charissimae R. diq3 in Christo Patris ac Dm: Dm: 
Milonis Gloucestrensis Epi: filiarum alterius quae 
cursum in terris pie & placide consumavit 8° die 
Aprilis A Q Dom. 1623°. ^Etatis suss 21. 

Obsequiosa viro fuit, officiosa parenti, 

Et patuit miseris dextera, corq3 Deo. 
Cffitera continuos virtus rediviva per annos 

Claruit, ad celsum subsequiturque polu ; 
Subsequiturque infans uteri sub nocte reluctans 

Nec potuit lucem visere mors vetuit. 

10. Gilding. 

11. None. 

12. On the south wall of Lady Chapel. 

13. Described in Rudder, p. 173, and Fosbrooke, illus- 
trated in latter. 

14. In excellent condition. 

15. Margery Clent was the second daughter of Miles 




R. W. DUGDALE 

JOHN JONES. 

* 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



Smith, Bishop of Gloucester from 1612 to 1624. He was 
one of the translators of the Bible in 161 1, and was rewarded 
by promotion to the See of Gloucester. 1 Margery married 
James Clent, a Gloucester gentleman,,, who died in 1645. 
Their son William and their grandchildren Elizabeth and 
Miles were also buried in the Lady Chapel. This monument 
was erected to Margery Clent by her daughter-in-law Brigida, 
wife of William. 2 

XV. John Jones, Alderman, a.d. 1630. 

1. Civilian. 

2. Half-length upright effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. The head is bare, with curly hair, moustache and 
beard. The figure wears a ruff and a mayor's gown with 
red sleeves falling to the elbow, edged with fur, and a large 
fur border passing round the neck and falling like a stole 
on each side. Under this is a garment like a waistcoat with 
sleeves; the bottom of the garment is peaked and fastened 
with a bow of ribbon ; it has a row of buttons up the middle. 
The whole garment appears to be covered with little slashes. 
In the right hand is a bundle of small parchment deeds 
with the seal of the bishopric displaying, as on Bishop 
Goldsborough's tomb, the arms of De Clare surmounted by 
a mitre in the fesse point. In his left hand, resting on the 
floor of the bracket, is a book with three Prince of Wales' 
feathers on a diamond on the back, and with straps. 

8. The effigy is in an oval recess, cut out of the wall. 
Round the oval are the words, "I heard a voice from Heaven, 
saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead that die in the 
Lord." On either side are false drawers with gilt handles 
and four packets of deeds as though in pigeon-holes, dated — 
on his right 1581, 1590, 1600, no date, and on his left .1615, 
1620, 1630, and no date. In the spandrels between these and 
1 Britton's History of Gloucester, p. 37. 2 See Rudder, pp. 173, 174. 

22 

Vol. XXVII. 



3i3 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



the oval are — above him deeds with seals and other badges of 
his legal profession, and below him two inkstands resting on 
books with pens, sand-box, &c. Above his head is a shield 
bearing his arms with five quarterings : (1) Ermine, a saltire 
gules ; (2) Or, a lion sable, a crescent for difference ; (3) Or, a lion 
rampant sable debruised by a bend sinister gules; (4) Paly of six 
argent and gules, over all a lion rampant sable ; (5) Paly of six gales 
and or. Beyond the packet of deeds on either side is a pair 
of maces. Attached to the wall is an alabaster bracket, at 
the foot of which lies the sword of the city. Above the 
architrave, which is supported by two black pillars with 
Corinthian capitals, are two oval medallions with the arms 
of the De Clares for Gloucestershire on the dexter side, 
and the same with ten torteaux for the city on the sinister 
side. Between these rises a Corinthian pillar with an in- 
scription, a representation of Father Time with hour-glass 
and scythe, and a male figure in classical costume pointing 
to the inscription. In the wall, on either side of the 
monument, are two maces carved in stone and resting 
on brackets. 

9. See Fosbrooke, p. 137; Rudder, p. 177. 

10. The figure is painted. 

11. No mutilations. 

12. On the west wall, on the right hand of the great 
west door. 

13. Fosbrooke, fob, pp. 127 and 137; Rudder, p. 177. 

14. In excellent condition. 

15. As the inscription shows, John Jones was registrar to 
eight succeeding bishops, commencing with Richard Cheyney 
and ending with Godfrey Goodman. He was mayor in 1597, 
1618, and 1625, and Member of Parliament from the first to 
the twelfth year of James I. (1603-14). He died on June 1st, 
1630. Joan, his wife, died on January 18th, 1594, and was 
buriecf in the church of St. Mary de Crypt. The date of his 
decease is not given on the monument, because this was 
executed in his lifetime, but it might be seen on the grave- 
stone on the floor. See Fosbrooke, pp. 127 and 137. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



3!9 



XVI. Abraham Blackleech, a.d. 1639. 

1. Civilian. 

2. Effigy, recumbent. „• 

3. Alabaster. 

4. Life-size. 

5. He is bareheaded with long, flowing hair ; he has a 
moustache and peaked beard. He wears a fourfold rufi. 
There is no armour visible beyond the sword. A broad belt 
crosses the chest diagonally from the right shoulder and 
divides into four buckles and loops, two of which hold the 
sword scabbard and two -are disengaged. The sword has 
the basket-guard hilt, which was introduced early in the 
sixteenth century, and also the old crossbar. He wears a 
slashed doublet with epaulets and with buttons down the 
middle. This ends at the waist, where the knee-breeches meet 
it. The joining is hidden by a narrow ornamented belt ; 
across the body is folded a cloak. The doublet has a lappet 
or flap, which comes to a point in the centre. The sleeves 
are turned up with lace ; the hands are bare ; the breeches 
are full. He wears jack-boots with smooth leather at the top 
and creased or plaited leather below. The shoes have large 
rosettes like quatrefoils. There are rowell-spurs. The cloak 
is spread under the body. 

6. Two cushions with tassels. 

7. An eagle erect. 

8. He and his wife lie on an altar-tomb with two panels 
on the north side and one at each end. The latter are plain, 
but on the former are two shields bearing: (1) Or, three bars 
sable, Blackleech impaling gules semee of crosses crosslet or, over all a 
saltire of the second. Probably William Blackleech and his wife, 
parents of Abraham Blackleech. (2) Paly of six or and gules, 
over all on a bend azure three mullets or, for Elton, impaling argent 
a fesse sable, in chief three mascles or, for Aston, the parents of 
Gertrude Blackleech. Behind the tomb is a mural monument 
with a cornice supported by two Corinthian pillars, within 
which is the following inscription. Above the monument is 



320 



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a shield bearing or, three bars sable for Blackleech, and below 
the inscription a shield bearing or, three bars sable impaling 
paly of six or and gules, over all on a bend azure three mullets or, for 
Abraham Blackleech and his wife Gertrude. 

9. Inscription given by Fosbrooke, fol., p. 138: "To the 
happy memorie of Abraham Blackleech Gent, a sonne of 
William Blackleech Esq. A man not onely generally beloved 
in his Life but deservedly endeared to Posteritie by rare 
example of seldome attained piety expressed in his bounty to 
St. Paule's in London, to this Church, to the high wayes 
about and the poore in this Citie, who laying aside the 
vilenesse of mortalitie was admitted to the glory of eternity 
November 30th 1639. Gertrude his wife, daughter of 
Ambrose Elton and Anne sister to Walter Lord Aston, hath 
erected this monument as a testimony of his fame and her 
observance." On the folded ribbon round the inscription is 
the text : "All flesh is grass, and all the grace thereof is as 
the flower of the field. Isaiah 40. 6." 

10. No, except the tinctures on the shields. 

11. Wonderfully perfect. There is a chip out of the top 
of his right boot. One of the eagle's claws is gone. 

12. Against south wall of south transept. Fosbrooke 
says it was in the Mayor's Chapel against the east wall. 
Unless the slab of the tomb has been much altered, at the 
time of its removal its south side must have rested against 
a south wall as at present. 

13. Fosbrooke's History of Gloucester ; described in Trans. 
B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xiii., p. 258. 

14. Beautifully carved. We could not find any name, 
initials, or mark of sculptor. 

15. William Blackleech, father of Abraham, was 
Chancellor of the Diocese of Gloucester. His tomb, 
Fosbrooke says, was in the north aisle with the following 
inscription: "William Blackleech, Bachlor of the Civil 
Laws, Chancellor of this Diocese for the space of 24 years, 
Esquire, died March 24th, 1616. Mary, late wife of William 
Blackleech, died January 27th, 1617." 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



321 



XVII. Mary Blackleech. (Carved about 1639.) 

1. Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Alabaster. 

4. Life-size. 

5. She has curly hair. Her eyes are open. Over her 
head is a cloak, held on by a clasp, which covers the parting 
of her hair and comes partly over her forehead. She wears 
a fichu, showing the bodice in a point in front; the fichu is 
edged with two rows of broad lace, each edged with lace 
rosettes. Under the -fichu she wears stays, laced in front 
and ornamented with lace. Under this is a bodice, fastened 
in front, the edges bordered with lace. Her tunic has full 
sleeves, and flows to her feet. She wears small, pointed 
shoes. 

6. Two cushions with tassels. 

7. At feet a mailed arm and hand holding a scimitar. 
8-15. See above under Abraham Blackleech. 

XVIII. John Powell, Judge, a.d. 1713. 

1. Civilian, judicial. 

2. Effigy, standing erect. 

3. Marble. 

4. Slightly larger than life-size*. 

5. He wears a skull cap over long, curling hair. He 
wears a coat, of which the sleeves only appear ; each has 
three buttons with braided button-holes. Under these 
appear cuffs or wrist-bands with studs. He wears a judicial 
gown over the coat, opening down the middle of the front as 
far as the waist, and a cincture with a bow on the right side. 
This gown has wide sleeves with broad fur edging. Above 
this is a tippet with fur edge, and over all a mantle and hood 
lined with fur. He wears academical bands, and holds a 
roll in his right hand. His shoes have high heels, and are 
cut square at the toes. 



322 



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6 and 7. Standing up. 

8. He stands on a semicircular pedestal within a recess 
with escalloped semicircular head. On each side of this 
recess are two fluted pillars with capitals ornamented with 
acanthus leaves. These support a segmental capital, on the 
top of which is a funeral urn. The moulded arch of the 
Abbot's Chapel has been cut away to receive this. Within 
the canopy is a coat of arms mantled with a squire's helm. 
Party per pale azuvc and gules three lions rampant arg. Crest : 
Bust of a maiden. On each side of the pillars is a boy 
weeping. The figure on his right holds the handle of a torch 
inverted in his right hand, and with his left clasps his breast. 
The one on the left holds the handle of a torch upright, and 
rests his left on a broken pillar. Their only garment is a 
cloak suspended by a strap from the shoulder. 

9. The inscription is given by Fosbrooke, p. 134. 

to. The arms are tinctured, and there are a few traces 
of gilding on the urn, canopy, crest, &c. 

11. The monument appears to be in a perfect condition. 

12. On the north side of the Lady Chapel under the 
arch of the Abbot's Chapel. 

13. Illustrated in Fosbrooke; described in Trans., vol. 
xiii., p. 258. 

14. Excellent condition; protected by iron railings with 
gate. 

15. Judge Powell was successively a justice of the Courts 
of Common Pleas and of the King's Bench, and was one of 
the judges who tried the seven bishops (1688) and joined in 
the declaration against the king's dispensing power. For 
1 his James II. deprived him of his office, July 2nd, 1688; but 
William III. created him first a baron of the Exchequer, 
then a judge in the Common Pleas, and on June 18th, 1702, 
advanced him to the King's Bench, where he sat until his 
death, June 14th, 1713. In 1685 he had represented his 
native city of Gloucester in Parliament. This monument 
was erected by his nephew John Snell. 1 

1 Britton's History of Gloucester Cathedral, p. 74. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



323 



XIX. William Lisle, a.d. 1723. 

1. Civil. 

2. Bust. 

3. Stone. * 

4. Life-size. 

5. Long curling hair or wig ; scarf hanging down in 
front ; coat open in front, and cloak thrown round ; eyes 
open. 

8. The bust stands on a tablet bearing the inscription. 
A second tablet behind the bust is surmounted by a phoenix. 
Beneath the bust is a shield: or, a fesse between two chevronels 
sable. The tablet is of marble and on it is : 

9. In 0 Rickitts fecit. 

Near this place 
Lieth the Body of William Lisle, Gent., who by his will gave 
fifty pounds a year for ever in lands at Epney 

in Charity 

To y e Parishes of S* Nicholas in Gloucester and S 1 Werburgh 
in Bristol. 

He Died 
December 2 1723 
Aged 35. 

10. Arms tinctured. 

11. None. 

12. Triforium, north side of presbytery, on the pillar 
nearest to the whispering gallery. This monument was 
originally on the east wall of the north transept, enclosed 
with iron rails. 

13. The monument is described in Fosbrooke's History* 
of Gloucester, fob, p. 137. 

14. It is in good condition. 

XX. Martin Benson, Bishop of Gloucester, a.d. 1752. 

1. Ecclesiastical. 

2. Bust on medallion. 



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3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Thick, curling hair or wig. Academic gown with 
bands. 

8. Wreath of oak-leaves, around the medallion; above, 
a funeral urn draped ; at the sides of the urn two books ; 
below the medallion an inscription. Beneath the inscription, 
on a shield supported by two flaming torches, are the arms 
of the bishopric : Azure, two keys in saltive or, the sinister 
oppressing the dexter; impaling argent on a chevron sable, three 
crosses patee or, Benson. 

g. The inscription is given in Fosbrooke's History of 
Gloucester, fob, p. 137. 

10. None. 

11. None. 

12. In the triforium, the south side of the presbytery, 
on the pillar nearest to the whispering gallery. This monu- 
ment was originally on the north side of the great west door 
of the nave. 

13. Illustrated and described in Fosbrooke's History 0 
Gloucester, fob, p. 137. 

14. In excellent condition. 

15. The inscription tells us that he was the son of 
John Benson, Prebendary of Hereford, by Catherine, 
daughter of Benjamin Martin, of Oxfordshire, and grandson 
of George Benson, Dean of Hereford, by Catherine, daughter 
of Samuel Fell. He was born in 1689, an ^ educated at the 
Charterhouse and Christ Church, Oxford. He was Preben- 
dary of Salisbury, Archdeacon of Berkshire, Prebendary of 
Durham, King's chaplain, and Rector of Bletchley. He was 
consecrated Bishop of Gloucester in January, 1735, and died 
at the palace in 1752. He was buried in front of the great 
west door, and, as he forbade his executors to say anything 
of his personal character on his tomb, his friend, Gabriel 
Hanger, of Dryffield, erected another tablet on the east wall 
of the south transept with a laudatory inscription. 1 

1 See Fosbrooke's History of Gloucester, fol., p. 137. 



Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral. 



3 2 5 



XXI. Mary, Lady Strachan, a.d. 1770. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Bust in bas-relief on a medallion. 

3. Marble. 

4. About half life-size. 

5. The eyes are open ; the hair is drawn up to the top of the 
head. Part of a low-necked bodice in loose folds is visible. 

8. The monument is in the form of a mural tablet. 
The medallion is supported by a weeping cherub. At the 
foot of the tablet appear to be azure, on a buck an escutcheon 
argent ; in chief gules, two bucks heads ; on a canton azure, a saltire 
argent ; over all an escutcheon within a bordure fleury de lys, a lion 
rampant ; in chief a crown. The shield is supported by two 
huntsmen holding staves. Above is a baronet's helm with a 
right hand holding a sword, surrounded by a wreath and 
mantling of oak leaves ; beneath, .the motto " Forward." 

9. Inscription given in Fosbrooke, p. 138. Dame Mary 
Strachan, died 1770. 

10. There are no remains of painting, &c. 

11. None. 

12. On the south wall of the nave. 

13. Illustrated in Fosbrooke; described in Britton's 
History of Gloucester Cathedral, p. 75, and in Fosbrooke, p. 138. 

14. In good condition. 

15. Mary, Lady Strachan, was the wife of Sir William 
Strachan, and the daughter and sole heiress of Edward 
Popham, of Tewkesbury Park, and a descendant of Sir John 
Popham, Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. 
Her husband, Sir William Strachan, purchased the estate 
called Haynes in Bishop's Cleeve, and built a mansion 
there. She died in 1770. After her death Tewkesbury Park 
passed to John Wall, Lieut. -Col. of the South Gloucestershire 
Militia, and the Haynes was sold to Mr. Thornloe. Sir 
William Strachan bequeathed land in Castle Morton, 
Worcestershire, to the poor of Tewkesbury in 1757, so that 
he had predeceased his wife by some thirteen years. 



326 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



XXII. Sarah Morley, a.d. 1784. 

1. Lady. 

2. Monumental slab. 

3. Marble, white figures on a black background. 

4. Two-thirds life-size. 

5. She wears a long robe, fastened at the waist with a 
scarf. The robe is drawn over the back of her head like a 
veil. 

8. She holds on her left arm a babe, and an angel 
grasps her right hand as she rises from the sea. Two other 
angels floating in the air, one in front and the other behind, 
receive her. On one side of the inscription is a pelican in 
her piety, and on the other is a bird mourning a dead 
companion. 

9. The inscription above is, "The sea shall give up its 
dead"; the one below the monument is given in Rudder, 
p. 127 (?). The name of the sculptor is given, " Flaxman, 
inv. et fee." 

10. None. 

11. Mutilation — one angel has lost a foot. 

12. The tomb is affixed to the wall in the central arcade 
of the north aisle of the nave, and consists of an arch. 

13. Described in Britton, p. 76, and Fosbrooke, p. 127. 

14. In good condition. 

15. Mrs. Morley was the daughter of James Richardson, 
of Newent, and the wife of James Morley, of Bombay. She 
■died on her voyage homewards from India on May 17th, 1784, 
and was buried at sea. 

The Society is greatly indebted to Mr. R. W. Dugdale for 
the excellent photographs of the effigies of Serlo, Abraham 
and Gertrude Blackleech, and John Jones. 



BRISTOL ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES FOR 1903. 

IV. 



By JOHN E. PRITCHARD, F.S.A., 
Honorary Secretary for Bristol. 



I regard the stately or beautiful or historic fabrics of a bygone age as a 
priceless heirloom, to be tenderly and almost religiously guarded 
by succeeding generations." — Lord Curzon. 



In Bristol and the district no very extensive excavations 
marked the year 1903 as an important one. The weather 
was continuously wet, and digging was well-nigh impossible 
throughout the summer and autumn ; yet quite a number of 
interesting archaeological discoveries occurred, and members 
have much subject-matter to engage their attention for a 
long time to come, and certainly some puzzles to unravel. 

PRE-HISTORIC BRONZE AGE. 

An unusually interesting find of the Bronze Age has to 
be recorded from this district. One can only regret that it 
is but a single specimen, and that no other objects belonging 
to the same period were found with it. 

Specimens of this period so seldom turn up, that when 
a discovery is made considerable interest is aroused amongst 
antiquaries; but no discoveries in the immediate neighbour- 
hood appear to have been recorded previous to the interesting 
find at Combe Dingle in 1899, 1 though two palstaves were 
unearthed just without the city boundary, on the Gloucester- 
shire side, as late as 1885. 

It seems to me, therefore, that the present moment is a 
favourable opportunity for placing on record a preliminary 
1 Proc. Clifton Antiq. Club, vol. v., p. 118. 



328 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



LIST OF THE BRONZE AGE OBJECTS 
Found in Bristol and the Neighbourhood. 

As these are very few in number, and the list is hardly 
likely to be complete, it will be open 
to members to contribute notes as to 
finds that have come within their know- 
ledge. It may be well to mention that 
the British Museum collection does 
not include a single specimen from the 
Bristol district. 

The following specimens (A to G 
inclusive) were exhibited 1 at the first 
evening meeting of this club (Winter 
Session), at the Literary and Philo- 
sophic Club, Clifton, on December 9th, 
1903 :— 2 

(A) Rapiev-shape blade: This latest 
discovery was made at Avonmouth in 
the month of August, during excava- 
tions for the new dock. [See illustration.) 
The blade is 13 J inches long, and the 
point is still sharp. It is in excellent 



condition, and a well-marked mid-rib 



runs down both sides. The tang has 
two rivet holes, and the rivets them- 
selves are attached, but the haft has 
perished. This specimen was found 
on the top of a bed of sand, below the 
silt, at a spot about the middle of the 
south wall of the new dock, in the bed 
of the old north channel between 
Dunball Island and the dock, some 
10 feet below low-water mark of spring 
tides and over 40 feet below the present level of the ground. 

1 By kind permission of the owners, who have willingly allowed the 
specimens to be illustrated. 

2 See report, Bristol Times and Mirror, Dec. 10th, 1903. 




II 





CO 



o 

n i 
2 

PQ 

l] 
W 

o 
w 

o 



Platk I. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1903. 



329 



It is quite impossible to account for the position of the find. 

In the Bristol Museum collection. 

(B) Flanged celt : 4^ inches long, 2 inches across cutting 
edge, finch thick in centre; weight, 7 ozs. ; dark brown 
colour. (Plate I., Fig. 1.) 

Found many years since during operations connected 
with the widening of Bristol Bridge. 

In the collection of Mr. Weave. 

(C) Celt, with stop ridge : 5 J- inches long, 2^ inches across 
cutting edge, 1 inch width of side flanges; weight, 14^ ozs.; 
green colour, but poor condition. (Plate I., Fig. 2.) 

Found many years since during operations connected with 
the widening of Bristol Bridge. /;( % of Mf _ Wmh _ 

(D) Fragment of a sword blade : gf inches long, if inches 
at widest point ; weight, H j\ ozs. ; smooth surface, but 
edges very irregular ; dark brown colour, slightly patinated. 
(Plate I., Fig. 3.) the collection of Mr. Weave. 

This specimen was purchased by Mr. Tregaskis, of 
London, at the sale of the Pearce (Ramsgate) collection at 
Sotheby's, 1898; it bore the following label : — "Found when 
excavating Bristol Bridge, Bath Street, Bristol. From the 
collection of Mr. Edgar, Pembroke Road, Bristol, 5.9. '74." 

(E) Palstave : 6 inches long, 2-f inches wide at the 
cutting edge, side flanges i/^- inches wide, with well-marked 
rib on blade; weight, 15 ozs.; in good state, and finely 
patinated. (Plate II., Fig. 1.) 

Found at Bristol Bridge, Bath Street, Bristol, 1874. 
From the il Edkins " collection. 

In the collection of Sir John Evans, K.C.B., F.R.S., F.S.A . 

(F) Palstave : 6± inches long, i\ inches wide at the cutting 
edge, side flanges i\ inches wide ; with well-marked rib on 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



blade; weight, 17^ ozs. ; in fine state, and well patinated. 
(Plate II., Fig. 2.) In my own collection . 

This and another Palstave were found at Westbury-on- 
Trym in 1885. The other specimen went into the collection 
of the late Mr. William Edkins, and was sold at the sale of 
his antiquities at Sotheby's, May, 1891 ; it eventually went 
to Strassburg. 

(G) Looped Socketed Celt: 5 inches long, 2 A inches wide 
at the cutting edge, and ixf inches in diameter at the opening 
of the socket, the latter being 4 inches deep ; weight, 14 ozs.; 
finely patinated and in very fine condition. (Plate II., 
Fig. 3-) 

Found in the River Avon, about 20 feet below the river 
bank, opposite St. Vincent's Parade, during the construction 
of the new locks at Bristol Docks in 1870. This specimen 
was presented by Mr. Slade, engineer to the Bristol Docks 
at the time of the find, to the Barrow Naturalists' Field 
Club 1 in 1896. The President of the Club in 1903 (Mr. Harper 
Gaythorpe, F.S.A. Scot.) kindly lent the original for exhibition 
at our meeting before referred to, though he had in 1892 most 
generously contributed a " cast " to the Bristol Museum. 

From the Bronze Age we pass to the succeeding period, 
that of the 

PRE-HISTORIC IRON AGE, 

a few additional objects having been discovered during the 
year. These latest finds still further confirm the identifi- 
cation of those interesting relics which came to light in 
1900, 2 and again in 1902. 3 

In consequence of the many difficulties inseparable from 
the work of excavating for the foundations of new buildings 
constantly rising in our midst — which are nearly always 
erected against time — it has never been found possible to 
arrange for any fixed plan of digging ; but the writer's 

1 See Proc. of Barrow Field Club, vol. xv., p. no. 
2 See Trans., vol. xxiii., p. 270. 3 See Trans., vol. xxvi., p. 140. 




Plate II, 




Plate III, 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1903. 331 



constant visits to the various sites upon the ancient 
peninsula, extending over many years of observation, have 
had most fortunate results, and the following specimens 
will indicate the value of the latest frnds : — 

A. An unusually fine bone needle, 7 inches long, well 
pointed and polished, the eye having been drilled by an 
iron drill. It is nearly olack from burial, but is in perfect 
condition. 

On the inner curve are over a hundred short cross 
markings, each about one-sixteenth of an inch in length ; 
but for what purpose these were added by the primitive 
workman is uncertain." (Plate III., Fig. 1.) 

This implement was found over 20 feet below the sloping 
bank of the Frome, in the blue alluvial deposit : equal to 
a depth of over 30 feet below the level of Wine Street. 

B. A portion of a much smaller and finer needle. 
(Plate III., Fig. 2.) 

C. The tine of a deer, showing five clear indications of 
sawing. This is probably the base brow tine of a fallow- 
deer antler [Cervus doma~\. (Plate III., Fig, 3.) It was found 
at the same depth as A and B. 

D. A small slate whetstone, 3J inches long, drilled for 
suspension to the girdle. This was found at considerable 
depth in the bank, further down the stream. (Plate III., 
Fl g- 4-) 

THE MEDIAEVAL AND LATER PERIODS 
are represented by the following finds during the year, 
principally within the city boundary : — 

An iron spur of the fourteenth century : the end of the 
stirt was broken, and there was no rowel, but all four hooks 
were attached, so that in the case of this early specimen 
buckles had not been used. This spur was found in the 
course of city drainage work in All Saints' Street. 

A brass gaiter spur of the seventeenth century, with graceful 
shank, but there was no rowel. This was found in Temple 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 

Street. It is similar in character to the one discovered in 
1902, but is of more pleasing design. 

An ecclesiastical silver finger ring, with stone setting, of the 
fifteenth century, and English workmanship. 
There are some similar specimens in the 
" Waterton collection " at South Kensington, 
but such rings are very rarely met with, 
and none have been recorded from Bristol 
sites. This ring was found on March 2nd, 
in the centre of the city, in a deep excavation ; an 
Edwardian leather sole was discovered at the same 
time. 

An alphabet tablet of bone, 3-f- inches long by i-£ inches wide, 
evidently of late seventeenth- century 
date : it was found in a rubbish pit 
beneath an eighteenth-century house. 

Notice the ears of corn, probably the 
symbol of knowledge, which spring 
from the use of the alphabet. A very 
rare find from excavations. 

A brass tobacco stopper, 2% inches long, 
from a Bedminster digging. This is 
interesting, as one side of the oval 
handle bears a portrait of Charles L, 
and on the reverse that of Henrietta 
Maria. This is evidently of English 
make, whilst sundry "crude" specimens 
that turn up here from time to time, 
often from the river dredgings, are un- 
doubtedly, of Dutch origin. 
With reference to the fragment of dated delft pottery 
described in my notes for 1900, 1 an unexpected coincidence 
may be interesting and worth recording. Early in the year 
in chatting with a local collector upon the subject of 
pottery, I heard quite incidentally that a small piece of 
delft, bearing a "letter," was in the possession of yet 
1 See Transactions, vol. xxiii., p. 267. 





Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1903. 333 



another individual. This fragment, which eventually came 
to me, exactly joined my piece of pottery, and which, 
though only fragmentary, is now a much more valuable 
possession. It now reads : 

N 

I E 

1647 

The date is an early one, and all dated pottery is now very 
scarce. 

A perfect example of an octagonal blue and white delft plate, 
with floral design, found under the flooring of an eighteenth- 
century house during demolition. 

Numerous seventeenth and eighteenth-century glass phials 
in iridescent state. 

The tobacco pipes included several previously described 1 of 
the period 1650-80, and also a small bowl specimen bearing 
a figure head, probably of early seventeenth-century date. 

COINAGE. 

Numismatic members will be disappointed at the record 
of so few finds. Only one piece appears to have been found 
earlier than the period of Elizabeth, and no gold whatever. 

Amongst the specimens turned up, many of the following 
will be found to be interesting : — 

Edward I. silver penny : civitas London (Temple Street). 

Elizabeth sixpence, 1581 (Wine Street). 

Charles I. half-crown : Ordinary type (Dean's Marsh). 

Square Bristol farthing : From drainage work carried on 
close to the course of the Frome at St. Augustine's. A good 
specimen of the type with the arms on a shield within a 
circle. 2 

Circular Bristol farthing : The rare type without date, and 
without inscription on the reverse (Dean's Marsh) ; and 
others, circular, including one of the scarce 1670 date. 
James I. " Harrington " : Usual type, m.m. a ball. 
1 See Transactions, vol. xxiii., p. 267; vol. xxiv., p. 280. 
2 Now in Mr. Page's collection. 

23 

Vol. XXVII. 



334 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



Charles I. Harrington : Usual type, but the obverse reading 
cara. 1 instead of caro., m.m. a cross. A very rare variety; 
it may possibly be a contemporary forgery. 

Traders' tokens, seventeenth century, several being in excellent 
condition : 

1. Obv. at the rames head = a Ram's Head. 
Rev. tavern in sovthwark = I. S. R. 

This specimen is an unpublished variety 2 ; it was found at 
the Pithay. 

A token issued by the same trader is mentioned by 
Williamson, but having a final e to Tavern and Sovth- 
wark. 3 

The Ram's Head is marked in the London map of 1542 

by the river, next St. Olave's Church. It was an ancient 

inn, and is said to have belonged to Sir John Fastolfe. A 

rhyme by Taylor, the water poet, in 1630, refers to this old 

house as follows : 

"At Ram or Ram's Head be it known to all 
Are wine predominent, and capitall, 
To set a horseman quite beside the saddle." 

2. Obv. the 3 tvnn taverne in = Three tuns. 
Rev. GRACE chvrch streete = I. E. K. 

There was another tavern in this street, at the same 
period, known as the " Three Tunns." 

3. Obv. john hatch of - a man making candles. 

Rev. CHICHESTER 1665 = I- H. 

4. Obv. Walter morgan, 1670 = WM, conjoined. 
Rev. a chepstowe farthing = a portcullis. 

5. Obv. William bennet = a lion rampant; 

ReV. OF CROOKHORNE, l666 = W. B. 

Issued at Crewkerne, Somerset. 

1 Montagu (H.), Copper Coinage of England (1885 Ed.), p. 8. 

2 The writer has given this specimen to the British Museum. 

s See Traders' Tokens of the 17th Century (Williamson's edition of 
Boyne, 1889), vol. ii., p. 1044, No. 463. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1903. 



335 



Queen Anne shilling, 1709 : Plain spaces between angles of 
shield; in fine condition. From a city trench in St. James's 
parish. 

George III. twopenny, 1797 : In fine state. 

These are the finest of the specimens that have turned up 
from city diggings, but many others were found, as usual, in 
worthless condition. 

ROADS AND STRUCTURES. 
In February, when a new road was being cut from 
Tyndall's Lodge, in Tyndall's Park, to the top of 
St. Michael's Hill, one might reasonably have expected 
some relics of the Civil Wars, being so near the Royalists' 
fort ; but a few fragments of seventeenth and eighteenth- 
century pottery, some pipe -bowls and a halfpenny of 
William III. of 1696, comprised all that came to light. 
Neither has anything of greater importance been found 
on the east slope of the same hill, which has during the 
summer months been cut up for building operations. 

Again, when the road on Durdham down level — between 
the Stoke and Westbury roads — was considerably widened, 
one looked for traces of Romano-British occupation, as the 
so-called "via Julia" crossed just at that spot, but nothing 
was found. 

At Sea Mills, however, a second brass of Vespasian was 
picked up, on the line of the Roman road, in the autumn. 

During trenching operations in Temple parish, for a new 
water main, some ancient wooden water-pipes were discovered in 
November. 

A stretch of about 90 feet of these pipes ran towards 
the city from the south end of Temple Street — by Portwall 
Lane— the same branching off from the line of the roadway 
on the west side, beneath the pavement and thence under 
Mardon's factory. 

The logs of elm, which had evidently been only roughly 



336 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



trimmed, were from 10 to 12 inches in diameter; they were 
bored with round holes, from 2f to 3I- inches diameter at the 
spigot end and about 4^ inches diameter at the faucet end. 

One length dug out was interesting, for it was pierced by 
a 2|-inch plug-hole and fitted with a wood plug: a few 
inches off was another plug-hole, 2 inches in diameter, 
evidently for a service connection. The end of the main had 
also been stopped by a wood plug. 

Elm was mostly used for the water-pipes in olden times, 
as it resisted the pressure better than any other wood, and 
was found to be less liable to decay; but much trouble 
was caused by constant leakage, especially during the frosty 
weather. 

These primitive water mains appear to have been almost 
universally adopted during the seventeenth century. 

Long stretches of these pipes, of various size bores, were 
laid in Bristol ; and in old London an immense quantity must 
have been used, judging by the constant traces found even 
nowadays in the alterations of streets. The pipes are never 
worth taking up, as they are quite useless. 

Similar pipes to those uncovered in Temple parish were 
found in the same neighbourhood in 1848. 

DEMOLITION. 

But the blast of demolition is still heard above all other 
sounds, for we have been face to face, during 1903, with 
more than a year's "average," if one may so speak, of real 
and threatened "vandalism." 

What did our brilliant Governor-General of India say in 
the March number of the National Review ? 

Lord Curzon wrote: "/ regard the stately or beautiful or 
historic fabrics of a bygone age as a priceless heirloom, to be tenderly 
and almost religiously guarded by succeeding generations." 

And what he said of that country he would say of this. 
But evidently those interested in, or who have the charge of 
old Bristol properties, do not hold the same view. 

Let me at once clearly state, however, that I do not 



THREE KINGS I M N 
THOMAS ST 




OLD BRISTOL INN. 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1903. 337 



advocate the preservation of the old at any cost — thus 
thwarting a city's progress — but I am quite sure the 
historic associations of the past are not sufficiently guarded 
by many of our citizens possessing the* requisite power. 

To realise that the quaint inn, nearly 400 years old, known 
as the "Three Kings" 1 in Thomas Street, the oldest hostelry 
left, is finally closed and absolutely doomed! that the " Ould 
Friendship," another old inn in Castle Green, city property — 
just beyond the site of the old " Cat and Wheel," which 
was destroyed three years ago 2 — was wholly demolished in 
September, and that no effort was made by those in 
authority to secure the many interesting relics connected 
with the structure, most of which have been sold away from 
the city ! that the best, and one of the last of the really 
picturesque half-timber houses in Mary-le-port Street, is to be 
pulled down for a modern building to take its place ! that the 
late Renaissance front known as No. 12 Wine Street, has been 
demolished for a new elevation by the present lessees of the 
site ! and that the old " Dutch House," to which I have often 
referred, and which is so well-known, to us all, is most 
vigorously threatened, makes one stop and wonder what will 
happen next. 

As a type of one of the smaller inns of the seventeenth 
century, a short description of " Ye. Ould Friendship" as it 
was seen by the writer just before its demolition, may be 
interesting. 

It stood at the corner of Castle Green and Tower Street ;. 
had a double gable elevation, was substantially built, and 
was evidently erected towards the end of the said century. 
Its frontage to Castle Green was 33 ft. 6 ins. and to Tower 
Street 39 ft. 6 ins., being entered from the latter thoroughfare. 

The ground floor consisted of (a) a room on the north-east 
side, measuring 14ft. 6ins. by 12ft, gins, and 8ft. high, lighted 
by a recessed window on the north 5 ft. 6 ins. wide and 3 ft. 
deep, the sides slightly splayed; the chimney-piece, with. 
1 I am indebted to the artist (Mr. S. J. Loxton) for the loan of this block. 
2 See Transactions, vol. xxiii., p. 271. 



33§ 



Transactions for the Year 1904, 



moulded oak jambs, stood on the east side, and a small 
window pierced the wall on the north side of this, just at 
the turn of the wall. A plain ceiling was crossed by a sub- 
stantial oak beam, bearing a triple moulding on each edge. 
There were two doorways — one an exit and the other leading 
to the adjoining room, (b) which also faced Castle Green, and 
was of identical dimensions and similar to the first ; but 
this apartment was panelled, though of a later date than 
the house; the original chimney-piece had disappeared. 
(c) Small room in the rear ; and cellarage. 

An oak staircase of thirteen treads, with square corner 
uprights and ball ornaments, fitted with turned rails, led to 
the first floor, which contained three bedrooms of similar sizes 
to the ground floor rooms ; these had square bay windows, 
and a well-moulded eighteenth-century chimney-piece stood 
in the room over (a). 

There were two rooms on the second floor and two attics 
over. Interesting Jacobian carved brackets supported the 
gables. 

The four early eighteenth-century houses adjoining the old 
inn on the south side, in Tower Street, were pulled down at 
the same time. 

PRESERVATION. 

During the year No. 3 Welsh Back was demolished for the 
erection of new offices, &c, and a characteristic example 
of early Jacobian woodwork 1 which had been previously 
discovered, choked up with paint and plaster, had to be 
removed. It was probab]y the chimney-piece in the same 
house before a former reconstruction. 

The dimensions are 9 feet 5 inches high and 5 feet 9 inches 
across, the carved panels being 2 feet in depth. 

1 p 

The initials and date in the centre panel are 2 ' 

* 1611. 

The demands of the Post Office having compelled 
considerable extension, H.M. Office of Works acquired by 

1 I am indebted to Mr. Charles Bartlett, the owner of the property, 
for the particulars, and to his son for permission to use the illustration. 

t 




JACOBIAN WOODWORK. 

DATED l6ll. 

Removed from old house, Welsh Back, Bristol. 




STONE CHIMNEY-PIECE, 

DA + ED 1700. 

Removed from "Elton" Mansion, Small Street, Bristol, 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1903. 



339 



purchase during the year the old houses 1 in Small Street, 
adjoining on the west side, for this purpose. 

These properties included what has always been known 
as the Elton Mansion, occupied for many years by the Bristol 
Water Works Company. In one of the rooms on the first 
floor of No. 7, used as the board-room, stood a finely-carved 
stone chimney-piece bearing the initials and date — 

1 e. 7 
o a.m. o 

the letters representing the names of Abraham and Mary 
Elton. 

This fine example was taken down on June 30th, and has 
been refixed in the board-room of the company's new building 
in Telephone Avenue. 

My thanks are once more due to Mr. Moline, and in this 
instance for kindly preparing the negatives of the bronze 
implements. 

1 See paper on " Small Street Houses," Western Daily Press and Bristol 
Times and Mirror, February 17th, 1904. 

2 From a negative by Mr. Frank Richardson, and illustrated by 
permission. 



THE OLD CHURCH OF 
ST. THOMAS THE MARTYR, BRISTOL. 

By the Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A., 
Vicar, 1877—1896. 

Owing to the greater interest shown in archaeology in recent 
years, and to the increased study of all antiquarian subjects, 
it was decided in the autumn of 1903 to ascertain the views 
of members in the Bristol centre as to the desirability of 
holding evening meetings, this idea having been included in 
the original constitution of the Society. 

In a letter issued to the members living in Bristol and 
district on October 8th of that year the following questions 
were asked : — 

a. If this scheme will receive your support by your 

attendance? The hour will probably be 8 or 8.30. 

b. If you would be willing to contribute "notes" on any 

local archaeological or historic subjects ? 

c. If you have any antiquities or coins of local interest 

that you could exhibit ? 

d. If you could show any unpublished drawings- or 

sketches of buildings, or objects of antiquity, now 
destroyed ; or any early prints or portraits ? 

The replies were highly satisfactory, the result being that 
four meetings were held in the session of 1903-4 and five 
in 1904-5. 

Of the many interesting papers and notes contributed 
and discussed, some have already been printed in the 
Transactions. It is satisfactory, too, to know that the idea 
was taken up by the Gloucester members soon after it was 



Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol. 341 



started in Bristol, and it is hoped that similar meetings may 
be arranged at other centres. The following paper was one 
of those which were read in the winter of 1904. 

The subject before us is the reconstruction in thought 
of a church which was destroyed 115 years ago, of which, 
so far as is known, there is no picture in existence, either 
of the church as a whole, or of any part of it, except the 
tower, which is still standing. 

Barrett, whose preface is dated April 15th, 1789, that is 
to say, two months after the destruction of the old church 
had begun, says of it -: " It is very apparent that it was built 
at different times. The present structure is lofty and 
spacious, after the Gothic order, with a lofty nave and 
long side aisles, and the tower at the west end with bells, 
without any spire strong and plain. It is in length from the 
west door to the high altar 46 yards, the porch 3 yards 
and 2 feet, and the breadth of the whole church 19 yards 
and 1 foot." "The church is often mentioned in old deeds 
as early as the year 1200. It is next to Redcliff, the largest 
as well as most elegant building, though only a chapel, like 
it, to another (Bedminster) church." "Near the middle 
is a cupola raised, or glazed lanthorn, also an organ which 
cost ^"360 is at the west end." 

For comparison of size we will take Barrett's measure- 
ments of Temple Church, which he says is 156 feet long, 
50 feet high, and 59 feet wide, as against the 149 feet in 
length and 58 feet m width of old St. Thomas, giving St. 
Thomas 7 feet less in length and 1 foot less in width. The 
height of the old church is not mentioned, but as we shall 
see presently, it can have been little, if at all, less than 
that of the nave of Temple. But old St. Thomas must have 
been a far finer church internally, for instead of the low, 
narrow chancel running for nearly half the length of the 
building as at Temple, it was of the same height throughout. 
The existing church is 32 feet shorter than the old one, 
as shown by the dotted lines in the plan ; for not only is the 



34 2 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



width of the tower thrown out at the west end, but also there 
is a lobby 18 feet wide within the structure. 

It will be noted that Barrett says that it is very apparent 
that the old church was built at different times. All that is 
now standing is the tower and the spring of the groined 
arches of the north aisle, these are of late fifteenth-century 
date ; there is nothing to show the character of the pillars 
and arches between the nave and south aisle. There is, 
however, built into the tower a piece of late Norman chevron 
moulding, which might well have formed part of the earliest 
church, for there is little doubt that the church was founded 
in the last quarter of the twelfth century. St. Thomas of 
Canterbury was martyred on December 29th, 1170, and the 
universal horror caused by the manner of his death, as well 
as the fact that as Chancellor he had issued the earliest 
charter of Bristol, would account for the dedication. The 
chapel on London Bridge, and the parish church at Ports- 
mouth, built about the same time, bore the same dedication. 

The plan of the old church was the same as that of 
St. Mary RedclifT without the transepts, a continuous nave 
and chancel of equal height, with aisles extending to the 
east end of the chancel, where they formed two side chapels. 
This is clear from an entry that monies were paid in 1613 for 
casing the chancel and the two side chapels; also in 1722 
three iron gates were set up at the three entrances of the 
chancel. 

. The only peculiarity in the external appearance of the 
church was the cupola or glazed lanthorn mentioned by 
Barrett. This was not, as we might have gathered from his 
wording, a post-Reformation addition, but was evidently part 
of the original design. It appears in the accounts as early 
as 1620, when the three great windows in the lantern were 
new glazed with 374 feet of glass at 4d. a foot. In later 
times it frequently asserts its existence by charges for its 
repairs. It is well shown in the representation of the church 
in Millerd's plan of Bristol. It is difficult to account for the 
three windows unless the chancel roof was really lower than 



Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol. 343 

that of the nave, but Millerd's sketch shows them of equal 
height, and the existing altar-piece set up in 1716, which is 
some four feet lower than its original height, would require a 
chancel quite as high as the present one. There had been a 
similar lantern at St. Mary Redcliff at the intersection of 
nave and transepts, for William Wyrcestre says "the 
principal column, i.e. any one of the four columns which 
carry the small tower and stand at the western entrance of 
the chancel of Radclyff Church, contains 103 mouldings." 
Canon Norris found the ragged top of this old tower under 
the lead roof; no doubt it was removed when the roof was 
groined. There is the rudiment of a similar lantern before 
the chancel of St. John's Church in Broad Street. 

With regard to the reconstruction of the internal arrange- 
ments of the old church, we are much helped by the fact that 
the organ gallery, erected in 1728, and altar-piece, set up in 
1 716, which stood in the old church, are still in existence, 
and the pews which were placed there in 1755 remained in 
the present church till 1878, when they were converted into 
the existing seats ; furthermore, as the present church was 
built on the old foundations, except where ground was thrown 
out at the west end, we know the width of the old church. 

The north aisle was 21 feet wide to the middle of the 
pillars, as is shown by the arch of the groining on the east 
face of the tower. The organ gallery is 24 feet wide, and as 
it stood in the nave this part of the church cannot have had 
a less width than that. But if we take the total of some 
52 feet for nave, pillars, and north aisle out of 58 feet, the 
width of the church, we have only 6 feet clear for the south 
aisle — little more than a mere passage. Narrow aisles of the 
kind certainly existed, the north aisle of St. Peter's, Bristol, 
and the modern aisles of All Saints', Clifton, are instances of 
the kind; but the question naturally arises whether the south 
aisle was not originally wider, and that it had been narrowed 
at some time — as the north aisle of St. Peter's may have 
been narrowed — for the purpose of widening St. Thomas' 
Lane. The discovery of some tiles in the lane a few years 



344 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



ago, which seemed to be ecclesiastical, may give some 
support to this idea. Still, we must remember that the old 
church was as wide as St. Mary Redcliff and Temple, and 
any considerable extension to the south would have made it 
an unusually broad church. It is, however, of course possible 
that the southern line of pillars and arches may have belonged 
to an earlier church than that which was destroyed in 1789, 
and that when the tower and north aisle were built a part 
of the south aisle was thrown into the street and the north 
aisle was carried so much further to the north. A strong 
objection to this idea, however, lies in the fact that on 
marshy soil old foundations would always be used as far as 
possible. 

We may get at the distribution of space on the floor of 
the old church in another way. In 1877 the seating was 
provided in a series of noble oak pews fully six feet high with 
mahogany capping, which were converted into the existing 
seats. These pews consisted of two blocks of pews each 
about 64 feet long and 12 feet wide, which stood in the nave, 
and two blocks of the same length, and six feet wide, which 
stood in the aisles. The pews which stood in the nave of 
the existing church would have fitted well into the nave of 
the old church, while the pews which were in the aisles of 
the existing church would, if joined together side by side, 
have fitted well into the north aisle, leaving the narrow south 
aisle as a passage for the nave seats. It certainly seems 
likely that the old pews were transferred bodily into the new 
church, except that the block of pews in the old north aisle 
was cut in two and placed in the two aisles of the new 
church. 

We can only guess at the arrangements of the chancel; 
the altar-piece is 19 feet across, so that the effective width of 
the chancel cannot have occupied less space than that ; but 
there is nothing to show whether the chancel was divided by 
walls or only by pillars and screens from the side chapels. 

We now proceed to consider the arrangements of the 
pillars, arches, and roofs, so far as we are able to trace them. 



Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol. 345 

And in this matter we are helped by an entry which tells that 
in 1621 twenty-two pillars were painted at the cost of 8d. a 
pillar. This gives the total number of pillars in the church. 
I should arrange them thus : — Eight pillars and two responds 
between the nave and north aisle, and so presumably two 
responds and ten pillars on the south side of the nave. But 
very likely the pillar opposite to the corner of the tower took 
the form of a pier, which, having two responds, would be 
counted as two pillars, and then the number of pillars on 
each side of the nave would be equal. 

We know from the respond still existing on the east of 
the tower that the pillars between the nave and north aisle 
were of the common local form of a lozenge with the angles 
hollowed out and a shaft between the hollows. The north 
aisle possessed a very noble groined roof far finer than any 
aisle roof in the city except that of the Cathedral, the height 
of the midrib of the groining being 30 feet above the floor of 
the church. Some of the bosses are preserved at the church, 
and show what magnificent work was destroyed in 1789. 

The height of the tops of the capitals from which the 
arches sprung was about 20 feet, and of the top of the arches 
about 30 feet above the floor, while the wall-plate was not 
less than 35 feet above it. There was no clerestory. There 
is nothing to show the pitch of the nave roof, and therefore 
its height ; and as there are no signs of groining on the 
respond of the tower it is evident that the nave roof was of 
timber. Supposing the angle of the nave roof to have been 
50 0 , this would give for the height of the apex above the floor 
about 48 feet, and probably an internal height of not less 
than 42 feet. As Barrett gives the height of the nave of 
Temple Church as 50 feet, it is clear that there was not 
much difference between the two churches in this respect. 

We can, therefore, now form an idea of the interior of 
old St. Thomas. Its length, 138 feet from "the west door to 
the high altar, is precisely that of the nave of St. Mary 
Redcliff from the west door to the chancel arch, including 
the width of the transept, and it was of the same width with 



346 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



St. Mary's; but as it had no clerestory it was some 12 feet 
less in height, in this respect rather resembling the nave o 
Temple. Probably the church which would give the best 
idea of the nave of old St. Thomas is St. Stephen's, but the 
old church was half as long again as St. Stephen's. 

Consisting as it did of a nave and a north aisle nearly 
as broad and as high as the nave, the old church ought 
perhaps to be regarded as consisting of two parallel naves, 
like the Priory Church at Leominster, which some of us 
saw in the summer, with its three parallel naves ; but it 
would certainly seem that no parish church in the city 
possessed an interior with anything like such an effect of 
breadth and space as old St. Thomas. 

With regard to the lighting of the church, we find that 
the jamb of the west window of the old north aisle comes 
close to the buttress of the tower, so that the church would 
have been lighted on the north side by a series of seven (or 
eight) large windows divided only by the width of the 
buttresses, like the range of windows on the south side of 
Temple Church ; and as the arches on the north side of the 
nave were as high as the aisle arches of most cathedrals, a 
flood of light would have come in from that side. There is 
nothing to show what the windows on the south side were like. 

It is doubtful whether the lantern at the entrance to the 
chancel was erected simply for the purpose of giving light ; 
more probably it was set up mainly for decorative purposes 
in order to break the long line of roof. Certainly the external 
appearance of St. Mary Redcliff would be much improved 
if the old lantern had been allowed to remain at the crossing 
of the nave and transept. Still, as it is certain that rooms — 
probably in the first place for chantry priests — stood over the 
northern chapel of the chancel, as they stand over parts of 
All Saints now, the chancel may have needed light, which 
the lantern would serve to supply. 

We now proceed to consider the circumstances under 
which this very noble church was destroyed. It is certain 
that in the last quarter of the eighteenth century the old 

*! 



Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol. 347 



Perpendicular churches of Bristol stood in need of extensive 
repair, but the moving cause of the destruction of old 
St. Thomas was most likely the fact that at that time the 
vestry had a considerable sum of money (probably about 
^1,500) burning in their pockets. ,,■ 

At any rate, on September 5th, 1788, Mr. Allen, the 
architect, and others were desired to report on the condition 
of the church; and on February 15th, 1789, they reported 
that a new roof was needed and also extensive repairs to 
the walls. This was very probably true; but on May 20th 
it was further ordered that all the arches and walls should be 
taken down to the foundations and the pillars left standing. 
The second report states that the walls were ruinous. The 
tradition of the parish, however, relates that it was found 
needful to blow up these ruinous walls with gunpowder. 

On June 18th, 1789, Mr. Allen's plans for rebuilding the 
church were approved by a majority of the vestry ; an Act 
of Parliament was obtained for the purpose ; the new church 
was opened on December 1st, 1793, involving a cost which 
was not fully met till 1825. It is clear that the destruction 
of the old church was not approved by all those in authority. 
Mr. Spry, the vicar, absented himself — perhaps unwisely — 
from the earlier vestry meetings when the matter was con- 
sidered, and, as we have seen, the plans for the new church 
were only carried by a majority of the vestry. It is to be 
noted that as the old tower remained standing, and the body 
of the church was built on the old foundations, there was no 
re-consecration ; the church was simply re-opened, and the 
ancient dedication in the name of St. Thomas the Martyr 
continued. 

There is, however, this much to be said, that no unworthy 
successor rose on the foundations of the old church : and if 
the church of St. Thomas the Martyr is no longer the most 
beautiful Gothic church in the city except St. Mary Redcliff, 
it has in a way stepped from the second place into the first, 
for it is certainly the finest classic parish church not only in 
Bristol, but for a very long distance round. There was also 



348 Transactions for the Year J904. 



much of historical interest in connection with the old church. 
The Lady Chapel— by which is most likely meant the east 
end of the north aisle — became the burial-place of the 
Canynges family. John Canynges, the first member of the 
family who is found in Bristol, witnessed a deed of sale of 
a corner shop in RedclifT Street on October 28th, 1334; the 
deed is in the possession of the Vestry of St. Thomas. On 
June 6th, 1382, the will of John Stoke was proved, by which 
he desired to be buried in the Chapel of the Blessed Mary 
in the parish church of St. Thomas; and by her will, proved 
September 20th, 1395, Joan Stoke, his wife, desired to be 
buried in the same place. The elder William Canynges 
married Agnes, daughter of John Stoke, and by his will, 
proved November loth, 1396, he desired to be buried in the 
Chapel of the Blessed Mary in the church of St. Thomas 
the Martyr, by the tomb of John Stoke. His son, John 
Canynges, who died in 1405, desired to be buried on the 
Cast side of the Chapel of the Blessed Mary in the church 
of St. Thomas the Martyr. John Canynges left two sons 
who reached adult age, Thomas and William. The latter, 
who was afterwards five times mayor of the borough and 
Dean of Westbury, was buried in St. Mary Redcliff, being 
the first member of the family, so far as is known, who was 
buried there. Thomas Canynges, lord mayor of London in 
1456, 1 was the ancestor of the families of Canynges of 
Foxcote, in Warwickshire, and Canynges of Garvagh, in 
Londonderry, from which latter branch George Canning 
(Prime Minister), Earl Canning (Governor-General of India 
during the Mutiny), and Lord Stratford de Redcliffe were 
descended. When, in 1852, Sir Stratford Canning was 
raised to the peerage with the title Viscount Stratford de 
Redcliffe the ashes of at least four generations of his 
ancestors had been buried in the church of St. Thomas de 
Radeclive, as the ancient church was styled in the Assize 
Roll of Gloucester, 1247-8. 

The old church bore its part in the troubles of the 
1 In which year his brother William was also Mayor of Bristol. 



Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol. 349 

Reformation period. There is an amusing account of the 
difficulties which arose out of the preaching of Latimer 
and his opponent Hubberdyn, whom Foxe describes as "a 
right painted Pharisee," in the early part of 1533. 1 Latimer 
preached at St. Thomas on Monday*' following the second 
Sunday in Lent (March 10th), uttering, as was reported, 
"divers schismatic and erroneous opinions, as in hell to be 
no fire sensible, the souls that be in purgatory to have no 
need of our prayers, but rather to pray for us ; no saints 
to be honoured ; no pilgrimages to be used ; our blessed lady 
to be a sinner," insomuch that many of the king's subjects 
within the said town were sore infected with the same, and 
there was great strife "and debate, and that among all sorts 
of people from the highest to the lowest. And this continued 
from the second Sunday in Lent until Easter (April 13th), 
when Hubberdyn came to Bristol and preached in St. Thomas' 
Church at afternoon on Easter Eve, and at St. Nicholas' 
Church before noon on Easter Day, sharply against Latimer's 
articles, proving them by authorities as well by the Old as 
the New Testaments schismatic and erroneous. And whereas 
it was very ill from the second Sunday in Lent till Easter, 
it was worse after Easter ; for many that favoured Latimer 
and his new manner of preaching, and other many that 
favoured Hubberdyn in his old manner of preaching, were 
more ardent after Easter than they were before. 

The register of baptisms contains the following entry : — 
" 1621. Ap. 23 willm pen sonn of gilles penn." 
This was Sir William Penn, admiral in the wars against 
the Dutch, who died in 1670, and was buried near his mother 
at St. Mary Redcliff, where his armour is still to be seen. 
He was the father of William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania. 
The Chatterton family were connected with the church as 
early as 1667, when Thomas Chatterton did a good deal of 
mason's and carpenter's work there. In 1739 the bells were 
rung when Bishop Butler visited the church. 

1 MS. Cotton, Cleopat. E. iv., fol. 56, Letters relating to the Suppression 
of Monasteries, Camden Society, pp. 8 and 9. 

24 

Vol. XXVII. 



Transactions for the Year 1904. 



The only part of the ancient church now standing is 
the tower, which is a good specimen of late Perpendicular 
work. It was built for a spire, as the squinch arches show. 
If the spire had been completed with its sides making 
the same angle with the horizon as the sides of that of 
St. Mary Redcliff, its height would have been about one 
hundred feet above the leads of the tower ; as the tower 
leans it was probably thought unsafe to add a spire, but 
it would seem that the design was not altogether abandoned,, 
for the putlog holes remained until recently. On April 29th,. 
1790, it was reported that " the tower is well built and fit to 
stand, the materials being sound, and the walls perpendicular. 
Except that the parapet and about six feet of the wall under 
the same, and the south and west sides thereof require some 
repair." The tower stood apparently as it was in 1790 till 
1896, when it was repaired, and parapets and pinnacles 
were added, at a cost of ^1,800. It should be stated that 
though the ground-plan shows the tower as it now is — 
disconnected from the church, — before 1789 it was connected 
by a broad arch with the north aisle, and by a narrower arch 
on its south side with the old nave. 

The four great bosses, of which representations are given,, 
must have formed part of the groined roof of the north aisle. 
They were recovered to the church in a very remarkable 
way. In 1843, when Tovey published his Churches of Bristol,. 
they were in the possession of Mr. Thomas Garrard, 
treasurer of the city, who permitted the author to publish 
plates of the two which contain the dragons and the human 
figure. On the death in 1880 of the father of the clergyman, 
who was then vicar of St. Thomas the Martyr, a marked 
sale catalogue of Mr. Garrard's effects was found among his 
papers, from which it appeared that the St. Thomas bosses 
had been bought by Mr. Kerslake. In reply to inquiries, 
Mr. Kerslake said that he did not recollect the purchase 
of the bosses, but that he had certainly bought some articles 
for Mr. Braikenridge. Mr. W. E. George, a member of the 
vestry, communicated with the Rev. G. W. Braikenridge, 



Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol. 351 



who most kindly restored the bosses to the church after 
an absence of more than ninety years. And this paper 
may well close with words written now more than sixty years 
ago by Mr. Tovey concerning these sculptured stones 1 : " It 
must be matter of surprise and of regret that these should 
be the only remaining vestiges of a building of which some 
shadowy ideas may yet faintly linger in the remembrance 
of the aged— that not a solitary antiquary was found in 
the hour of its destruction, sufficiently appreciating, and 
interested in its many beauties, to transmit some semblance 
of its general form and character, for the admiration and 
gratification of those enthusiasts, who by possessing the 
pictured delineation, would be in some measure consoled 
for the absence of the object itself." 

1 Churches of Bristol, pp. 230, 231. 




THE BRISTOL H OT WELLS. 



By L, M. GRIFFITHS, M.R.C.S. 

Members of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society will be interested in these two early views of the 
Bristol Hotwells. They are reprinted from Mr. L. M. 
Griffith's Reputation of the Hotwells (Bvistol) as a Health Resort, 
which was reviewed in the last volume of our Transactions. 
The courtesy of the authorities of the Bristol Museum and 
Library, which enabled Mr. Griffiths to issue them, has been 
extended to us, and we thank them for the permission to 
reproduce them. 

The first represents, about the year 1735, the pump-room 
erected in 1696 and the buildings of the immediate neigh- 
bourhood. Barrett in his list 1 does not mention this view, 
although he refers to one of the Drawbridge by Halfpenny 
and Mynde, and one of the Infirmary by Halfpenny. 
Neither in designer nor in engraver was this illustration 
fortunate. William Halfpenny was a London " architect 
and carpenter," 2 indications of whose profession and work 
can be seen in the formal outlines of the drawing. J. Mynde 
was an engraver of small reputation, whose work was 
principally done for the booksellers. 3 Beginning in 1722, 
William Halfpenny published several books on building and 
architecture. For some of these he had the help of John 
Halfpenny, who "is said to have built 1744 Coopers' Hall, 
and 1789-94 S. Paul's Church, Portland Square, both at 
Bristol." 4 The dates make this statement somewhat im- 
probable ; and in reference to the church, Evans says that 
*' the architect and builder was Daniel Hague." 5 

1 History of Bristol [1789], p. 1 12. 2 See Dictionary of National Biography. 
3 See Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. 
4 Dictionary of Architecture. 
r> A Chronological Outline of the History of Bristol, 1824. ( 



i 



The Bristol Hotwells. 



353 



In striking contrast to the almost diagrammatic drawing 
of William Halfpenny is the picturesque view dated 1747. 
It was most likely drawn by Milton, who was no doubt 
the William Milton mentioned by ^Redgrave. 1 Barrett 2 
refers to a view of the Infirmary drawn and engraved by 
Milton. The row of houses to which the name of the 
Colonnade was given was not then in existence. Samuel 
Pye, the bearer of the cost of the original engraving, 
was a Bristol surgeon at whom Chatterton girded "in an 
unpublished and unpublishable poem now in the library of 
the Bristol Royal Infirmary." 3 In 1724 Pye published a 
work on a surgical operation. The use of the hay-mow is 
explained by the following remarks of Owen: 4 " I would by 
all means advise those gentlemen who ride on horseback to 
the Hot-well, as many do, to put up their horses in the 
stable over-against the beginning of the walk, for which they 
pay only a penny a time for each horse, and riot to tie them 
up to the rails while they drink the waters. This last is a 
very common practice ; you see a whole range of them 
together, and the consequence is that almost every morning 
one or other of them is obliged, by the backing of coaches or 
chariots against them, either to break his bridle or~ to pull 
down part of the rails. By this penny-saving scheme of the 
owner, the horse is greatly frightened and often receives an 
injury, while his master is sitting in the Pump-room, or is 
got to the coffee-house adjoining to it to read the news 
papers, and knows nothing of the matter. Many a good 
•horse has been hurt by this practice, and the company, who 
are in the walk, are frequently alarmed by it." The building 
near the hay-mow appears more distinctly as a stable in the 
first of the illustrations. 

1 Dictionary of Artists. 2 loc. cit. 

3 Greig Smith's Abdominal Surgery, 2nd ed., 1888, p. 631. 

± Observations on the Earths, Rocks, Stones, and Minerals for some miles 
about Bristol, 1754, pp. 161-2. 



patias of gublicatious. 



LETTERS OF WILLIAM STUBBS, BISHOP OF OXFORD, 
1825-1901. Edited by William Holden Hutton, B.D. London: 
Archibald Constable & Co. 1904. 

This book tells in a very interesting way the story of the growth and 
developement of the powers of the greatest of the English historians of the 
last century. His historical training began when he was quite a boy, for 
his father, who was a solicitor at Knaresborough, set him to read charters 
and old documents, and in this way he not only acquired a taste for things 
that were old, and learned something of the difference between classical 
and mediaeval Latin, but also, no doubt, laid the foundation of his skill as 
a palaeographer in later days. He was educated at Knaresborough and the 
Minster School at Ripon, and so it was that when his mother was left a 
widow when he was seventeen years of age, Dr. Longley, then Bishop of 
Ripon, obtained for him a Servitorship at Christ Church, and thus laid 
the foundation of his future. He went into residence in January, 1845, ne 
was placed in the First Class in the Classical School in Easter Term, 1848, 
and was elected to a Fellowship at Trinity two days later ; on Trinity 
Sunday, 1850, he was ordained priest, and the next day he was presented 
to the living of Navestock in Essex. So the work of his life began, and 
no one could have foreseen the end from the beginning. Navestock was 
no light charge ; it extended over 4,300 acres, and contained a population 
of about 980 souls, and there the future Regius Professor and Bishop lived 
the life of a country priest with his double daily service, though the church 
was a mile from the vicarage, and his hundred sermons a year ; his 
mornings of study, and his afternoons of visiting ; with promotion at the 
end of ten years' service to a Diocesan Inspectorship of Schools. It was a 
strange beginning to the life-work of the founder of the modern school of 
English History, but it is doubtful whether either he or Mr. Freeman 
would have been the better for a prolonged residence at Oxford ; there was 
nothing to be learned there which could not be learned equally well else- 
where, and the. effervescent liberalism which was dominant there in the 
fifties would not have been helpful to sound history. The outcome of the 
Navestock period was Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum, a list of English 
Bishops from St. Augustine to 1858, with the dates of consecration and 

i 



Notices of Publications. 



355 



the names of their consecrators where these could be ascertained. It was 
a work of very wide research, involving enormous toil, and though it did 
little to make him widely known, the experience and knowledge which he 
acquired in its compilation must have been very helpful in later years. In 
1862 his old patron, Dr. Longley, was translated from York to Canterbury, 
and appointed him Librarian at Lambeth ; this appointment brought him 
to London twice a week and gave him access to the library. In the same 
year he was a candidate for the Chichele Professorship of Modern 
History at Oxford, to which Dr. Montagu Burrows was elected — the 
successful candidate had passed through the Law and History School, and 
had greater local claims ; and in 1866 he was a candidate for the office of 
Principal Librarian at the British Museum. In 1863 he had begun his 
admirable work as an editor of the publications of the Rolls Series. 

In August, 1866, Lord-Derby appointed him to the Regius Professorship 
of Modern History ; he would have preferred the Professorship of Ecclesi- 
astical History, which was vacant later in the year, but this was not to be, 
and as Dr. Bright was appointed after no long interval to that Professor- 
ship, things were better as they were. At Oxford as a teacher he was 
without honour in his own country, his classes were always small, and he 
found the lectures a hindrance to other work. His greatest work was done 
rather by the books that he wrote than by the lectures which he gave. 
The chief of these were, besides his contributions to the Rolls Series which 
ran from 1864 to 1889 : — Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, 1869 7 8 I 
Select 'Charters, 1870; Constitutional History of England, 1873-78; together 
with the long series of articles in the Dictionaries of Christian Antiquities, 
1876-80, and Christian Biography, 1877-87. So far as history was concerned, 
the period of the Oxford Professorship was the most productive period of 
his life, and it is difficult to think of the writer of the Constitutional History 
as an ecclesiastic ; but though he resigned Navestock when he came to 
Oxford, he accepted the living of Cholderton in 1875, resigning it on his 
appointment to a Canonry of St. Paul's in 1879, which he held till he became 
Bishop of Chester. In 1876 also he was elected an Honorary Fellow of 
Balliol, and undertook the duties of Chaplain of the College; in 1878 he 
seems to have contemplated accepting the living of St. Mary's, but Dr. Jowett 
strongly dissuaded him from this in words which he must often have 
remembered afterwards: — " When a person is very distinguished in one 
line he had better not take another which is liable to distract him from it. 
It is misery to lead a divided life. For many reasons I should like to see 
you Vicar of St. Mary's, but it seems to me to be impossible that in such a 
position you should carry on your historical work with equal energy and 
success." Thus it came to pass when he was consecrated to the See of 
Chester in 1884 that of the 34 years of his priesthood no fewer than 25 
were marked by direct pastoral or capitular work. 



356 Notices of Publications. 

It is likely that the most lasting result of the work of Dr. Stubbs 
will flow from what he did as a member of the Ecclesiastical Courts 
Commission of 188 1, The Erastianism of the English Secular Courts had 
produced a deadlock with regard to questions of ritual in the Church 
of England, exactly as it has recently produced a deadlock with regard to 
doctrine in Scotland, and a Royal Commission was appointed to consider 
the constitution and working of the English Ecclesiastical Courts from 
the time of Henry VIII. onwards. The recommendations of the 
Commission have long been forgotten, but the masterly Appendices drawn 
up by Dr. Stubbs as one of the Commissioners abide, and will have to be 
reckoned with in any future consideration of the subject. 

It was no doubt in consequence of his work on this Commission that he 
was nominated to the See of Chester in February, 1884, and consecrated 
in York Minster on April 25th in that year. His life at Chester was a 
happy one. The diocese, though populous, was not large, and was easily 
accessible ; he had never lost touch with the life of the parochial clergy ; 
and his house at Chester was not too large for his requirements But five 
years later the great misfortune of his life occurred. Archbishop Benson 
had determined to try a charge which had been brought against the Bishop 
of Lincoln, and desired the assistance of Bishop Stubbs, who was there- 
fore translated to the See of Oxford. To Bishop Stubbs the change was 
little less than a disaster. He doubted the competency of the Archbishop 
to try the case in the manner adopted at all, and the long sittings of the 
Court were mere weariness to him. The diocese included three counties,, 
not very accessible from any point, and hopelessly inaccessible from 
Cuddesdon, a small place on a branch line of railway. His house was a 
country mansion, requiring a large staff of servants, which he disliked' 
from the first, and tried to get rid of, that he might live in Oxford. He 
was thoroughly uncomfortable, and though he was to the end completely 
in earnest on the spiritual side of his work, as in addresses to candidates 
for Holy Orders arid for Confirmation, in the general work of the diocese 
he was not happy. An Anglican Episcopate tends to become a machine, 
and though the bishop supplies the motive power, he does not always guide 
Bishop Stubbs had seen the system at work at Navestock and at St. Paul's, 
and evidently he did not like it ; he was too strong a man to run in grooves 
marked out for him, he declined to be organised, and many in the diocese 
became unsympathetic; a tendency to jocoseness which he had repressed 
returned upon him, and stories grew up of strange jokes at inappropriate 
times. By a misfortune for which he was in no way responsible, the 
twelve last years of his episcopate, which under happier circumstances 
might have nobly crowned his life's work, were clouded. The question 
arises whether it was well that so great a scholar should enter the ranks of 
the Anglican Episcopate 'at all. Certainly the science of history was. 



1 



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357 



a heavy loser. At Chester he carried on his edition of William of 
Malraesbury's Gesta Regum, and that was all. He had prepared more than 
an outline of the history of England in relation to the Church during the 
Tudor period, but this was put aside when he became a bishop; yet it 
would have been invaluab'e to students of 'the Reformation period, to 
whom so much that was done seems to be merely illegality veiled under 
the form of law. There had been ideas of publishing an abridgment of 
the Constitutional History, but these came to nothing. On the other hand, 
considering the rarity of real learning among the clergy of the English 
Church on any other subjects than ancient languages and theology, it was 
certainly well for the Church that so great a scholar, well skilled as he 
was in pastoral work and thoroughly interested in it, should be placed 
in a position of the highest authority. As it was, even, the gain far out- 
weighed the loss ; under happier circumstances none would have doubted 
that when he accepted the call to Chester he chose the better part, not 
only for himself, but in the interests of true religion and useful learning 
as well. Mr. Hutton has done his work thoroughly well, and has given a 
very trustworthy and readable account of the life and work of a great 
scholar, to whom students of history for a long time to come will owe a 
deep debt of gratitude. 

THE GROWTH OF THE MANOR. By Dr. P. Vinogradoff. 
London: Swan, Sonnenschein & Co. 1905. 

Dr. Vinogradoff published his well-known book on Villainage in 
England twelve years ago, and though he has since held a Professorship of 
History in the University of Moscow, he has not lost his interest in English 
subjects ; he is now fitly installed as Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford, 
and this book is the first-fruits of his Professorship. It is an attempt to 
present an outline of the growth of the manor as a social institution, 
passing through all the stages of English history ; for as we are told in 
the preface in a passage which well illustrates the method of the volume : — 
-" All periods of English history have had their bearing on the life of 
the manor. Some germs of manorial institutions may be found in the 
Celtic age ; the Roman occupation of the island had undoubtedly a 
powerful influence on its economic arrangements ; the old English period 
is marked by the full development of the rural township; the feudal 
epoch finds the manor at its height ; the dissolution of the manor forms 
one of the processes by which modern commercial intercourse was brought 
about, and survivals of the manorial system and of its ' component 
elements may still be observed all over England." But though these 
conditions followed one after another, it is not implied that they arose 
from each other by a process of natural growth. No doubt from the time 



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Notices of Publications. 



of the Saxon invasions till to-day the growth has been continuous till it 
passed into decay ; but the Celtic and Roman periods, though they may 
have contributed some elements which became parts of the manorial 
system, did so not so much by way of preparation, as by indirect influence 
on the system into which they were absorbed. The book starts from a 
consideration of Celtic tribal arrangements, not because the Celts were the 
earliest inhabitants, but because very little is known about the social 
arrangements of the peoples who preceded them. The ruling principle 
according to which Celtic society was arranged was the union of persons 
descended, or supposed to be descended, from the same ancestor through 
males, though other lines of connection were recognised at various times. 
The homestead was not simply the dwelling-place of the household with 
a few dependants, but was intended for the joint occupation of a number 
of tribesmen living together, though the homes of families were grouped in 
hamlets. As the Celts were a pastoral people, and cultivation of the soil 
was a subordinate matter, the system of land tenure was communalistic , 
though the individual had well-defined rights within the community. 
Other sources of food were hunting, fishing, and the keeping of bees. 
There were degrees of 'wealth and rank within the community, there were 
freemen, foreigners, and slaves, but their relations one with another were 
essentially different from those which existed between the dwellers in an 
old English tun , the germs of the later manor are not to be found in the 
Celtic family community. 

And it does not seem that the Roman occupation of Southern Britain 
altered the Celtic tribal institutions in essential points. Any influence 
which the Roman land system may have had on the subsequent develope- 
ment of the English manorial system arose rather from its influence on 
the Angles and Saxons before they reached these shores, than on any change 
which was impressed on the social arrangements of Roman Britain. The 
occupation was that of a comparatively small military class. There were 
the roads and fortresses and the villas of wealthy residents, but the 
social arrangements of the subject population remained unchanged 
Er. Vinogradoff suggests that the frequency of Roman settlements in 
Gloucestershire and Lincolnshire may be accounted for by these districts 
forming, as it were, feeding centres for the support of the military 
concentrations on the west and north. Of course, however, the civilisation 
and military prowess of Rome had its influence on the British population ; 
and so it is that Henry of Huntingdon, describing a battle between the 
Britons and Saxons at Woodnesbeorge in 591, relates that the Britons, 
using the military formation of the Romans, were victorious. That the 
Romanised Britains were no weaklings is shown by the fact that it was not 
till fifty-seven years after the West Saxons had landed in Southampton 
Water that they captured Old Sarum, twenty-five miles from the shore. 



Notices of Publications. 



359 



The invasions of the Anglo-Saxons and afterwards of the Northmen 
were an entirely different matter from the Roman invasion. The latter 
was the invasion of an army, resulting in the setting of a small 
privileged foreign class above a conquered nation ; the former was the 
invasion of a nation, resulting in the expulsion or servitude of the native 
race. The Roman was a dweller in towns; the Anglo-Saxons detested 
towns, and settled whithersoever they would, by wood or plain or stream, 
dividing the land afresh and calling the lands after their own names ; and 
further, the unit of society was no longer the family as with the Celts, but 
the individual who settled in his own tun, with his dependents around him, 
and the slaves who were in his power, as the Boer farmer lives separate 
and apart at the present day, and claims the power to rule his own negroes. 
There was a complete change, both with regard to the form of society and 
the system of land tenure. - Yet the Celts were not exterminated ; though 
village names are mostly Anglo-Saxon, the names of streams and hills and 
remote hamlets testify to the survival of the subject race. 

But this disconnected system is not the system which is found in the 
later laws and history. By the pressure of military necessity, a definite 
military class arose from among the body of freemen, of necessity a class 
formed from the more wealthy, for these alone could provide efficient arms 
and remain for a longer period in the field. Again, especially no doubt 
in troublous times, either by commendation of the weaker to the stronger, 
or by a system of patronage, or by direct grant, it is likely that every 
Englishman had come by the end of the tenth century under the juris- 
diction of some lord. There was not only an orderly system of classes, 
for this is found in the laws of the Kentish King Ethelbert, to whom 
St. Augustine came, but also an orderly system of dependence of man on 
man; the officials of the township became the officials of the lordship, 
and thus all the townships of the kingdom were linked together in a 
single organic whole. 

Then with the Norman Conquest came the feudal system, basing the 
social system on the tenure of land alone ; land being conceived to be held 
of the king, reverting to him on the death or crime of the holder, and not 
as in the Old English polity as freehold, the absolute property of the 
owner. Here again was an essential change, going down to the very root 
of society and of the system of land-tenure. But the organisation of the 
township fitted well into that of the feudal manor, and its life went on 
very much outwardly as before. Only through the feudal system the 
process of centralisation was completed, and at last the old holdings were 
rendered indivisible. The feudal system lost at length its power of 
growth, it ceased to be really a living, developing thing, and in time it 
practically died away ; but the life of the townships which it absorbed 
continued, and exists even until now. 



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Notices of Publications. 



But a summary of this kind gives a very poor idea of the real value of 
the book, which enters fully into the social arrangements and methods of 
land tenure and cultivation used by the population at the different periods 
which are covered by the work. There is not very much of specially local 
interest. Dr. Vinogradoff mentions, though he does not enter into, the 
account of the district between the Wye and Usk which follows the 
account of the City of Gloucester in Domesday. 1 This account is,, 
however, of very great interest, because it shows the process in action 
of the settlement of lands which were held on the Celtic system by a 
Teutonic race according to their land system. The district seems to have, 
been settled by Earl William Fitzosbern about 1070, and the Welsh land 
system remained unaltered on the king's land. Under the provost 
Waswic were 13 villae ; under Elmui, 14; under Bleius, 13; under 
Idhel, 14; and also under these provosts were four villae which were 
desolate. It is easy to recognise in these four groups the groups of 
homesteads which according to- the Welsh system were ranged together 
for the purposes of tribute and civil jurisdiction. The food rent also, 
according to Welsh custom, was paid in cattle and money, with 28s. for 
the hawks ; it was worth in all £g 10s. 4d., or about 3s. 6d. from each villa. 
The land, however, which had been granted to subjects was divided out as 
usual into carucates or hides, and it is described by the terms usual 
in the Gloucestershire Survey, the Commissioners describing as occurring 
in the lifetime of persons still living a condition of things which had 
come to pass all over England some five centuries before. Many 
people do not realise to what a late period servitude persisted as a part 
of the manorial system. On October 18th, 1533, John Clark, Bishop of Bath 
and Wells, manumitted at Banwell the family of Goodriche nativus of 
Banwell, " ab omni jugo servitutis villenagii," and the manumission was 
confirmed by the Chapters of Bath and Wells in 1535. 2 While even as 
late as April 3rd, 1574, Queen Elizabeth issued a commission to 
enfranchise the bond men and women of the Queen's manors in the 
counties of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, and Gloucester. 3 It is remarkable 
that in Domesday there was a higher proportion of serfs in Gloucestershire 
than in any other county, Cornwall and Devon following next in order, 
while of the others only Hants, Dorset, and Shropshire stood higher than 
Somerset.. The book is likely to have a very high value as a work of 
reference for a long while to come, and it is a pity that the index is not 
more full. 

1 D. B., f. 162. 2 Wells Cathedral MSS. 223. 3 Rymer's Fwdcra. 



Notices of Publications. 



361 



STUDIES ON ANGLO-SAXON INSTITUTIONS. By H. Munro 
Chadwick, Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Cambridge : The 
University Press. 1905. 
This is a book full of encouragement, because it marks an honest 
attempt to study old English history in the only way in which it can be 
effectively studied, by a careful collection of the facts on which the history 
must be based. It would be quite true to say that those who know- that 
history best, know best how comparatively little is really known, how 
many needful questions cannot be answered, and how many of the 
conclusions which are commonly accepted depend upon premises which 
it would be difficult to justify fully. Mr. Chadwick takes a series of 
subjects and considers them one by one in the light of the laws and 
charters and available history of the old English commonwealth. His 
work is a collection of facts rather than of conclusions ; the reader is left 
to do most of the work of construction or re-construction for himself; 
it is not a history, but rather materials for history ; and this is well, for it 
is clear that a good deal yet remains to be done before a satisfactory 
history of the old English polity can be written. Mr. Chadwick regards 
matters from the point of view of the police court, and commences his 
work with the following magisterial announcement: "The classification 
of Teutonic society in ancient times may perhaps be most conveniently 
attempted by observing the gradations in the monetary payments to which 
persons belonging to different classes were entitled in compensation for 
various injuries." From this starting-point he proceeds to the considera- 
tion of the monetary system, the social system involving the gradation 
of classes, the administrative system, the territorial divisions, and finally 
the constitution and functions of the national Council ; so that each part 
of the old English commonwealth is passed under review in turn, 

The chapters on the monetary system are, of course, technical, but 
some interesting details are given concerning the ratio of gold to silver at 
different dates. The fifth - century gold coins found in the tomb of 
Childeric at Tournai give a ratio of about 8 to 1 ; the gold coins of 
Merovingian type found at Crondale in Hampshire, in 1828, give for West 
Saxon coinage a ratio of 6 to 1, and apparently for Kentish coinage only 
4 to 1 ; while a ratio of 6 to 1 prevailed for a considerable time over 
Northern Europe. Reckoning by the price of an ox, the ratio in the time 
of Ine was about 7 to 1 ; but in later times silver was relatively much less 
valuable : in the time of King Alfred, about 10 to 1 ; of Athelstan, 11 to 1 ; 
and at the beginning of the eleventh century, 12 to 1. With regard to the 
social system as illustrated by wergelds arid other payments, the differences 
between Northumbrians, Mercians, and West Saxons do not seem to be very 
striking ; Kent, however, stands by itself to a larger extent than the greater 



362 



Notices of Publications. 



antiquity of its extant laws would seem to account for, and it is evident 
that caution is necessary in interpreting Kentish matters from Mercian or 
West Saxon sources or vice versa. The social system of the old English 
was, however, clearly a more complex matter than it is often represented 
to be. The Gloucestershire Domesday throws some light on the status 
of the Radchenistres, who are assumed on page 88 to be equivalent to the 
Radcniht, who is identified with the sixhynde man in the late Pseudo- 
Leges Canuti. The nature of their service is twice described in detail, as 
if the commissioners recognised that they were dealing with an uncommon 
designation, and some explanation was needful. With regard to the 
estates of Westminster, it is said that some properties were held by 
Radchenistri, " that is to say freemen in King Edward's time, who yet all 
used to plow and harrow, mow and reap at the lord's need " ; and again, 
with regard to Tewkesbury : ' ' These Radchenists used to plough and 
harrow on the lord's land." 1 In the whole shire 57 Radchenists held 93 
teams, they were thus a class of freemen rendering certain services, and 
holding on an average rather less than two teams apiece ; also 197 villeins 
held 129 teams, giving less than two-thirds of a team to each. The five 
oxen of the villein compared with the thirteen oxen of the Radchenist 
give a proportion not far removed from the threefold fine due to the 
sixhynde man as compared with that due to the ceorl, but an assump- 
tion of identity would be very precarious. It is very much to be 
regretted that Mr. Chadwick has assumed the identity of the offices of 
the earlier ealdorman and the later eorl. It is true that both were territorial 
magnates, but it would have been far better to consider the office of each 
separately, and to point out the marks of similarity. It is still more to 
be regretted that this confusion leads him to deal unfairly with his 
authorities. On page 166, for example, we are told that the compensation 
due to the earl for the infraction of his surety was two pounds, and for 
fighting in an assembly in the presence of the earl was 120 shillings, with 
references to Alfred's Laws, 3, 38. On referring to the laws, however, 
it is found that in each case the dignitary is styled ealdorman and not earl. 
Very likely the assumption of the identity of the offices may be fairly 
correct, but it is not fair to alter an original authority in accordance with 
the assumption. The whole section concerning the earl and the earldoms 
needs to be read with great caution, for in some cases, at any rate, it seems 
likely that confusion is created between the earl who was over a group of 
shires, and the ealdorman over a single shire. For instance, on page 169 
it is said that " in his civil capacity the earl had, according to Edg. iii. 5, 
to attend (doubtless as president) the county assembly." On looking up 
the passage, it runs thus: " Let men attend the hundred-moot as it has been 
ordered, let the burg-moot be held thrice, and the shire-moot twice in the 
1 D. 13., f. 166, 163. 

1 



Notices of Publications. 



363 



year, and let the shire bishop and the ealdorman attend and give 
instruction concerning God's law and secular law." As it is, the section 
simply shows that a considerable number of men bearing various titles 
exercised somewhat similar functions at different times. 

The section on the administrative systeirf is founded on the lists of 
Burghal Hidage, and County Hidage, on which Dr. Maitland laid so much 
stress. Mr. Chad wick leaves the item, "To Heorepeburan, 324 hides" 
unidentified but there can be little doubt that the name intended is 
Crowborough in Pevensey Rape, which thus finds a place in the system. 
The list of Burghal Hidage seems to be designed simply for military 
purposes, and it would not be necessary that it should be strictly regulated 
by the shire boundaries. In Somerset it follows the natural features of the 
country : Watchet for Exmoor ; Lyng at the junction of the Parrett and 
the Tone, supported by Langport at the head of the great central marsh ; 
Axbridge guarding the marshland to the south of it ; while to Bath— still 
Mercian — was attached the district north of Mendip, together with a large 
area of South-west Mercia. Bath, and possibly Langport, were places of 
importance ; but in this list they appear— like Lyng and Watchet— only as 
fortresses ; and it is likely that Mr. Chadwick is using the list for a 
purpose not its own when he regards it as possessing direct value as 
indicating centres of civil jurisdiction. He seems also to think that the 
hundred was at one time an unit including one hundred hides ; the 
testimony of the Gloucestershire Domesday, however, is clean contrary 
to any such idea ; no such numerical relation can be traced in the hidage 
included in the various hundreds ; the principle is manifestly inapplicable 
to such hundreds as those of Brentry, Clive, and Deerhurst, which 
contained estates of great churches ; and, finally, there is the little 
Hundred of Letberge, containing only two estates, rated together at six 
hides, and held both in the time of the Confessor and the Conqueror by 
two different owners. When in the section on the " Divisions of Mercia" 
it is said that " most of the midland counties first made their appearance 
during the tenth century," it is needful to remark that no name of any 
midland shire is found in any contemporary document before the year 
1000. Of course, it is true that in the Burghal Hidage Oxford and 
Worcester appear as the heads of military districts containing as many 
hides as the shires attached to them in later days contained, and such 
places as Gloucester, Hereford, and Northampton also appeared in early 
times as heads of military districts ; but a military district is one thing, 
and an administrative district for civil business is another. Very probably 
the former developed into the latter, but we find no mention of the 
Mercian shires under their present names till they occur in the chronicles 
in the early part of the eleventh century. The chapter on " Hereditary 

1 Page 205. 



364 



Notices of Publications. 



Earldoms" also loses much of its value on account of the loose way in 
which the term earl is used as the equivalent of various English and Latin 
titles. There is a chapter on " The Kingdom of the Hwicce," which does 
not carry us very far ; but the chapter on " Bede's Terminology " and that 
on the functions of the Council, especially in relation to the election of 
kings, are full of suggestion. The book is a really valuable one to students 
of old English history, not only on account of the information it contains 
and the lines of thought which it suggests, but also because it compels the 
verification of references, and 'therefore the increase, if not of the extent 
of knowledge, at any rate of its accuracy ; for the looseness with regard 
to the rendering of titles of dignity and office to which reference has been 
already made, and the fact that documents are referred to generally 
without any hint as to their value, will enforce that constant reference to 
-original authorities which affords the only guarantee of trustworthy work. 
The index is fairly good. 



NEOLITHIC DEW-PONDS AND CATTLE-WAYS. By A. J. and 
G. Hubbard. London : Longmans, Green & Co. 1905. 

The water-supply of the great enclosures which crown so many of the 
hills in various parts of the country has always been a difficulty to those 
who have thought about the meaning and purpose of these mighty earth 
works, and solutions of the difficulty have been of more than one kind. 
It will not do simply to say that these enclosures were only temporary 
refuges from passing raids, for they would hold a multitude of men and 
cattle for whom the water-supply even of a single day would be-a matter 
of great difficulty. General Pitt-Rivers drew attention to the probability 
— which is indeed practically a certainty — that when the country was more 
heavily wooded than it is now the water-level in the soil would have stood 
higher than it does, the streams would have welled out higher up the 
coombes, and the possibility of obtaining water by means of wells even in 
hill-top camps would have been increased. Professor Buckman spoke of 
a Roman well as existing even in Leckhampton Camp. It is quite possible, 
that evidence concerning the former elevation of the outburst of the 
springs might be obtained from the land-boundaries given in the charters.. 
For instance, it seems clear that the Winterivell mentioned in the boundaries 
of North Cerney in the Charter of 852 1 is now known as Rendcombe 
Springs, but this point is, judging from the map, fully two hundred yards 
from the parochial boundary. Still, of course, work of this kind could 
only be usefully done in the field by those who know the district. But 
whether or no water could be. obtained by means of wells from the 
1 K., C. D., cc'xviii. ; C. S., 466. 



Notices of Publications. 



365 



springs which run among the hills, it would seem clear that there must 
have been some provision for the storage of water in such camps as 
Norbury, extending over 80 acres, and Nottingham and Cooper's Hills, 
extending over 120 and 200 acres respectively. The book therefore is of 
interest to all who live in a district like Cdtswold, where enclosures on 
high ground are found ; for though all the instances considered by the 
writers are found on the waterless chalk, the conditions are not entirely 
dissimilar from those of Cotswold. 

The method of water-supply chiefly considered is that of dew-ponds, 
a dew-pond being a pond which is supplied simply by condensation of 
dew, the principle employed being that on a non-conducting surface a 
greater amount of moisture will be condensed during the night than will 
be evaporated during the day. A hollow is dug in a position where there 
is no possibility of the .existence of springs or of running water ; the 
surface of the hollow is then covered with dry straw or some other 
non-conducting substance, over which puddled clay is laid, and the clay 
bottom is thickly strewn with stones. The pond will gradually fill with 
water, and will continue its supply so long as the non-conducting substance 
retains its property ; if it should become wet either by leakage or springs 
the pond will fail. It seems that there is still at least one wandering 
gang of dew -pond makers in England. 

The writers are clear that some of these dew-ponds are of neolithic 
■date, for they are found within the ancient enclosures, and are thoroughly 
fortified by ditches and ramparts precisely similar to, though smaller than, 
the main earthworks. Moreover, some of the earthworks which are 
subsidiary to the main camps are constructed in such a way as to provide 
communication to and fro between the camps and neighbouring dew-ponds ; 
and, finally, the remains of a dwelling similar to the dwellings within the 
ring is not infrequently found near a dew-pond— this was probably a 
guard-house. The writers found only one dew-pond actually within a 
ring, and they account for this by the fact that in so crowded a space the 
trampling of feet would soon have caused leakage and have made the 
pond useless. This internal pond is at Maiden Castle, near Dorchester, 
probably because there a supply of running water can be obtained outside 
the ring ; though even here dew-ponds are found outside, away from 
springs. 

"With regard to the paths used by cattle on their way to the watering, 
the writers distinguish between artificial roads such as are found near the 
camps, which they call "cattle-ways," and the paths formed naturally by 
the cattle themselves, which they call "cattle-tracks." At Chanctonbury 
and Cissbury, in Sussex, and at Maiden Castle, in Dorset, well-defined 
and properly-fortified cattle-ways are found leading to the dew-ponds 
connected with those camps ; while the district which seems to the writers 

2 5 

Vol. XXVII. 



366 



Notices of Publications. 



to illustrate the nature of cattle-tracks is that part of Salisbury Plain 
which lies near Stonehenge. A.t one point near Ogbury Camp they think 
that a dew-pond was dug right across the cattle-track, m order to prevent 
the cattle from going down into the valley of the Avon to drink, and thus 
incurring danger 'from beasts of prey. If this was so, however, it seems 
likely that the plan was a failure. As the writers never go off the chalk, 
the conditions of their work are not quite the same with those which are 
found on Cotswold. It is little likely, for instance, that the tracks naturally 
followed by cattle on their way to their watering-places could often be 
followed for any great distances in the latter district, which has been so 
fully under cultivation for so long a time ; but it is still quite possible that 
if dew-ponds were formed in connection with the Cotswold camps their 
position , and also the nature of the works formed to defend them, could 
still be made out. A cyclist on Cotswold would find the investigation of 
these matters a most interesting pursuit for leisure days during the 
summer, the outcome of which might prove to be a really valuable paper 
for our Transactions ; for it might be the means of putting on record the 
existence of a class of antiquities which beyond almost any others are 
liable to destruction. It should be added that this book, of some seventy 
pages, is illustrated by twenty-five well-executed pictures, which are most 
helpful in making the meaning of the writers clear. 



THE UPPER NORWOOD ATHEN^UM. 1904. 

This is the record of a year's doings of the Society whose name it bears, 
a Society which leads a happy existence of gatherings in London during 
the winter and of excursions in the summer. The four winter meetings 
were held in connection with Apsley House, the Public Record Office, 
St. John's, Clerkenwell, and the Halls of the Girdlers and Parish Clerks 
Companies : a sufficiently varied list. It is satisfactory to learn that a 
proper tribute was paid to the birthplace of Domesday Survey by the fact 
that the great record stood open at the page marked " Glowecestrescire." 
It is less satisfactory to find a statement by the gentleman who read the 
paper on the occasion that he did not know that Bristol ever possessed a 
castle. However, he was out for a holiday, and we must hope that he 
had only forgotten for a moment the greatest keep in England except that 
of the Tower of London. The ten summer excursions ranged from 
Winchester to Audley End, and from Aylesford to Kingston-on-Thames. 
They seem to have been found to be both profitable and enjoyable. The 
Society consists of seventy-six members, and it is worth 'noticing that the 
fourteen papers were the work of thirteen members, and no fewer than 



Notices of Publications. 



367 



five of the excursions were led by members who had not acted as leaders 
before. Evident pains are taken to divide the work of the Society, and, 
of course, with the work the interest in it : in this way it is that societies 
grow in numbers, value, and influence, The editor, Mr. T. Pitt, is to be 
congratulated on the form of his work ; the' f pictures especially are well 
chosen and well executed, that of Kit's Coty House deserving particular 
notice. As- he has been a member of our Society for more than twenty 
years, and has only recently undertaken his editorship, we must wish him 
all prosperity. 



INDEX. 



Abbatis, Description of, 136 
Abberbury Family, Arms of, 277 
Abbeville, Prior of, 48 
Abbeydore, 31, 47 

Church and Monastery, Architectural 

History of, by R. W. Paul, 

117 — 126 

Historical Notes and Description of, 
33—35 

MS. of, 172 

Monuments, 122 

Visit of the Society, 33 — 35 
Abel, John, 42 
Abyngton, Thomas, 266 
Aconbury, 122 
Acton Family, Arms of, 281 
Adlestrop, 45 

^Elfgar, Earl of Chester, 22, 31 
^Elfsige, Decurion, 140 
^Escwig, Abbot of Bath. 140 
/Escwine, 149 

yEthelbert, King, Murder of, 22; effigy 
of, 27 

^Ethelred, King of East Anglia, 26 
^Ethelthryth, daughter of Offa, 22 
Agilbert, Bishop, 152 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 22 
Alan Family, 33 

Alchfrid, Prince of Northumbria, 305 
Alcuin's De Sapientia, MS. of, 179, 

188, 189 
Aldfrid, 306 

Aldhelm, St., 150, 153, 154 
Aldred, Bishop of Worcester, Tomb of, 
293. 294 

Aldvvorth, Martha, Effigy of, 93 — 96 

Robert, Effigy of, 93—96 ; merchant 

mark of, 93, 94 
Aleyn, John, 266 
Aleyne, Richard, 266 
Alfred, King, 139 
Allen, Mr., architect, 347 
Alton Priors, Wansdyke at, 139, 141, 149 
Alured, of Marlborough, 31 
Amfray, Robert, 273 
Anna, King of the East Angles, 145 
Anselm's, St., Similitudes, MS. of, 180, 

187, 203 
Antonine Wall, 132 
Ap Howell, Thomas, 263 
Ap Rysse, Howell, 266 
Aquablanca, John d', Dean of Hereford, 

24 

Peter d', Bishop of Hereford, 24, 34, 
117 ; his monument, 26 ; his heart 
buried, 122 
Archer, Mrs., 92 
Arden, Forest of, 144 
-Ardern, Giles, Arms of, 275 
Arilda, St., 193, 198, 199, 207 ; hymn for, 

208, 209 
-Armorial bearings of — 
Abberbury, 277 
Acton, 281 
Ardern, 275 
Arthur, 72 



Armorial bearings of (continued) — 
Aston, 319 
Babington, 277 
Baynham, 8, 282 
Beauchamp, 275, 276 
Beckett, 283 
Bedford, 283 
Benson, 324 
Billington, 284 
Bitton, 90 
Blackleech, 319 
Botetourt, 285 
Bower, 314 
Bradstone, 284 
Brayne, 76 

Bristol Merchant Venturers, 93 

Bund, 283 

Burnell, 285 

Candecot, 90 

Canynges, 57 

Carpenter, 9, 282 

Cassy, 279 

Chedder, 90 

Cholmeley, 286 

Cholmley, 279 

Clarke, 90 

Clent, 316 

Cocks, 286 

Colston, 67 

Cookesey, 279 

Copley, 277 

Cornwall, 285 

Courtenay, 285 

Craddock, 282 

Croft, 281 

Cromeleyn, 278 

D'Albini, 278 

Dansey, 280, 282 

De la Mare, 90 

Dyneley, 283 

Eaton, 277 

Edward the Confessor, 282 
Eliot, 286 
Elton, 319 
Fettiplace, 280 
Frampton, 80 
Furneaulx, 90 
Gloucester City, 312 
Gloucester, See of, 282, 308 
Golafre, 279 
Goldsborough, 310 
Gourney, 90 
Grevill, 275 
Guise, 279 
Hampton, 90 
Haselwood, 277, 283 
Herbert, 76 
Heytesbury, 285 
Hill, 286 
Hodington, 278 
Hertford, 288 
Holland, 286 
Houson, 283 
Hungerford, 284 
Hussey, 285 
Jones, 318 



Index. 



Armorial bearings of (continued) 
Kitchin, 108 
Knovill, 279 
Lawrence, 285 
Lazencroft, 284 
Lisle, 323 
Litton, 278 
Longespee, 286 
Lovell, 284 
Lucie, 287 
Lupus, 279 
Marriott, 283 
Mede, 65 
Meschines, 278 
Middlemore, 277 
Moels, 285 
Moseley, 281 
Nevill, 286 
Newport, 277 
Newton, Cradock, 90 
Northumbria, 304, 306 
Parker, 304, 307 
Parr, 286 
Parsons, 276, 283 
Pates, 309 
Pennington, 90 
Percy, 287 . 
Peverell, 278 
Planches, 278 
Pole, 277, 286 
Powell, 320 
Pratt, 287 
Prideaux, 276 
Probyn, 283 
Ravenhill, 280 
Reade, 275 
Reed, 275 
Reynell, 276 
Rhodri Mawr, 90 
Richardson, 288 

Robert, Duke of Normandy, 290, 291 

Russell, 10, 278, 280 

Salisbury, 286 

Searchfield, 108 

Sherborne, 90 

Skeye, 281 

Snygge, no 

Somerie, 278 

Somers, 286 

Somerset, 76 

Spanish Merchants' Company, 86 

Spencer, 281 

Stayner, 288 

Strachan, 325 

Tatteshall, 276 

Taylor, 281 

Thurgryn, 279 

Tracy, 288 

Trubshaw, 279 

Umpton, 280 

Ward, 281 

Webb,' 277 

Willett, 287 

Williams, 315 

Willis, 283 

Willoughby, 275 

Withers, 279 

Woodville, 76 

Worcester, See of, 276 

Yarde, 286 

Zouche, 286 
Armour. See Effigies 
Arnold, Francis, 274 
Arsenius, Abbot, 190,191 
Arthur, Prince of Wales, at Ludlow, 37, 
39, 41 

Arthur Family, Arms of, 72 
Arundel Church, 156 



Ashdown, 148, 149 

Grant of Lands at, 146 
Ashley Wood,Wansdyke at, 137,138, 142, 
153 

Ashridge, 122 

Ashton, Long, Wansdyke at, 134 

Aside r Williarn, 298 

Aston, Walter, Lord, 320 
Family, Arms of, 319 

Atchley, E. G. Cuthbert F. ; On the 
Parish Records of the Church 
of All Saints, Bristol, 221—274 

Athelstan, Bishop of Hereford, 22 

Athelstan, King, 140, 141 

Audley, Bishop, 25, 27 

Aulus Plautius, 131, 138 

Avon, River, 133, 134 „ 

Defensive use of, 134, 146, 148, 149 

Avonmouth, Bronze rapier found at, 
(illus.), 328 

Aylesbury, 144 



Babington Family, Arms of, 277 
Baddeley, W. St. Clair; The Pains- 
wick or I fold Villa, 156 — 171 
Badgewoith Church, 25 
Ballingham Church, 36 
Bamborough, 147 
Bampton, Oxon., Battle at, 144 
Bannebury, John, 273 
Barbur, Jennett, 266 
Barker, Christopher, Garter King of 
Arms, 312 

John, Effigy of, 86, 115,116 
Barr's Court, 91 
Bassett, Ralph, Lord, 278 
Baston, Christian, 313 
Bath Abbey, 2, 140, 141, 306 

In Mercian times, 143 — 145, 148, 149 
Bathampton Down, Wansdyke at, 138 
Bathford, Wansdyke at, 133, 153 
Baynham, Elizabeth, 7 

Thomas, of Clowerwall, Arms of, 8^. 
282 

Bazeley, Canon and Margaret L. ;. 
Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral, 
289 — 326 

Beauchamp Family, 4 ; arms of, 275, 276. 
Beauleau Abbey, 34 

Becket, Archbishop, 49, 50, 342 ; relics of, 
230 

Beckett, Sir John, Arms of, 283 
Bedford, Rev. W. K. Riland, Arms of, 283. 
Bedford, Battle at, 144 
Bedminster, Rectory of, 230 
Bedminster Hundred, 53 
Bedwin, Wansdyke at, 133, 149 
Bellanford, Grant of land at, 2 
Bells, Church, Various uses of, 243,. 

245—247 
Belmont Priory MSS., 46 
Benet brass, Cirencester, 56 
Bennet, Bishop, 27 

William, Token of, 334 
Bennett, Jennett, 266 

William, 266 
Bensington, 144 

Benson, George, Dean of Hereford, 324 
John, Prebendary of Hereford, 324 
Martin, Bishop of Gloucester', 303 ; 
medallion to, 323, 324 ; arms of, 
> 324 
Beornwulf, 148 

Berew, Dean, Tomb and Effigy of, 27 
Berhtulf, King, Privileges granted to- 

Bredon Monastery by, 2 
Berhtwald, King, 150, 151 



37o 



Index, 



Berkeley, Lady Katherine, of Uley, Effigy 
of, 65 
Maurice, 53 

Robert II., Third Lord, Effigy of, 

52, 53 
Robert de, 50 
Roger de, 50 
Thomas, Lord, 53 
Sir Thomas, of Uley, Effigy of, 100 
Berkeley Castle, Murder of Edward II. 
at, 297, 298 
Minster, 42 
Bernard, St., MS. of his works, 174, 179,203 
Betun, Robert de, Bishop of Hereford, 

23, 47, 48 ; his effigy, 27 
Bewcastle Churchyard, Memorial Cross 
in, 305 

Billington, John, Arms of, 284 
Birinus, Bishop, 152 
Bishop's Cleeve, 3 

The Haynes, 325 
Bishop's Wyke, 3 
Bitton Family, Arms of, 90 
Blackleech, Abraham, Effigy of, 41 ,319 — 20 

Gertrude, 319, 320 

Mary, 320; effigy of, 321 

William, 319 

Family, Arms of, 319,320 
Blanket, Edward, Effigy of, 102—105 
Eohun, Humphrey de, Earl of Hereford, 
#7. 299 

Joan de, 30 ; tomb of, 27 
Bonnoke, Robert, 264 
Booth, Bishop, 25, 26 ; monument of, 26 
Bosbury, 22 
Botely Family, 4 
Botetourt Family, Arms of, 285 
Botiler, Reginald, Abbot of Gloucester, 

303 ' • 
Botoner, Sir Thomas, 260 
Boulers, Reginald, Bishop of Hereford, 

17,49 ^ 
Bourton-on-the-Water, Roman Roads at, 
145 

Bower, John and Anne, Effigies and Arms 

of, 313,314 

Box Brook, 138 

Brackley, L01 d, 37 

Eraden Forest, 138, 144, 145, 153 

Bradenstoke, 154 

Bradford-on-Avon, Battle. at, 148, 149 
Bradstone, John, Arms of, 284 
Braikenridge, Rev. G. W., 350 
Bramber Rape, Sussex, 156 
Braose, Giles de, Bishop of Hereford, 

24 ; his effigy, 27 
Brasses at Strensham, 8 
Brayne, Henry, 77, 78 ; arms of, 76 
Bredon, Thomas de, Abbot of Gloucester, 

179, 199 

Bredon Church, Architectural Notes on, 

3.4 • 
Encaustic Tiles, 4, 5 
Heraldiy in, 275 — 277 
Monuments, 3 — 5 
Rector of, 27 
Monastery of St. Peter, Historical 

Notes on, 2, 3 
Tythe Barn, 5 
Visit of the Society, 1- 6 
Brereton, Sir William, 38 
Bridgeman, Sir John, 37—39; effigy of, 
41 

Bridges, Sir John, 300 

Family of Coberley, 299, 300 
Bridgewater, John, Earl of, 37 
Bridgnorth, Prior of, 204 
Brinkburne, Austin Canons' Church, 34 



Bristol- 
All Saints' Church, 346 
Effigy in, 66—71 

Parish Records of, by E. G. C. F. 
Atchley, 221 — 274 
Archaeological Notes for 1903, by 

J. E. Pritchard, 327 — 339 
Broad Street, 237 

Bronze Age Objects Found, 328—330 
Carpenters, Fraternity of, 242 
Castle, 72 
Cathedral, 116, 345 

Benefaction to, 69 

Choir Screen, by R. H.Warren, 
127-30 

Charities of Edward Colston, 67 — 69 
Charity Trustees, 87 
Charter, 342 

Coins and tokens found, 333—335 
Colston Hall, Site of, 130 
Coopers' Hall, 352 
Corn Street, 256, 269 
Dutch House, 337 
Elton Mansion demolished, 339 
Friars Minor, 129 
Goldsmiths, 235 
Grammar School, 54 
Green Lattice, High Street, 232, 233, 
273 

Grey Friars, 256 
High Cross, 113 

Holy Trinity (Christ Church), 221 
Hotwells, Views of, 352, 353 
Iron Age Objects, 330, 331 
Kalendars, Fraternity of, 221—223, 

229, 231, 232, 234, 240, 256, 

2 57> 2 59 — 261, 269 
Lewin's Mead, 129, 229] 
Marsh, The, 271 
Marsh Street, 229 

M.P.'sfor,58,.7i,8i,87, 88,105, 113, 114 
Merchant Venturers, 96 

Arms and Crest of, 93, 94 
New Inn, 253 
Newgate, 69 
Red Maids' School, 88 
Roze, The, High Street, 230 
St. Augustine's Hospital, 68 
St. Augustine's Monastery, 52, 53, 

221, 234, 240, 256, 297 
St. Catherine's Hospital, Bedminster, 

52 

St. James' Church, Benefaction to, 69 

Effigies in, 71 — 78 
St. James' Priory, 72 
St. John Baptist Church, 12S, 129 

Effigies in, 79—85, 106 
St. John's Church, 343 
St. Lawrence Church, 229 
St. Mark's Chapel, Effigies in, 65,100 
St. Mark's Hospital, 5^ 
St. Mary Redcliff Church, 342—350 

Benefaction to, 69 

Churchyard Chapel, 230 

Effigies in, 51 — 66 
St. Michael's Church, Benefaction 
to, 69 

St. Nicholas Church, 224, 243, 254, 
26g, 349 

Effigy in, 85—88 
St. Paul's Church, 352 
St. Peter's Church, 343 

Effigies in, 88—98 
St. Peter's House, 96 
St. Philip's Church, Effigies in, 
98—102 

St. Stephen's Church 98, 234, 346 
Benefaction to, 69 

i 



Index. 



37i 



Bristol (continued) 

Effigies in, 79, 102 — 114 
St. Thomas the Martyr, Church of, 
by Rev. C. S. Taylor, 340— 

351 

Benefaction to, 69 
St. Thomas' Lane, Tile found, 343 

(illus.), 351 
St. Werburgh Parish, Charity, 323 
St. Werburgh's Church, 98 
Benefaction to, 69 
Effigy in, 86, 114 — 116 
Skate-pulle (Marsh Street), 231 
Small Street, 109, ti6, 339 
Temple Church, 40, 344, 346 
Benefaction to, 69 
Dimensions of, 341, 345 
Temple School, 68 
Three Kings Inn, 337 
Tolsey, The, 271 
Water Works Company, 339 
Welsh Back, Demolitions in, 338 
Whitefriars, 128 — 130 
Wynch Street (Wine Street), 229, 337 
Ye Ould Friendship Inn, Description 
of, 337, 338 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeo- 
logical Society, Report for 
1903-4, 19—21 
Evening Meetings, 340, 341 
Bromefeld, Richard, 274 
Bromfield Priory, Shropshire, 16, 46 
Bromsgrove Church, Effigy in, 82 
Bronze Age Objects found at Bristol, 
328—330 

Brown, Langton E. G., On some Glou- 
cestershire MSS. in Hereford 
Cathedral Library, 172 — 210 

Bucga, 2 

Buggilde Street, 145 
Buildwas Abbey, 118, 119 
Bullingham, John, Bishop, 309 
Bund, William, Arms of, 283 
Burford, Battle at. 144 
Burneli Family, Arms of, 285 
Burnham Church, 32 
Burton, John, 273 

William, Effigy of, 52, 53 
Butler, Bishop r at Bristol, 349 

Samuel, Birthplace of, 10; at Ludlow, 
38 

Thomas, Brass of, 60 



Cadiand, Thane, 30 
Caesarius, St., 188, 189 
Calais, St. James', 236 

Siege of, 272 
Callowhill, — , Murder attempted by, 88 
Cambridge, Circular Church, 40 
Cameleac, Bishop of Llandaff, 29 
Candecot Family, Arms of, 90 
Canning, Earl, 348 

George, 348 
Cantilupe, Thomas de, Bishop of Here- 
ford, 24, 34, 117; canonised, 25; 
monument of, 26 ; his heart 
buried, 122 

William de, Bishop of Worcester, 245 
Canynges, Joanna, 58; effigy of, 59 

John, 348 

Thomas, 348 

William, 348 ; effigies of, 56—58, 
60—63 ; arms of, 57 ; merchant 
mark of, 57 ; names of his 
ships, 61 

Family, Burial-place of, 348 



Capella, Richard de, Bishop of Hereford, 

his monument, 26 
Carbonel, Abbot, 17 

Carpenter, John, Bishop of Worcester, 

232, 235 ; arms of, 9, 282 
Cassey Family, 7, 10 
Cassy, Thomas, Arms of, 279, 280 
Castie Ashby Church, Effigy in, 51 
Castle Morton, Land at, 325 
Ceawlin, 133, 143, 144 
Cecil family, 121 

Cedwalla, King of the West Saxons, 150, 

Cenfrith, Earl of the Mercians, 150 
Ceolred, 149 
Ceolwen, 139, 141 

Chadwick's " Studies on Anglo-Saxon 
Institutions " reviewed, 361 — 364 
Chamberlayne, Mr., 128 
Charlemagne, 23 

Charles, Nicholas, Lancaster Herald, 
290 

Charlton, Bishop, Effigy of, 26 
Charlton, Grant of land at, 150, 151 
Chatterton, Thomas, 83, 349, 353 

Family, 349 
Chaucombe, Sir Robert de, 278 
Chauntrell, Jane, 284 
Chedder Family, Arms of, 90 
Cheiney, Richard, Bishop of Gloucester, 
309, 318 

Cheltenham Grammar School, Founder 

of, 309 
Chepstow Token, 334 
Cherleton, Lewis, Bishop of Hereford, 

his monument, 27 
Chester, Harry and Alice, Gifts to All 

Saints, Bristol, 237, 238, 248, 257, 

258, 260, 263 ; obits of, 269 
Chestyr, John, 266 
Chichester Token, 334 
Chippenham, r54 

Chisbury Camp, Wansdyke at, 133 — 138, 
142, 153 

Cholmeley, James, Arms of, 286 
Cholmley, Frances, 7 ; arms of, 279 
Christianity embraced by the West 

Saxons, 152 — 154 
Church goods and furniture of All Saints, 

Bristol, 240 — 270 
Churchwardens' fines, 225, 226 
Cirencester, Austin Canons, 185 

Church, Brass in, 56 

In Mercian times, 142 — 146, 149 
Clapton Church, Somerset, 72 
Clarke, Henry, of Wells, 91 

Famiiy, Arms of, 90, 91 
Claudius, John, 272 
Clearwell, 88 
Clent, James, 316, 317 

Margery, Effigy and arms of, 315— 317 
Clerk, Simon, Mayor of Bristol, 260 
Clifford, Margaret de, her heart buried, 
122 

Sir Roger de, Effigy of, 34, 1-22 

Family, 33, 121 
Cliva, Geoffrey de, Effigy of, 27 
Cloptone, Adam de, 134 
Clugny Monastery, 47, 187 
Cocks Family, Arms cf, 286, 287 
Coenrad, 306 

Coftun, Grant of Land at, 2 

Cogan, Thomas, Gift to All Saints, 

Bristol, 249 
Coins and Tokens found at Bristol, 

333—335 
Coke, Bishop, Monument of, 27 
Colas, Sir Harry, 232 



372 



Index. 



Collinson, John, his Account of Wans- 

dyke, 134 
Colman, 305 

Colney, Walter, Brass of, 56 

Colston, Edward, Effigy of, 67 — 70, 260, 

261 ; arms of, 67 ; charities and 

benefactions of, 67—70 
Sarah, 67 
Comestor, Peter, 182, 189, 200 
Conipton, William, 12 
Conducts, Meaning of, 227 
Congersbury, Somerset, 68 
Cookesey Family, 7, 10; arms of, 279, 

280 

Copley, Thomas, Arms of, 277 

Family, 4 
Coren, Hugh, Dean of Herefoid, 234 
Cornwall, Richard, Earl of, his effigy, 
291 

Family, Arms of, 285 
Corsham, 154 
Corston Stream, 151 
Costume. See Effigies 
Cottingham, L. N., Architect, 26—28 
Courtenay Family, Arms of, 285 
Coutance, Geoffrey, Bishop of, 50 
Cowley, Land at, 50 
Cox, Thomas, 276 
Crabb, William, 102 
(Jraddock Family, Arms of, 282 
Crewkerne Token, 334 
Cricklade, M.P. for, 114 
Croft Family, Arms of, 281 
Crofton, Rev. M. C, 113 
Cromeleyn, Sir Richard, Arms of, 278, 
280 

Cromwell, Thomas, 128 
Crusades, The, Source of Funds, 221 
Cuichelm, King, 144, 145 
Curzon, Lord, on Ancient Buildings, 327, 
336 

Cutha, 144 
Cuthbert, 2 

Cuthred, King of the West Saxons, 151, 
155 

Cuthred, Kinsman of Kenwalk, 146, 148 
Cuthwulf, 144 

Cutsdean, Grant of Land at, 2 
Cutt, Nicholas, 88 

Cynegils, King of the West Saxons, 144, 
152 

Cynell, Kateryne, 267 
Cynric, 143 



D'Albini, Roger, Arms of, 278 
Daniel, Alderman, 87 
Dansey, Anne, Monument of, 7, 8 
W., 7 

Family, Arms of, 280, 282 
Davidson, William, 291 
Dean Forest Deanery, 15, 16, 49 
Delabere, Johanna, 7 
De la Mare Family, Arms of, 90 
De la Warr, Lady Clarice, 122 

Sir Roger, 6, 31, 32 
Delfere, Mercian Duke, 13 
Denne, Thomas, 266, 267 
Denton, Sir Alex., Effigy of, 27 
Didbrook Church, Heraldry in, 287 

288 

Dinan, Joyce de, 37, 40 
Dorchester, 152 

Dover, Bishop Suffragan of, 128 

Circular Church, 40 
Draper, Martin, 229, 260 
Dubritius, St., Birthplace of, 36 



Dambleton Church, Heraldry in, 285 — 

287 

Dundry Hill, Wansdyke at, 133, 134 
Dunstan, St., 10 
Dyneley, Francis, Arms of, 2S3 
Dyrham, Battle of, 143 



Eadburh, 305 

Eadgifu, Abbess of Leominster, 42 

Eadmei, 180, 187 

Eadric, Abbot of Gloucester, 11 

Eadward, King, 139 

Eadwig, King, 139 

Eanmund, Abbot of Bredon, 2 

Eanulf, Grandfather of King Ofla, 2 

Eaton family, 4 ; arms of, 277 

Ebley, Lease of lands at, 50 

Ecgfrith, King, 305 

Edgar, King, 13, 139, 140 

Edith, Lady, 42 

Edmund, St., 10 

Edward the Confessor, Grant by, 6 ; 

arms of, 282 
Edward I., 221 

Edward II., Effigy of, 293, 295—298; his 
murder and removal to Glouces- 
ter, 297, 298 

Edward III. at Ludlow, 37 

Edward IV., 37 

Edward VI., 130, 272 

Edward, Sheriff, 154 

Edwin, King of the Northumbrians, 145 

Effigies in Gloucester Cathedral, by 
Canon and M. L. Bazeley, 
289 - 326 

of Bristol, by I. M. Roper, 51 — 116 
Egbert, King of the Mercians, 22, 139, 
141. 148 

Egeferth, King of the Mercians, 151 
Egerton, Lady Alice, 38 

Thomas, 38, 39 
Eliot Family, Arms of, 286 
Elizabeth, Queen, 3, 37, 40, 54, 78, 130 ; 

at Bristol. 272 
Ellendune, Battle' of, 141, 148 
Elmbrugger Family, 5 
Elmeleye, Adam de, 198, 199 
Elton,' Abraham and Mary, 339 

Ambrose, Arms of, 319, 320 
Elyot, Abbot, 130 

Thomas, 239 
Epney, Lands at, 323 
Ermine Street, Course of, 142 
Esseby, Sir David de, Effigy of, 51 
Ethelred, King of the Mercians, 150, 151, 

305 ; grant of lands by, 11 
Ethelwald, King of the South Saxons, 

148 

Ethelwerd, 146, 148 
Eton Foy Church, 32 
Eumer, Murders by, 145 
Evenlode, Grant of land at, 2 
Every, Anne, 7 

Ewias, Harold, Lord of, Gifts to St. 

Peter's, Gloucester, 16, 31, 32, 47 
Robert, Lord of, 31, 33, 34, 47, 117, 
121 ; his effigy, 122 
Ewias Harold, 122 

Castle, Historical Notes on, 31, 32 
Church of St. Michael, 32, 33 
Priory, 31. 32, 46 
Excestre, Philip, 254, 273 
Excommunication of Lay Opponents of 

the Church, Form of, 209, 210 
Exeter, Synod of, 246 
Eynsham, 144 



Index. 



373. 



Fairforde, Sir Henry de, 269 

Fastolfe, Sir John, 334 

Faversham, Duties of the Clerks and 

Sexton, 224, 225 
Fell, Samuel, 324 
Fencote, 42 
Fernley, 22 
Ferrers Family, 5 
Fethanleah, Battle of, 144 
Fettiplace, William, Arms of, 280 
Ffolliot, Gilbert, Abbot of Gloucester, 17, 

47, 172, 187 ; Bishop of Hereford, 

48 ; Bishop of London, 49 
Field, Bishop, Bust of, 26 
FitzHamon, Robert, 74, 117 
Fitzharding, Robert, 53 
FitzHarold, John, 31 

Robert, 31, 33, 34, 47 
Fitzjohn, Payn, 37 
FitzNorman, William, 16, 30 
FitzOsbern, William, Eari of Hereford, 

3i- 49 

FitzRichard, Osberne, 37 
Flaxley Abbey, 48 

Manuscript of, 172 — 174, 204 
Flaxman, John, Monument by, 326 
Flook, John, 274 
Fokington, Hugh de, 6 
Foldbriht, Abbot of Pershore, 11 
Foliot, Henry, Abbot of Gloucester, 293, 
294 

Hugh, Bishop of Hereford, his 

effigy, 27 
Fordwich Church, Effigy in, 76 
Forges, John, cook, 260 
Forthere, soldier, 145 
Fosse Road, 140, 144, 145 
Fox, Sir Edward, 77, 78 
Fowey Church, Effigy in, 87 
Frampton, Walter, 83, 239; effigy of, 79 

— 81, 106; arms of, 80 
Freeman, E. A., 11, 12 
Frere's " English Church in the Reigns 

of Elizabeth and James I.," 

reviewed, 211 — 214 
Frocester, Walter, Abbot of Gloucester, 

297 

Fry, Peter, 74 

Furneaulx Family, Arms of, 90 
Furze Knoll, Wansdyke at, 137 
Fylour, Thomas and Agnes, 230, 233, 260, 
270 ; obit of, 269 



Gamage, Abbot, 17 
Garrard, Thomas, 350 
Garsdon, 151 
Gaunt, Robert de, 53 

Family, 53 
General Mind, Costs of, 226, 227 
Genville, Peter de, 37 
George, W. E., 350 
Gerrard, Ratclyf, 77 
Gillard, Sir John, 257, 261 
Gleson, Henry, 102 
Gloucester, Robert, Earl of, 221 
Gloucester, 143 

Archdeaconry of, 15 

Arms of, 312 

building stone from Painswick, 156 
Cathedral and Abbey, n, 12, 41 

Abbots, 17 

Aqueduct, 24 

Arms of, 282, 308 

Charters, 32 

Connection with Hereford Dio- 
cese, 16, 17, 31, 32 



Gloucester Cathedral and Abbey (cont.) 

The Early Connection between 
the Churches of Gloucester 
and Hereford, by Dean 
Leigh, 45 — 50 
Effigies in, by Canon and M. L. 
Bazeley, 289 — 326 
f . Foundation stone, 23 
Lady Chapel, 24 
Manuscripts, 172 — 174, 176—180, 

185, 193 
Monuments, 41, 115 
Painting in, 10 
Diocese, Chancellor of, 320 
Franciscans, Manuscript 0^172—174, 
177 

Honour of, 72 

M.P.'s for, 318, 322 

Roman colony, 168, 171 

St. Mary de Crypt Church, 318 

St. Nicholas Parish, Charity, 323 

Gnohussale, Stephen de, 272 

Godwin, Bishop, Tomb of, 27 
Earl, 42 

Golafie, Sir John, Arms of, 279, 280 

Golde, Jennett, 267 
Thomas, 266 

Goldsborough, Godfrey, Bishop of Glou- 
cester, Effigy and arms of, 310, 
3". 3i7 

Goodman, Godfrey, Bishop of Glou- 
cester, 318 
Goudulph, William, 134 
Gourney, Hugh de, 53 

Robert de, 53 

Family, Arms of, go 
Grandisson, John, Bishop of Exeter, 247 

Peter, Baron de, his tomb, 27 
Great Western Railway, 143 
Gregory, St., on Job and Ezekiel, MSS. 
of, in Hereford Cathedral, 174, 
176, 197, 198, 205 
Grenville, Richard de, Effigy of, 72 — 74 
Grevill, Sir Fulke, Arms of, 275 
Griffethe, John, 259 

Griffiths' "Bristol Hotwells," Views in, 

352, 353 
Griffyth, Phelipp, 128 
Gryff'yd, King of South Wales, 22, 31 
Gryndon, Alice, 7 

Guilden Morden, Church of St. Mary, 
262 

Guise, Sir John, Arms of, 279 
Gurdeler, Roger the, Gift to All Saints, 

Bristol, 234, 235. 242, 251, 254 
Guthlac, St., 46 

Gyllarde, Sir John, Gifts to All Saints, 
Bristol, 232 



Haddon, Christina, 232, 233, 251, 257 

John, 232, 233, 2.5r, 257, 261 

Richard, Gifts to All Saints, Bristol, 
232, 257 
Hadrian's Wall, 132 
Hague, Daniel, 352 
Hakon, Son of Swegen, 42 
Haldingham, Richard of, 28 
Haleway, Simon, 239 
Halfpenny, John, 352 

William, 352, 353 
Halleway, Thomas, 273 ; chauntry of, 233, 
236, 237, 248, 251, 254, 262, 269 

Thomas and Joan, Gifts to All Saints, 
Bristol, 237, 251, 260, 263 
Halye, Alice, Will of, 256, 272 
Hampton Family, Arms of, 90 
Hanger, Gabriel, of Dryffield, 324 



374 



Index. 



Hanley, Richard, Abbot of Gloucester, 187 

Hantefford, Richard, 273 

Hardewareman, Giles, 266 

Hardinge, Robert, 221 

Hardware, Katherine, 266 

Hardwick, Maurice, 223, 224, 229, 273 ;- 

gifts to All Saints, Bristol, 233, 

247, 248, 251 
Hareclive Hundred, 53 
Harper, Dr., 255 

Harrington, George, Effigy of, 97 
Hart, Abbot Edmund, Monument of, 12 
Harte, Thomas, Will of, 129 
Haseley, Great, Church, Brass in, 60 
Haselwood Family, Arms of, 277, 283, 284 
Haslam, Percival, 283 
Hastlen, William, 274 
Hatch, John, Token of, 334 
Hatt House, 153 
Hawkins, Aphia, Effigy of, 76 
Hawkys, John, 233 
Haxby, Sir Thomas, 234 
Hayles Abbey, Effigy found at, 291 
Heaburg, 2 
Heathored, Bishop, 2 
Helias of Hereford, Sacrist of Gloucester, 
. 24, 303 '•''•* • 

Hempsted, Rectory of, 35 
Henbury, 3 

Henry I., Charter to Reading Abbey, 43 

Henry III., 118 

Henry IV., Badge of, 299 

Henry VII. at Ludlow, 37 ; his death, 272 

Henry VIII. at Thornbury, 128, 129 

Henry of Huntingdon, 133 

Henry of Scotland, Prince, 37 

Hentland Church, 36 

Heraldry at Bredon, Strensham, Per- 

shore, Dumbleton and Didbrook, 

by F. Were, 275—288 
See also Armorial Bearings 
Herbert Family, Arms of, 76 
Hereford, Bishops of, 17, 22 — 27, 34, 43, 

46 — 4Q, 241 
Castle, 16, 17, 18 

Cathedral, Architectural Notes on^ 
23 — 26 

The Early Connection between 
the Churches of Gloucester 
and Hereford, by Dean 
Leigh, 45 — 50 

Historical Notes .on, 22 — 25 

Library, 22, 28, 45, 49 

Gloucestershire MSS. in, by 
L. E. G. Brown, 172—210 

Monuments, 26, 27, 30 
Diocese, Forest Deanery withdrawn, 
49 

Its Connection with Gloucester 
Abbey, 16, 17 

Earls of, 16, 22, 31, 36, 47 

Franciscans, MSS. of, 172, 173 

Historical Notes on, 17, 18 

Leland's Notes on, 17 

Proceedings of the Society at, 15 — 44 

St. Guthlac's Priory, 16, 17, 28, 46, 48 
Manuscripts, 172—174, 177, 195 

St. Peter's Priory, 16, 17 
Herlowe, John, Prior, 234, 253 
Hervy, Humphrey, Obit of, 269 
Heytesbury, Sir John, Arms of, 285 
Highridge Common, Wansdyke at, 134 
Hill, John, carpenter, 259 

Family, Arms of, 286 
Hoare, Sir Richard, 135 
Hodges, Thomas, 113 
Hodington, Agnes, 7 

Family, Arms of, 278 — 280 



Holcombe, 156, 157, 169 

Holford, Sir Richard, Arms of, 288 

Holland Family, Arms of, 286, 287 

Horn, — , of Bristol, 270 

Horn-book found at Bristol (illns.), 332 

Horton, Abbot, 294 

Horton Church, Effigy in, 82 

Hosteler, Davy, 266 

Houson, Joseph, Arms of, 283 

Howe, William, 274 

Family, Crest of, 282 
Howell, Amy, 270 

Hubbard's " Neolithic Dew-ponds and 

Cattle-ways " reviewed, 364 — 366 
Hubberdyn, William, at Bristol, 349 
Humberht, Prince of the Tonsets, 2 
Hungerford, Dorothy, Arms of, 284 
Hussey Family, Arms of, 285 
Hwastred, 305 
Hwiccas, The, 305, 306 
Hyman, Humphrey, 274 



Ifold Roman Villa, by W. St. Clair 

Baddeley, 156— 171 
Igny, Geofrey, Abbot of, 188 
Ina, King of the West Saxons, 149, 150, 

153. 154 
Inkpen, Wansdyke near, 135 
Ipswich, St. Mary Tower Church, Brass 

in, 56 
Irchingfield, 28, 29 

Iron Age Objects, found at Bristol, 330, 

331 

Ironside, Gilbert, Bishop of Hereford, 

his monument, 27 
Isabella, Queen, 297 
Isgar, Sir Walter, 231, 240, 273 



James I. proclaimed at Bristol, 113 
Jenkyns, John, Gifts to All Saints, Bristol, 
239 

Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, 23 
John XXII., Pope, 25 
Johnston's "Place-names of Scotland" 

reviewed, 217, 218 
Jones, Joan, 318 

John, Alderman of Gloucester, his 

effigy and arms, 317, 318 
Mary, 7 
Thomas, 280 
Justinian, Emperor, 23 



Katherine, Queen, Badge of, 309 
Keinelme, Bishop, 17 
Kemble, Grant of land at, 150 
Kempsey, The Nash, 14 
Kempsford, Battle at, 145 
Kendal, Westmoreland, 108, 109 
Kenelm, St., 207 
Kennett, East, 146, 149 
Kentchurch Church, 32 

Lands at, 47 
Kenwalk, King, 145 — 149, 152, 154 
Kerslake, Mr., 350 
Kict, Hugh, 260 
Kilpeck, Henry de, 30 , 

Hugh de, 30 

John de, 30 
Kilpeck Castle, Historical notes on, 30 

Church of St. David, Description of, 
28-30 

Priory, 16, 30, 46 

Visit of the Society, 28 — 30 



Index. 



375 



Kineton, Martyrdom of St. Arilda at, 193 
Kinewulf, King of the West Saxons, 151 
Kingswood Monastery, 297 
Kitchin, Robert, Effigy of, 107—109 ; arms 

of, 108 ; merchant mark of, 108 
Knap, Reginald, 273 

Thomas, 273 
Knight Wyke, 3 
Knovill, Sir John, Arms of, 279 
Knyght, John, 274 
Kyft, John, 229, 261 

Kyneburh, Abbess of Gloucester, 11, 305, 
306 

Kyneburh, Daughter of Penda, 305 
Kyte, Agnes, 239 
Edward, 239 



Lacy, Hugh de, 16, 17, 37 

Margaret de, 37 

Roger de, 37 

Walter de, 16, 17 

Family, 37 
Langley, Robert, 70 

Langton, Stephen, MS. of his Works, 

174, 198 — 200 
Latimer, Hugh, at Bristol, 349 
Laud, Archbishop, 33 
Lavyngton, John, Effigy of, 54, 55 
Lawrence, Francis, Arms of, 285 
" Lay-Folk's Mass-Book," 246 
Laycock, 153, 154 
Lazencroft Family, Arms of, 284 
Leach, Lands in, 50 

Le Breton, John, Bp. of Hereford, 24, 34 

Le Dene, Lands of, 16 

Leeke, Sarah, 43 

Leicester, Earl of, 109 

Leigh, Rev. J.W., Dean of Hereford, 26 ; 
Presidential Address, 21, 22; 
Paper on the early connection 
between the Churches of Glou- 
cester and Hereford, 45 — 50 

Lemsster, John, cook, 266 

Lench, William de, 240, 273 

Leominster Abbey, Historical Notes on, 
42 

Butter Cross, 42 

Church, Description of, 43 
Windows, 17, 43 

Clicking Stool, 43 

Priory, 43, 346 

Visit of the Society, 42, 43 
Leutherius, Bishop, 150 
Leynell, John and Katherin, Gifts to 
Ail Saints, Bristol, 238, 245, 249, 
251,267 
Lichfield, Bishop of, 241, 245 
Ligon, Margaret, 7 
Lilla, Thane, 145 
Lincoln, Bishop of, 47 
Lindsell, Bishop, Monument of, 27 
LTsle,Sir Gerald de, Effigy of, 52 
Lisle, William, Bust of, 323 ; arms of, 323 
Littledean, 22 
Litton, Anne, 7 

Sir Rowland, Arms of, 278 
Llanfranc, Archbishop, 50 
Llanthony Priory, 49, 300, 308 

Priors of, 47, 49 

Tithes of, 34 
Lodelow, Robert, 239 
London, Benefactionsof Edward Colston, 
69 

London Bridge Chapel, 342 
Ram's Head Inn, 334 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, 10 
St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, 225 



Longespee, Stephen, Arms of, 286, 287 
Lord, John, 270 ; gift to All Saints, 

Bristol, 253 
Lorengo, Bishop, 17 

Losinga, Robert of, 16, 22, 23; his tomb, 

27. 

Lovell, Thomas, Arms of, 284 
Lucie Family, Arms of, 287 
Ludefcote, 36 

Ludlow Castle, Chapel, 40 

Historical Notes and Description 
of, 37—40 
Church, 38 

Description of, 40—42 
Visit of the Society, 36 — 42 
Lulham Church, 36 
Lupus Family, Arms of, 279 
Liittich, John, Bishop of, 246 
Lydd Church, 250 
Lyncombe, Wansdyke at, 140, 141 



Machen, Thomas and Christian, Effigies 

of, 115, 311— 313 
Madley Church, Description of, 35, 36 

Visit of the Society, 35, 36 
Maes Knoll, Wansdyke at, 133 — 135, 138, 

142 /V 
Maledon, Robert of, Bishop of Hereford, 

49 

Malmesbury Abbey, 297 
Early charters, 150 — 152 

Malvern Chase, 308 

Malvern, Great, Priory, 308 

Manchester, 70 

Mannig, William, 229 

Manuscripts, Gloucestershire, in Here- 
ford Cathedral Library, by 
L. E. G. Brown, 172 — 210 

Mapenore, Hugh de, Bishop of Here- 
ford, 49 ; his tomb, 26 

Mapes, Walter, 42 

Maplestead, Circular church, 40 

March, Earls of, 37 

Marches, Court of the, 38 

Margam Abbey, 34, 117, 124 

Marriott, Lieut.-Gen. Thomas, Arms of, 
283 

Marshall, Sir Thos., 222, 273 ; monu- 
ment of, 231 ; gifts to All Saints, 
Bristol, 231, 232, 249, 255, 260 

Martin, Benjamin, 32^ 

Martinsell Hill Camp, 137, 140 

Matilda, Empress, 47 

Matson, 27 

Spring at, 24 

Mayo, Bishop, Tomb of, 27 

Meade Family, Arms of, 276 

Mede, Sir Thomas, Effigy of, 64—66 
arms of, 65 

Melford, Long, Church of the Holy 
Trinity, 235, 264 

Melksham, 153, 154 

Melun, Robert de, Bishop of Hereford, his 

effigy, 27 
Meon Valley, 148 
Mercian occupation, 132 — 155 
Merewald, Son of Penda, 42 
Merrett, Henry, Effigy of, 101, 102 
Meschines, Hugh de, Arms of, 278 
Middlemore, William, Arms of, 277 . 
Mildenhall, Ermine Street at, 142 
Milfrid, 17, 22 

Millerd's Plan of Bristol, 342, 343 

Milo, Earl of Hereford, 47; his death, 48 

Milton, William, 353 

Milton's " Comus," played at Ludlow, 37, 
39 



376 



Index. 



Moels Family, Arms of, 285 
Monington Family, 30 
Monkton Farley, 135, 154 
Mony, Marjorie, 266, 270 
Moore, Thomas, 96 
Morgan, Giles, of Newport, 77 

Richard, Notary, 256 

Walter, Token of, 334 
Morgan's Hill, Wansdyke at, 135, 137, 138, 
142 

Morley, James, of Bombay, 326 

Sarah, Monument to, 326 
Mortimer, Hugh de, 37 

Roger de, Earl of March, 37, 297 

Family, Earls of March, 4, 5 
Mortlake, 67, 71 

Colston's Charity, 69 
Morton, Robert, Earl of, 50 
Moseley, Walter Michael, Arms of, 281 
Moyses, Abbot, 190 
Muncius, 193 
Myllan, John, 266 
Mynde, J., engraver, 352 



Nash, Richard, 280 

Nazianzen, Gregory, 189, 193 

Neath Abbey, Seal of, 73 

Neckham, Alexander, MS. of his works, 

180, 185, 186, 189 
Nelare, John, 128 
Nerva, 168 

Nesterton, Abbot, 190 
Neston Park, 153, 154 
Netherton, Richard, 205 
Nevill, Richard, Arms of, 286 
Newbury, Walter, Abbot of Bristol, 256 

William, Obit of, 269 
Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, 303 
Newe, Edmund, 239 
Newington, Richard de, 201 
Newington Bagpath, 201 
Newland Church, Monument in, 12 
Newnton, Long, Grant of Land at, 150, 

Newnton, North, Land at, 140, 141 
Newport. George, Arms of, 277 
Newton, Abbot, Inscription to, 12 

Antholin, Effigy of, 89 — 92 

Cradock, Arms of, 90 

Sir Henry, of Barr's Court, 91 

John, of Harptree, 91 

Sir Michael, 92 

Family, of Barr's Court, 91 
Nicholas IV., Pope, 221 
Nores, Thomas, 266 
Norfolk, Duke of, 156 
Northampton, Earl of, 37 
Northampton, Circular church, 40 
Northleach Church, 309 
Northumbria, Arms of, 304, 306 
Norton, Thomas, 240 
Norton, Grant of Land at, 2 
Norwood, Upper, Athenaeum, 366, 367 
Note, or nut, Meaning of, 239 
Notgrove Churchyard, Effigy in, 309 



Oare, near Hewish, 140 

Oddington, L^nds in, 50 

Oddo, son of Delfere, 13 

Offa, King, 22, 151 ; grants of land by, 2 

Offa's Dyke, 15, 132 

Ogmore Priory, 46 

Olwfwolthu, 305 

Orleton, Adam de, Bp. of Hereford, 25 
Ormund, Butlers, Earls of, 30 
Osbern, Monk ot Gloucester, 172 



Oshere, Viceroy of the Hwiccas, 305, 306- 
Osred, 306 

Osric, Founder of St. Peter's, Glouces- 
ter, 11, 12 ; his effigy, 303—306 
Osulf, Bishop, 139 
Oswald, St., 10 

Oswald, Founder of Pershore Abbey, 11, 

12; Abbot of Pershore, 305, 306 
Oswy, King, 305 
Ottery St. Mary College, 247 
Overton by East Kennet, 139, 141 



Painswick, Roman Villa at Ifold„i56— 171 

Stone Quarries, 156, 171 
Palmers' Guild, 41 
Pambo, Abbot, 191 
Papenham, Julian, 235 
Paris, William, Bishop of, 245 
Paris University, 185, 199 
Parish Clerks, Duties of, 224, 225 
Parish Records of All Saints, Bristol, by 

E. G. C. F. Atchley, 221—274 
Parker, William, Abbot of Gloucester, 

294, 306 ; his arms, 304, 307 ; his 

effigy, 307— 309 , 
Parkhouse, Sir Richard, 273; gifts to. 

All Saints, Bristol, 232, 249 
Parr, Jane, Arms of, 286, 287 
Mary, Lady, Effigy of, 82 
Parsons Family, Arms of, 276, 283 
Pates, Richard, Effigy and Arms of, 309 
Paul, Roland W. ; The Church and' 

Monastery of Abbey Dore, 117 — 

126 

Payne, Isabel, 266 

Peckham, Dorothea, Effigy of, 84 

Friar John, 245 
Pembridge, Sir Richard, Effigy of, 26 
Penda, King of the Mercians, 145, 147, 148,. 

Penn, Sir Wm., baptised at Bristol, 349 
Pennaforte, Raymond of, C05 
Pennington Family, Arms of, 90 
Percy, Sir Charles, Arms of, 287 
Pernaunt, Joan, Obit of, 269, 270 

Thomas, 225,227, 251 . 
Pers, John, 260; gift to All Saints, 

Bristol, 249 
Pershore Abbey, 306 

Charter, 6 

Heraldry in, 282—285 
Historical Notes and Description, 

of, 11— 14 
Monuments, 11 — 13 
Visit of the Society, 11— 14 
Peverell Family, Arms of, 278 
Pipes, Jenny, 43 

Planches, Agnes, 7 ; arms of. 278, 280 

Plate of All Saints, Bristol, 242, 251 

Plonknett Family, 33, 121 

Pole Family, Arms of, 277 

Pole-Carew, Reginald, Arms of, 286 

Popham, Edward, 325 

Portague, Value of, 129 

Portbury Hundred, 53 

Portishead, Wansdyke at, 134 

Portsmouth Parish Church, 342 

Posentesbyrg, 148 

Postlebury, near Frome, 148 

Powell, John, Effigy of, 321, 322; arms. 

of, 322 
Powell, Rev. W. F., 173 
Powis Family, 38 
Pratt, John, Arms of, 287, 288 
Prideaux, John, Bishop of Worcester,. 

Monument of, 4 
Family. Arms of, 276, 277 

i 



Index. 



377 



Prinknash Park, 37, 41 

Pritchard, John E. ; Bristol Archaao- 

logical Notes for 1903, 327 — 339 
Probyn, Rev. Wm., Arms of, 283 
Purton, Land at, 151 
Pye, Samuel, 353 

William, 30 

Family, of Kilpeck, 30 
Pynner, John, 266 



Cjuarre, Bernard, 17 



Ralph the Cook, 36 

Rashleigh Monument, Fowey, 87 

Ravenhill Family, Arms of, 280 

Ravenna, Church of St. Vitale, 23 

Rayenes Cross. Wansdyke at, 134 

Read, Frances, 7, 8 

Reade Family, Arms of, 275 

Reading Abbey, Possessions of Leomin- 
ster granted to, 43 

Reed, Giles, Monument of, 3 ; arms of, 
2 75 

Report ol the Society for 1903 — 4, 19 — 21 
Reynell, Sir Thomas, Arms of, 276 
Reynelm, Bishop, Effigy of, 27 
Rhodri Mawr, Arms of, 90 
Ricart, Robt., Town Clerk of Bristol, 223 
Richard Cceur de Lion, Effigy of, 73 
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, 37 
Richardson, James, of Newent, 326 

Family, Arms of, 288 
Rickitts, John, 323 
Ridda, Thegn, 2 

Ridgeway, The, 137, 146, 149, 150 
Riknild Street, 145 
Ripon, 305 

Rivers, Gen. Pitt, his excavations of 

Wansdyke, 131, 135, 138, 153 
Roberdes, Jenet, 266 
Robert, Duke of Normandy, Effigy of, 

289 — 291 ; arms of, 290, 291 
Robert, Earl of Gloucester, Inscription 

to, 72—74 
Robins Family, 314 
Rodberd, Sir William, 232, 273 
Rodborne Brook, 151 
Roman Villa at Ifold, by W. St. Clair 

Baddeley, 156 — 171 
Roman Wall, The, 132, 133, 147 
Roodlofts, Uses of, 264 
Roper, I. M. ; Effigies of Bristol, 51— 116 
Rouen Cathedral, Effigy in, 73 
Rowe, William, brewer 237 
Rowley Family, 83 
Russell, Francis, Monument of, 6 
James, 6, 7 
Sir James, 10 

Sir John, Gift to Strensham Church, 
9 

Family, of Strensham, 6, 10 
Arms of, 10, 278 — 282 
Monuments and Brasses of, 6—9 
Pedigree of, 7 
Rysbrach, Michael, Effigy by, 67 



St. Anne's Hill, Wansdyke at, 137 
St. David's, Bishop of, 33 
St. Paul's Cathedral, 320 
St. Paul's Churchyard, Dance of Death, 
236 

St. Victor, Hugh and Richard of, 181, 182, 

185, 189, 203 
Salisbury Family, Arms of, 286 



Salisbury Cathedral, 13, 25, 27 
Prebend of, 230 
St. Thomas's Church, 261 
Saltford, 134 

Sampson, Bishop of Worcester, 295 
Sandys, Edwin, Bp. of Worcester, 3 
Sarum, Old, Battle at, 143 
Savernake Forest, Wansdyke at, 137, 138, 

140, 142 
Sayce, R. B., 113 

Scoche, Sir William, 229, 235, 273 
Scott, Sir Gilbert, 12, 26, 27 
Scudamore, John, 117 

John, Viscount, 33 — 35, 117, 118, 120, 

123, 126 
Sea Mills, Coin found at, 335 
Seabrook, Thomas, Abbot of Gloucester, 

Effigy of, 301—303 
Searchfield Family, Arms of, 108, 109 
Selk, John and Isabel, 231 

Sir William, 272 ; gifts to All Saints, 

Bristol, 230, 231, 240 
Selwood Forest, 148, 149 
Serlo, Abbot of Gloucester, 16, 23, 32, 46, 

49 ; supposed effigy of, 291 — 295 
Service Book, Anglo-Saxon, Specimen 

of, 207, 208 
Severus, Emperor, 132 
Shaw Farm, Wansdyke at, 137 
Sheen Almshouse, 69 
Sheldon, Elizabeth, 7- 
Shepherd's Shore, Wansdyke at, 137 
Sherborne Family, Arms of, 90 
Shipward, John, 229 
Sidney, Sir Henry, 37, 39, 40 
Silchester, 135 

Silures, The, Extent of their Territory, 15 
Sisci, Abbot, 191 
Sitsylt Family, 121 
Skey, Isabel, 266 
Skeye, Samuel, Arms of, 281 
Smith, Miles, Bishop of Gloucester, 315, 
317 

Smufield, Richard, Bishop of Hereford, 
49 

Snell, John, 322 

Snellard, Henry, 229 

Snowe, John, Abbot of Bristol, 256, 257 

Snygge, Anne, in, 112 

Sir George, Effigy of, 109— 114 ; arms 
of , 1 1 o 

" Social England," reviewed, 218, 219 ' 
Somerford, Grant of Land at, 150 — 152 
Somerie, Margaret, Arms of, 278 
Somers, Lord, Arms of, 286 
Somerset, Sir Charles and Lady Eme, 

Effigies of, 76—78 ; arms of, 76 
Somerton, Battle at, 144 
Spanish Merchants' Company, Arms of, 

86,87 

Spencer, Elizabeth, 7, 8 

Sir William, Arms of, 281 
Spicer, Dame Maud, 237 ; gifts to All 
Saints, Bristol, 239,253,254,262, 
265, 267 ; obit of, 269, 270 

Thomas, obit of, 269, 270 
Spry, Rev. Mr., 347 
Stanbury, Bishop, 25, 26, 27 
Standish, Lands in, 50 
Stanleghe, Grant of Land at, 2 
Stanley St. Leonard's Church, 46, 50 
Stanton Prior, Wansdyke at, 140, 141 
Stanton St. Bernard, Wansdyke at, 139, 

141 

Staunton, 78 

Stayner, Sir Richard, Arms of, 288 
Stephen, King, 47 ; at Ludlow, 37 
Stevyns, Richard, 225, 227 



378 



Index. 



Stoke, Joan, 348 

John, Tomb of, 348 
Stoke, South, Wansdyke at, 133, 140, 141 
Stowe, Northants., 52,53 
Strachan, Mary, Lady, Mural tablet to, 
325 ; arms of, 325 
Sir William, 325 
Stratford de Redcliffe, Lord, 348 
Stratford-on-Avon, Fire at, 272 
Strensham, Butler Family of, 10 
Church, Description of, 6, 9, 10 
Heraldry in, 10, 278 — 282 
Monuments and Brasses, 6 — 9 
Screen, 9, 10 
Manor, Possessors of, 6 
Visit of the Society, 6 — 10 
Stubbs, William, Bishop of Oxford, his 

" Letters" reviewed, 354 — 357 
Sudeley Castle, 31 
Suffolk, Duke of, 246 
Sutton Wall?, Herefordshire, 22 
Swegen, Son of Earl Godwin, 42 
Swinfield, Richard de, Bp. of Hereford, 
25, 26; tomb of, 27 



Talbot, Margaret, Effigy of, 82 
Tatteshall Family, 4 ; arms of, 276 
Tatwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, 2 
Taylor, Rev. C. S. ; The Date of Wans- 
dyke, 131 — 155 

The Old Church of St. Thomas the 
Martyr, Bristol, 340 — 351 
Taylor, John, the Water-poet, 334 

Mary, 276 

Thomas, 267 

Family, 6 ; arms of, 281 
Teddington, Grant of Land at, 2 
Templars, Knights, 17, 26 
Temple Church, 40 
Tetbury, 150 

Tewkesbury Abbey, 74, 78 

Charity, 325 

Park, 325 
Theophilus, Archbishop, 190, 191 
Thirlwall, 134 
Thochi, 36 

Thokey, John, Abbot of Gloucester, 25, 
297, 298 

Thomas, Sir John, 223 — 225, 234, 248, 274 

Thornbury Castle, Henry VIII. at, 128 

Thorne, Nicholas, 128 

Thornloe, Mr., 325 

Throckmorton, Robert, 8 

Throcmorton, Elizabeth, 7 

Thurgryn, Henry, Arms of, 279, 280 

Tintern Abbey, 118, 119 

Tipalt River, 134 

Tiverton Church, Devon, 69 

Tomarhear, Som., Manor of, 68 

Tornowe, William, 248 

Tours, Hildebert, Bishop of, 193 

Tracy, Sir Humphry, of Stanway, 291 

Hon. Robert, Arms of, 288 

Family, of Toddington, 31 
Travenant, Bishop, 25 ; effigy of, 27 
Tregoz, Clarice de, 31 ; monument of, 32 

Robert of, 31 
Trevet, Walter, 266 

Trillick, John de, Bishop of Hereford, 4, 

5 ; brass of, 27 
Trubshaw Family, Arms of, 279 
Tucker, C. H., 113 

Tully, Robert, Monk of Gloucester, 303 
Turner, J. M. W., 34 
Turtle, Roger, Chauntry of, 269 
Tyddestille, Walter, 239; effigy of, 79, 
ic6, 107 



Umpton, Edith, 7, 8 

Sir Thomas, Arms of, 280 



Vampage, Catherine, 7 
Vere, John de, 37 

William de, Bishop of Hereford, 23 ;. 
his effigy, 27 
Vernon, Theobald de, 37 
Vesey Family, 4 

Vestments of All Saints, Bristol, 240— 

242, 249, 250, 267, 268 
Vinogradoff's "The Growth of the 

Manor," reviewed, 357—360 



Waersetielda, Grant of Land at, 2 
Walden Abbey, 299 
Waleran, William, 30 
Wales, Council of, 37 
Wall, Lieut.-Col. John, 325 
Walton Cardiff, Manor of, 275 
Wanborough Plain, 148, 149, 150 
Wan's House, 133 
Wansdyke, Course of, 133 — 138 

The date of, by Rev. C. S. Taylor,. 
131— 155 

Ward, Rev. Samuel, Arms of, 281 

Warens, Sir William, 233, 260 

Warham, Archbishop, 250 

Warren, Robert Hall, Bristol Cathe- 
dral : the Choir Screen, 127 — 130 

Warwick, Earl of, 109 

Washbourne, Grant of Land at, 2 

Water-mains, 17th cent., 335, 336 

Watson, William, 74 

Webb, Rev. John, Arms of, 277 

Wells Cathedral, 73, 82, 243 

Welsche, Thomas, 266 

Were, F ; Heraldry read at Bredon, 
Strensham, Pershore, Dumble- 
ton, and Didbrook, 275—288 

Were, Robert de, Effigy of, 52, 53 
William, 273 

Were, Manor and Lordship of, 53 

West Saxon occupation, 132 — 155 
Territory, Extent of, 143, 144 

Westbury-on-Trym, Dean of, 56—58,61, 
62, 348 
Palstave found at, 330 

Westfayling, Bishop, Monument of, 26 

Westminster Abbey, 13 
Grant to, 6 
St. Margaret's Church, 243 

Whitchurch Church, 36 

White, Thomas, Bristol merchant, 128,. 
129 

Whitson, John, Effigy of, 86—88 

Wight, Isle of, Saxon occupation, 148, 149 

Wilbei force, Samuel, Bp. of Winchester, 

Wilfrid, St., 151, 305 
Wilington, Ralph and Olympias de, 24 
Willett, Rev. Win., Arms of, 287 
William I., 49 ; his chaplain, 295 
William of Malmesbury, 22, 23, 151 
Williams, Elizabeth, Effigy and Arms of,. 
314—316 

John, 315 
Willis Family, Arms of, 283 
Willoughby, Edward, Arms of, 275 
Wilton, St. Mary's, 139 — 141 
Winchcombe Abbey, 22 
Winchelsey, 254 
Winchester, 47, 146, 149 

Cathedral, 139, 141 

1 



Index. 



379 



Windle's " Remains of the Prehistoric 
Age in England," reviewed, 214— 
216 

Wingham Church, 264 
Withers Family, Arms of, 279, 280 
Wolverhampton, Fire at, 272 
Wondesdich Lane, 134 
Woodville Family, Arms of, 76 
Woolhope Field Club, 45 
Worcester, Henry, Earl of, 77, 78 
Worcester, Battle of, 8 
Cathedral, 253 
Arms of, 276 

Connection with Bredon, 2, 3 
Wothgar, 305 

Wraxall, Somerset, Mead Place, 66 

Wansdyke at, 134, 153 
Wren, Bishop, 33 
Wreodanhal, Grant of land at, 2 
Wright, Thomas, Receiver-General of 

Bristol Cathedral, 127 
Wrotham Church, Effigy in, 84 



Wulphere, Son of Penda, 148, 149, 305 
Wulstan, St., Bishop of Worcester, 10,49 
Wyatt, James, Architect, 25, 26 
Wygmore, Abbot, 17 
Wylschyr, Clement, Mayor of Bristol, 239 

Joan, 239 
Wyndesore, Thomas de, 254, 273 
Wynte* Family, 87 
Wyrcestre, Wiiliam, 61, 260, 343 
Wyrral, John, Tomb of, 12 
Wytteney, William, Gifts to All Saints, 
Bristol, 235, 236 



Yanley-street, Wansdyke at, 134 
Yarde Family, Arms of, 286 
Yate, John de, 228, 237 
York Minster, 42, 294 



Zacharias, Abbot, 192 

Zouche Family, Arms of, 286, 287 



CONGRESS 

' , OF 

JULY 6th, 1904. 

The Fifteenth Congress of Archaeological Societies in Union with 
the Society of Antiquaries was held on Wednesday, July 6th, at 
Burlington House ; Lord Avebury, President S.A., having telegraphed 
regrets at unavoidable absence, the Chair was taken by Lord Balcarres, 
F.S.A. 

The Congress was attended by Delegates from the Society of 
Antiquaries, the Royal Archaeological Institute (2), the British 
and Cambrian Archaeological Associations, the Huguenot (2), and 
British Record Societies and the Societies for Berkshire, Bristol and 
Gloucester, Bucks, Cambridge (2), Cambridgeshire and Hunts, Chester 
and N. Wales, Cumberland and Westmoreland, Essex (2), Hampshire, 
East Herts, Lancashire and Cheshire, Leicestershire, Shropshire (2), 
Suffolk (2), Surrey (2), Sussex (2), Thoroton Notts, Wiltshire (2), Wool- 
hope Hereford (2), Worcester, Yorkshire East Riding (2), and Members 
of various Committees. 

The Minutes of the last Congress, held on July 8th, 1903, were 
read and confirmed. 

The Report of the .Standing Committee was read and approved, 
and the Statement of Accounts, audited by Mr. W. Minet, F.S.A., 
was read and adopted. The thanks of the Meeting were given to 
Mr. Minet for his services, and he was appointed Auditor for the 
ensuing year. • 

The following were elected as the Standing Committee : — 



The Officers of the Society of 

Antiquaries. 
J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. 
E. W. Brabrook, C.B., F.S.A. 
Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, M.A.,. F.S.A. 
Sir Tohn Evans, K.C.B., F,S A. 
G. E. Fox, M.A., F.S.A. 
G. L. Gomme, F.S.A. 



I. Chalkley Gould. 

Emanuel Green, F.S.A. 

W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 

Wm. Minet, F.S.A. 

Canon Rupert Morris, D.D., F.S.A, 

George Payne, F.S.A. 

J. Horace Round, M.A. 

J. B. Willis-Bund, M. A., F.S.A. 



Mr. Ralph Nevill, F.S.A., was re-elected Hon. Secretary, and the 
thanks of the Meeting expressed to him for his services in the past 
year. 



EARTHWORKS COMMITTEE. 



The Hon. Secretary, Mr. I. Chalkley Gould, presented a Report 
stating that the Committee had been enlarged by the inclusion of Lord. 
Balcarres as Chairman, Sir John Evans, Mr. Haverfield and Lieut.- 
Cols. Attree and Ruck of the Royal Engineers. Many offers of help 
had been received and more might be expected when the copies of 
the Scheme, now being circulated by the various Societies, have been 
finally distributed. 

The Cardiff Naturalists' Society had undertaken a survey of the 
hill forts and Earthworks of Glamorgan. Reference was made to the 
purchase by the Brighton Corporation of the camp at Hollingbury 
and the gift by the Duke of Norfolk to Sheffield of the fortified hill 
called Wincobank. Maiden Bower in Bedfordshire and Wellington 
on the Ouse were, however, in danger of destruction. The Committee 
also presented a paper of hints which they thought would be a useful 
appendix to their Scheme. 

Mr. Haverfield pointed out that the work of making records could 
not be regarded as at all complete unless it was accompanied by an 
accurate survey giving plans and contours. Some excavation at least 
should be done in order to settle the date ; he expressed the opinion 
that the English Ordnance Maps, although not perfect, were quite as 
good as those of other countries. He also stated that a survey was 
being made in North Germany giving accurate plans and particulars 
of the camps there that were supposed to be the work of the Saxons. 
This would be of great value to English workers for purposes of 
comparison. 

Prof. Windle also spoke of the need of accurate surveys, and asked 
that care should be taken that excavations should not be made at 
haphazard. He suggested that a list of authorities that could be con- 
sulted should be issued in any future papers, and that a leaflet should 
be drawn up suitable for sending to owners of property. 

The Rev. T. Auden, Mr. Michell Whitley and others, gave useful 
information about work that was being done, and emphasized the lack 
of funds. 

Lord Balcarres pointed out that the Earthworks Committee had no 
funds and could not help in this way, but that the Society of Anti- 
quaries might assist, at any rate by giving advice. He also stated 
that there was urgent necessity for preliminary lists and surveys which 
might be supplemented as time and money allowed. Mr. Willis-Bund, 
Chairman of the Worcestershire County Council, pointed out that it 
lists were at once prepared and sent to the County Councils, it was 
probable that help might be obtained for the preservation of Earth- 
works from immediate danger. Mr. Ralph Nevill suggested that it 
would be most helpful if some copies of typical plans published of the 
North German camps could be included in any future publication of 
the Earthworks Committee. 



Mr. C. H. Read, the Hon. Sec. of the Society of Antiquaries, spoke 
of the need for cataloguing tumuli and similar sepulchral remains and 
pointed out that these supplied almost the only material for the earlier 
history of our islands. He referred to his paper on the subject read 
at the Belfast Meeting of the British Association and mentioned records 
made for the War Office on Salisbury Plain and the great work of 
General Pitt Rivers. There was no doubt that the work was pressing 
and should be undertaken at once. After some discussion it was 
agreed that the Earthworks Committee should be asked to take up 
this subject in addition to their present work on defensive earthworks. 
Mr. Gould expressed his willingness to do so as Hon. Secretary, 
provided Mr. Read gave his assistance. 

The Hon. Secretary reported that the Committee for promoting 
the Safe Custody of Local Records had been waiting for the Govern- 
ment to present the Bill which, it was understood, had been prepared. 
On the proposition of Mr. Freer, seconded by Mr. W. P. Phillimore, 
it was agreed that Government be asked to do this, so that steps 
might be taken to make its provisions known and obtain the support 
that all archaeologists were likely to give it. Mr. Willis-Bund stated 
that the need was pressing as he knew of an ecclesiastical body of 
importance which had just destroyed a quantity of their old Records. 
Mr. Green stated that the Somersetshire County Council had made a 
grant for the preservation and cataloguing of their Records, and that 
the work was progressing. 

Mr. J. H. Round read a paper on "Place Names," carrying further 
the suggestions made by him some years ago in the paper published 
by the Congress. 

He pointed out the great importance attaching to Mr. W. H. 
Stevenson's forthcoming " Index to Names," and the value of such 
sources as genuine Saxon Charters, Feet of Fines, the Calendar of 
Ancient Deeds just issued by the Record Office and old Estate maps 
prepared locally. On the other hand such sources as the " Testa de 
Nevill," Dugdale and the Ordnance Survey must be treated with 
suspicion. He indicated that the Committee appointed by the Con- 
gress would ask the help of local societies to enlist workers to examine 
thoroughly certain specified authorities and certain portions of country 
and advocated an effort to correct the recent adoption of wrong forms, 
of which he gave an amusing instance — the Manhall of Domesday 
now appearing on the Ordnance Map as Emanuel Wood. Attention 
should be drawn to the frequent confusion between the terminations 
"den" and "don," "barrow" and "borough," and between the 
various meanings of that difficult word "wick." 

On the motion of the Rev. P. H. Ditchfield it was agreed that 
Mr. Round's paper should be printed and circulated to all Societies in 
Union ; Mr. Haverfield suggested that Mr. Stevenson should be urged 
to print at once his list up to A.D. uoo, by which date the antiquary 



4 



had already begun his perversions. Mr. Nevill suggested that per- 
versions began much earlier, in fact at the commencement of 
scholarship, the Ven. Bede being a very bad example of the practice 
of explaining Celtic or earlier names by Saxon meanings. 

The Secretary explained that the delay in publishing Mr. Gomme's 
General Index and certain faults found with the Annual Index arose 
from the neglect of Messrs. Constable, and he was authorized to write 
to them and endeavour to secure the prompt publication of the 
General Index. 

Mr. W. P. W. Phnlimore gave an account of the recently-formed 
Canterbury and York Society which had already obtained sufficient 
support to justify it in proceeding vigorously with the publication 
of the Bishops' Registers of various Dioceses ; these would be given 
in extended form. Some discussion arose as to whether it would 
be possible to obtain the Registers of separate Dioceses at increased 
prices. 

After lunch Mr. E. W. Brabrook, C.B., took the Chair; Mr.' 
Round mentioned that the Pipe Roll Society had been revived and 
would probably arrange to issue its productions in separate counties. 
Mr. Green stated that the Latin was to be extended. 

Mr. E. S. Prior, with the help of a large number of lantern 
slides gave an account of his attempt to produce a system of classi- 
fying effigies. His idea was that effigies, of which England possessed 
some 2,000 examples, could be divided into the three main classes 
of Purbeck, Freestone and Alabaster, and that they were the pro- 
duction of local trade centres where these materials prevailed, the 
use and fashion of material being in the order indicated which corres- 
ponded roughly to the 13th to 14th, the 14th to 15th, and the 15th 
to 1 '6th centuries. Mr. Hope gave some corroborative particulars 
as to the use of alabaster for tombs, deduced from contracts that 
had been found. 

Votes of thanks to the Society of Antiquaries for the use of their 
room, and to the Chairmen, were carried by acclamation. 

RALPH NEVILL, F.S.A., 
Hon. Sccirtary. 

Castle Hill, 
Guildford. 



Harrison and Sons, Printers in Ordinary to His Majesty, St. Martin's Lane. 



CONGRESS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES 

IN UNION WITH 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LONDON. 



Scheme for Recording 

Ancient Earthworks and Fortified Enclosures, 



APPENDIX II. 



Since the scheme for recording ancient defensive earthworks and 
fortified enclosures was issued, it has been found desirable to develop 
the classification by the addition of 

G. Enclosures, mostly rectangular, partaking of the form 

of F, but protected by stronger defensive works, 
ramparted and fossed, and in some instances provided 
with outworks. 

H. Ancient Village sites protected by walls, ramparts, or fosses. 



TUMULI, BARROWS, &c. 

It was the intention, as expressed on page 2 of the scheme issued 
in 1903, to confine the labours of workers to purely defensive works, 
but those who have been working on the maps, or in the field, having 
found it easy at the same time to schedule tumuli, barrows, and ancient 
boundary-banks and dykes, it is suggested that a list of all such remains 
should be compiled, noting the parishes in which situated, and the 
position on the 6-inch Ordnance Survey map. 



2 



CLASS G. 



The works referred to under class G appear in many cases to be the 
sites of feudal strongholds, or manorial residences ; at the same time 
it must be borne in mind that, as the late General Pitt-Rivers proved, 
simple, small, banked and ditched enclosures existed even in the 
far-away Bronze Age, and, it may be added, at various later periods. 

Though generally simple in form, examples occur with outer 
courts, or divided enclosures, or with ramparting extending beyond 
the main sites. 

Though usually small in comparison with early and similarly 
defended works, such as those of classes B or C, some of the works 
of class G cover an area of several acres. 




HOBS MOAT 
SOLIHULL 



WARWICKSHIRE- 



o /oo' zoo' 3 oo' 




EXAMPLE OF CLASS G. 



3 

CLASS H . 



In many cases the second or outer court of mount and court 
strongholds (class E) contained the germ of village or town, but the 
works referred to under H exhibit a more simple form of defence, 
and are not usually attached to any castle or stronghold. 

Ancient walled areas, such as some on the moors of the north of 
England, on Dartmoor and elsewhere, may be included in class H, 
as the term "village " is used to imply any collection of huts or houses, 
and some examples may have been for the protection of cattle as well 
as of human beings. 

In lowland districts works of class H occasionally occur, which 
protected the manorial hold, the church, and village, by means of 
moats or ramparts, or both. 




N.W. PORT! ON 
URSWICK STONE WALLS, 
LANCASHIRE. 

zoo' 3O0* 
L ! ( I 



EXAMPLE OF CLASS H, 



4 



The classification of defensive works as recommended by the 
Committee now stands as follows : 

a. Fortresses partly inaccessible, by reason of precipices, 

cliffs, or water, additionally defended by artificial works, 
usually known as promontory fortresses. 

b. Fortresses on hill-tops with artificial defences, following the 

natural line of the hill ; 

Or, though usually on high ground, less dependent on 
■ natural slopes for protection. 

c. Rectangular or other simple enclosures, including forts and 

towns of the Romano-British period. 

d. Forts consisting only of a mount with encircling ditch or 

fosse. 

e. Fortified mounts, either artificial or partly natural, with 

traces of an attached court or bailey, or of two or more 
such courts. 

f. Homestead moats, such as abound in some lowland 

districts, consisting of simple enclosures formed into 
artificial islands by water moats. 

G. Enclosures, mostly rectangular, partaking of the form 
of F, but protected by stronger defensive works, ram- 
parted and fossed, and in some instances provided with 
outworks. 

h. Ancient Village sites protected by walls, ramparts or fosses, 
x. Defensive works which fall under none of these headings. 



Any further information will be given by the Honorary Secretary. 

Postal Address : — 

/. Chalkley Gould, 

Royal Societies Club, 

St. James's Street, London. 
July, 1905. 1 



36n0tol anb (Sioucesterabire 

JULY, 1905. 



president 

The Right Rev. Bishop Mitchinson, D.D., 

Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, and Canon Residentiary 
of Gloucester. 

Ipreetoent of Council. 

F. F. Fox, Esq., F.S.A., Yate House, Yate, R.S.O., 
Gloucestershire. 

1bon. General ^Treasurer. 

G. M. Currie, Esq., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham. 

1bom Eottor. 

Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., F.S.A., Banwell Vicarage, Somerset, 

R.S.O. 

1foom Secretary tor JSristol. 

John E. Pritchard, Esq., F.S.A., 8 Cold Harbour Road, 
Redland, Bristol. 

1bon. General Secretary. 
Rev. Canon Bazeley, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester. 



PRESIDENT OF COUNCIL, YICE-PRESIDENTS, 
MEMBERS OF COUNCIL, AND SECRETARIES. 



July, 1905. 

President of Council : F. F. FOX, F.S.A. 

City of Bristol. — Vice-Presidents : The Right Hon. the Lord 
Mayor of Bristolf ; The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Bristol, F.S.A. ; 
F. F. Tuckett, F.R.G.S. ; Council Proper: James Baker, F.R.G.S. ; 
Alfred C. Fryer, Ph.D., F.S.A.; Alfred Harvey, M.B. ; A. E. Hudd, 
F.S.A.; Jas. Murtrie, F.G.S. ; J.J. Simpson; R. Hall Warren, F.S.A. 
Secretary: John E. Pritchard, F.S.A. 

City of Gloucester. — Vice-Presidents : The Right Worshipful the 
Mayor of Gloucesterf; H. W. Bruton. Council Proper : Oscar W. 
Clark, M.A., M.B.; F/J.Xullis, F.G.S. ; C. H. Dancey ; H. Medland. 
Local Secretary: H. T. Bruton. 

Cirencester Division. — Vice-President : Christopher Bowly. Local 
Secretaries: Cirencester — Rev. Canon J. S. Sinclair, M.A. Stow-on-the- 
Wold— -Rev. F. E. Broome Witts, M.A. Fairford— Rev. A. W. Douglas. 

Forest of Dean Division. — Council Proper: C. Bathurst, Junr., M.A.; 
Douglas J. Wintle. Local Secretaries : Lydney — G. W. Keeling. Newent — 
Edward Conder, F.S.A. 

Stroud Division. — Vice-Presidents: Rev. S. E. Bartleet, M.A. , F.S.A. ; 
F. A. Hyett, B.A. ; W. Leigh. Council Proper : W. St. Clair Baddeley ; 
A.J.Morton-Ball. Local Secretaries : Stroud — W.J.Stanton. Dursley— 
Rev. W. H. Silvester Davies, M.A. Nailsworth — A. E. Smith. 

Thornbury Division. — Council 
Proper: Rev. W. E. Blathwayt, M.A. ; Rev. Canon Ellacombe, M.A. 
Local Secretaries: Berkeley — Rev. Canon Stackhouse, M.A. Wotton- 
under-Edge — Vincent R. Perkins. 

Tewkesbury Division. — Vice-Presidents : The Right. Hon. Sir J. E. 
Dorington, Bart., M.A., M.P. ; Sir Brook Kay, Bart. ; Rev. E. R. 
Dowdeswell, M.A. Council Proper: G. S. Blakeway ; T. Dyer- 
Edwardes, M.A. ; E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. ; Rev. Canon O. R 
Wardell-Yerburgh. Local Secretaries : Tewkesbury — F. W. Godfrey, 
Junr. Chipping Campden — Rev. C. O. Bartlett, M.A. 

Cheltenham.— Vice-Presidents : G. B. Witts, C.E. ; R. V. Vassar- 
Smith; A. le Blanc ; Council Proper: C. E. Gael. Local Secretary: 
H. A. Prothero, M.A. 

Not Assigned.— Vice-Presidents : John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S. ; J. G. P. 
Palmer Hallett, M.A. Council Proper: Rev. J. M. Hall, M.A. ; 
A. T. Martin, M.A., F.S.A.; Rev. W. Symonds, M.A. ; Francis Were, 
t When a Member of this Society. 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS, 1905. 



Names of Life Members are given in heavier type 



An asterisk is affixed to the names of Members of Council for 1904-5. 

The Treasurer will feel obliged if Members will inform him of any 
change in their address. 

Abbot, H. Napier, M.A., 5 Downfield Road, Clifton. 
Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Gloucester. 
Adams, J. W., Glanmire, Archfield Road, Bristol. 
Adams, W. Avery, The Guildhall, Bristol. 
Addie, Peter, City Estate Office, Broad Street, Bristol. 
Alexander, A. J., 103 Pembroke Road, Clifton. 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell, M.A., 36 Ampthill Road, Fulwood Park, 
Liverpool. 

Allen, T. J., Hereford House, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Amory, F. H., 35 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Andrews, Hugh, Toddington, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 

Archer, Lieut.-Col. G. W., R.E., The Rookery, Frensham, Farnham. 

Armstrong, Miss F., Iffley, Oxford. 

Armstrong, F. A. W. T., R.B.A., 42 St. Michael's Hill, Bristol. 
Arrowsmith, J. W., 6 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Ash bee, C. R., Woolstapler's Hill, Chipping Campden, Glos. 
Asher & Co., 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
Ashman, Sir Herbert, Cooks Folly, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Atherton, Rev. W. Bernard, B.A., Taynton House, Taynton, near 
Gloucester. 

Auden, Mrs., Caer Glon, Churchdown, Cheltenham. 

*Baddeley, W. St. Clair, Castle Hale, Painswick, Stroud. 
Baker, A., The Old Bank, Tewkesbury. 

Baker, Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Henbury, near Bristol. 

Baker, Miss E. M., Stoneborough, Berrow Road, Burnham, Somerset. 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd, Hardwicke Court, Gloucester. 

Baker, Hiatt C, Oaklands, Almondsbury, R.S.O., Glos. 
*Baker, James, F.R.G.S., F.R. Hist. S., Sewelle Villa, Goldney Road, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

Baker, W. Proctor, Sandhill Park, near Taunton. 
•Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud. 

Banks, C, 6 Westfield Terrace, Longford, Gloucester. 

Barclay, Rev. Chas. W., M.A., Little Amwell Vicarage, Hertford Heath, 
Herts. 

Barnett, J. W., Highmead, Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Barnsley, A. E., Pinbury Park, Cirencester. 
*Bartleet, Rev. S. E., M.A., F.S.A., Dursley Rectory, Gloucestershire. 
*Bartlett, Rev. C. O., M.A., Willersey Rectory, Broadway, Worcestershire. 
*Bathurst, Charles, Junr., M.A., 3 Stone Buildings, Lincolns Inn, 
London, W.C. 

Batten, Lieut. -Col. H. C. G., Leigh Lodge, Abbot's Leigh, Clifton, 
Bristol. 

Baxter, Wynne E., D.L., Granville Cottage, Stroud. 
Baylis, Philip, Whitemead Park, Coleford, Glos. 
*Bazeley, Rev. Canon, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Hon. Member), 

(Hon. General Secretary and Librarian), 
Bazley, Gardner S., M.A., Hatherop Castle, Fairford, Glos. 



5 



Bazley, Sir Thomas S., Bart., Winterdyne, Chine Crescent Road, 

Bournemouth West, Hants. 
Beach, The Rt. Hon. Sir Michael E. Hicks, Bart., D.L., 1YLP., 

Coin St. Aldwyn's, Fairford. 
Beach, Rev. W. H., M.A., The Mythe, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Beaufort, Her Grace the Duchess of, c/o S. H. Cowper-Coles, Esq., Estate 

Office, Badminton, S.O., Glos. 
*Beddoe, John, M.D., F.R.S., The Chantry, Bradford-on-Avon. 
Bennet, Jno. Ryan, 3 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, c/o Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co., 

Dryden House, 43 Gerrard Road, W. 
Biddell, Sidney, New University Club, St. James' Street, London, S.W. 
Biddulph, Lord, Ledbury. 

. Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall, Gloucester. 
*Blakeway, G. W. S., Staniforth, TufHey, Gloucester. 

Blathwayt, Geo. W. Wynter, Melksham House, Melksham, Wilts. 
*Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter Edward, M.A., Dyrham, Chippenham. 

Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A., Dyrham Park, Chippenham. 

Blathwayt, Lieut. -Col. Linley, Eagle House, Batheaston, Bath. 

Blood, G. E., 15 Clyde Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Blood, John N., 3 Berkeley Street, Gloucester. 

Blosse, Rev. R. C. Lynch, Tidenham Vicarage, Chepstow. 

Bodleian Library (E. W. Nicholson, Librarian), Oxford. 

Bolton, Herbert, F.R.S.E., Natural History Museum, Bristol. 

Bond, Fredk. Bligh, F.R.I.B.A., Star Chambers, St. Augustine's, Bristol. 

Boodle, G. A., Worcester Lawn, Gloucester. 

Boucher, Chas. Ernest, B. Sc. Lond., 21 Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Bowly, Christopher, Siddington House, Cirencester. 
Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, 16 Royal Crescent, Bath. 
Bramble, Lieut. -Col. James Roger, F.S.A., Seafield, Weston- 
super-Mare. 

Bravender, T. B., 96 Oakfield Road, Anerley, London, S.E. 
Briggs, William, Exchange, Bristol. 
""Bristol, The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of (George Forrest Browne, 

D.D., D.C.L., F.S.A.), The Palace, Bristol. 
Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, Queen's Road, Bristol. Chairman — 
W. R. Barker. 

British Museum, c/o Messrs. Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, W. 

Brocklehurst, H. Dent, Sudeley Castle, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 

Bromehead, Rev. J. N., Beverston Rectory, Tetbury, Glos. 

Brown, Walter, M.B., Carlton House, Gloucester. 

Bruton, Basil V., Bewick House, Gloucester. 
*Bruton, H. T., 4 Alexandra Terrace, Gloucester. 
*Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester. 

Bruton, James, Wotton Hill Cottage, Gloucester. 

Bryan, H. Dare, F.R.I.B.A., Croome Cottage, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Bubb, Henry, Ullinwood, near Cheltenham. 

Burn, Charles, 19 Elmdale Road, Clifton. 

Burroughs, Jno., 18 Westbury Park, Durdham Down, Bristol. 

Bush, Edward, The Grove, Alveston, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 

Bush, G. de L'lsle, Standish House, Stouehouse, Glos. 

Bush, John, 9 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Bush, R. C, 1 Winifred's Dale, Cavendish Road, Bath. 

Bush, T. S., 20 Camden Crescent, Bath. 

Butt, Rev. Walter, M.A., Kempsford Viearage, Fairford. 

Cardew, C. E., A.M.I.C.E., Insein, Lower Burmah. 
Cardew, G. A., 5 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 
Carpenter, R. H., 43 Canynge Road, Clifton. 
Carter, T. M., M.R.C.S., 28 Victoria Square, Clifton. 
Cave, Sir Charles D., Bart., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton 
Park, Bristol. 



6 



Cave, Charles H., B.A., Rodway Hill House, Mangotsfield, Glos. 
Cay, Arthur, White House, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. 
Chance, T. H., Journal Office, St. John's Lane, Gloucester. 
Charles, E. J., Seisdon Hall, near Wolverhampton. 
Cheesman, Rev. A. H., Derby Road, Gloucester. 
Cheltenham College (A. A. Hunter, Bursar). 
Cheltenham Permanent Library, Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Cheltenham Public Library (Librarian, W. Jones, Cheltenham). 
Child, Mrs. Robert, Chosen Hill, near Cheltenham. 
Chilton, George Horace David, 14 Cambridge Park, Bristol. 
Chilton, Guy, Churchfield, Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. 
Church, A. H., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey. 
*Clark, Oscar W., M.A., M.B., S. Luke's House, Spa Road, Gloucester. 
Clarke, Alfred Alex., Vicar's Close, Wells, Somerset. 
Clarke, W. Sefton, B.A., Camb., 28 Broad Street, Bristol. 
Clay, Miss Rotha, St. Michael's Rectory, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
Clifton, The Right Rev. the Bishop of (Dr. George Crompton 

Burton), Bishop's House, Clifton. 
Clifton College Library, Clifton, Bristol. 
Cockshott, Arthur, 7 Pittville Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Codrington, Rev. R. H., D.D., St. Richard's Walk, Chichester. 
Cole, Rev. M. A. R. T., 18 Great George Street, Park Street, Bristol. 
Cole, R. M., Northgate Street, Gloucester. 
Cole, Sanford D., Canada House, Baldwin Street, Bristol. 
Coliett, J no. Hy., Hillfield, Gloucester. 
Collett, John M., Hillfield, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Conder, Edw., F.S.A., Conigree Court, Newent, Glos. 
Cooke, P. B., Lismore, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Cookson, Surg.-Maj., H, Westwood, Cheltenham. 

Cornock, Nicholas, 7 Marjorie Grove, Clapham Common, London, S.W. 
Cornwall, Rev. Alan Kingscote, M.A., Burghope, Worsley, 

Bradford-on- Avon . 
Cotterell, A. P. I., Woodcroft, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club (L. Richardson, F.G.S., Hon. Sec), 10 

Oxford Parade, Cheltenham. 
Covey, Rev. R. C, Alderton Rectory, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Craven, Campbell, J., 11 Lansdown Place, Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 
Crawley-Boevey, A. W. , 24 Sloane Court, London, S.W. 
Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R., M.A., Duntisborn Abbot's Rectory, Cirencester. 
Crawley-Roevey, Sir T. H., Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham, 

Gloucestershire. 
Creese, C. R., Enderley House, Tewkesbury. 
Crewdson, Theodore, Norcliffe Hall, Handforth, Manchester. 
Cripps, Mrs. Frederick, Cirencester. 
Cripps, Henry Kater, Redcliffe, Clifton Down, Bristol. 
Cripps, Mrs. Wilfred, Cripps Mead, Cirencester. 
Crooke, Wm., Langton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Cullimore, J., Christieton, Chester. 
*Cullis, F. J., F.G.S., Barnwood Court, Gloucester. 

Cunningham, Mrs. Jno , 12 Elmdale Road, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Currie, G. M., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham (Hon. Treasurer). 
Curtoys, Rev. W. F. D., Crorahall Rectory, Charfield, R.S.O., Glos. 

*Dancey, Charles Henry, 6 Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Dancey, H. A., Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Daniels, J. Harold, Lightpill, Stroud, Glos. 
Daubeny, Capt., 10 Pitville Lawn, Cheltenham. 

Davies, Rev. John Silvester, M.A., F.S.A., Adelaide House, Enfield, 
London, N. 

Davies, Rev. R. P., The Rectory, Charfield, Glos. 

*Davies, Rev. W. H. Silvester, M.A., Horsley Vicarage, Stroud. t 
Davies, Rev. Wm., Avondale, Tewkesbury, Glos. 
Davis, Cecil Tudor, Public Library, Wandsworth, London, S.W. 



1 



De Ferrieres, Baron, Bayshill House, Cheltenham. 
De Freville, Rev. F., The Horsepools, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 
De Sausmarez, F. B., M.A., 5 Queen's Parade, Cheltenham. 
Dening, Edwin, Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire. 
Derham, Henry, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Derham, Waiter, M.A., F.G.S., 96 Lancaster Gate, London, W. 
Desprez, Ernest H., 72 Park Row, Bristol. 

Dickinson, J. L., Park House, Eastfield Park, Weston-super-Mare. 
Dix, J. W. S., Hampton Lodge, Durdham Down, Bristol. 
Dobell, C. Faulkner, Whittington Court, Andoversford, Cheltenham. 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Doggett, Hugh Greenfield, Springhill, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. 
Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester, Stonehouse, Glos. 
*Dorington, The Right Hon. Sir J. E., Bart., M.A., M.P., Lypiatt 
Park, Stroud. 

Douglas, Rev. A. W., The Rectory, Hatherop, Fairford, Glos. 

Dowdeswell, Rev. E. R., M.A., Pull Court, Tewkesbury. 

Dowding, W. L., F.R. Hist. Soc, 13 Kingsley Road, Cotham, Bristol. 

Drew, Joseph, M.D., Montrose, Battledown, Cheltenham. 

Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.C., F.R.S., Tortworth 

Park, Falfield, R.S.O. 
Dugdale, R. W., 112 London Road, Gloucester. 
Duke, Col. J. C, South Court, Leckhampton Road, Cheltenham. 
Dumas, Rev. Jas., Grammar School, Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire. 
*Dyer-Edwardes, Thomas, M.A., Prinknash Park, Painswick, Stroud. 

Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol. 
Eales, Rev. Ernest, Naunton Rectory, Cheltenham. 
Eberle, J. Fuller, 96 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Edwards, Herbert G., 60 Redcliti' Street, Bristol. 
*Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A., The Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol. 
Ellicott, A. B., His Honour, M.A., (The Chancellor of the Diocese), The 

Culls, Stroud. 
Elliot, Major-Gen., 1 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 
Ellis, T. S., 6 Clarence Street, Gloucester. 

Embrey, Geo., F.I.C., F.C.S., Hill Close, Park Road, Gloucester. 
Emeris, Rev. William, C, M.A., Taynton Vicarage, Burford, Oxon. 
Evans, Arnold, 4 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 
Evans, Horace L., 4 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Fawcett, E., University College, Bristol. 
Fawcett, Miss E. A., Painswick. 
Fisher, Theodore, M.D. 

Floyd, Walter C. L., M.I.C.E., 13 Miles Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Fluck, J. A., The Limes, Longford, Gloucester. 

Flux, Edward Hitchings, 144 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

Forbes, Col. G. H. A., R.A., Rockstowes, Dursley. 

Ford, Andrew Hamill, Wraxall Court, Wraxall, near Bristol. 

Ford, Roger, 8, Cambridge Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Foster, R. G., Lennox House, Gloucester. 

Fowler, O. W., Cirencester. 
*Fox, Francis Frederick, F.S.A., Yate House, Yate, R.S.O., Glos. 
(President of Council). 

Foxcroft, E. T. D., D.L., Hinton Charterhouse, Bath. 

Fry, Claude Basil, Howcroft, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Fry, Francis J., Cricket St. Thomas, Chard, Somerset. 

Fry, Lewis, The Right Hon., Goldney House, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Fryer, Alfred C, Ph.D. and M.A. Leipsic, F.S.A., 13 Eaton 
Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

*Gael, C. E., Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Gainsborough, The Right Hon. the Earl of, Campden House, Chipping 
Campden. 



8 



Gardner, Rev. G. L., All Saints Vicarage, Cheltenham. 

Gardner, W. J., " Record" Office, 7 Barton Street, Tewkesbury. 

George, Ch. W., 51 Hampton Road, Bristol. 

George, Frank, 7 Ellenborough Crescent, Weston-super-Mare. 

George, Rev. P. E., M.A., St! Winifred's, Bath. 

George, W. E., Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Ghewy, Albert B., Bewell House, Woodchester Stroud. 

Gibbs, H. Martin, Barrow Court, Flax Bourton, R.S.O., Somerset. 

Gilchrist, Jas., 24 College Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Giller, William Thomas, 16 Tisbury Road, Hove, Brighton. 

Gilliat, Rev. E., The Grange, Bitton, Bristol. 

Gloucester, the Worshipful the Mayor and Corporation of, c/o Librarian, 

Public Free Library, Gloucester. 
* Godfrey, F. W., Junr., Tewkesbury. 
Godfrey, Miss M. M., The Greenway, near Cheltenham. 
Golding, Mrs., Tudor Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 
Goodden, Jno. Hy., 6 Canynge Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Gray, Miss E., St. Elmo, Leckhampton Road, Cheltenham. 
Griffiths, G. C, 43 Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 
Griffiths, John S., M.R.C.S., 20 Redland Park, Bristol. 
Griffiths, L. M., M.R.C.S., 11 Pembroke Road, Clifton. 
Grimes, H. W., Horton Road, Gloucester. 

Grosvenor. Wilshaw W., B.A., M.D. , 4 Clarence Street, Gloucester. 

Guise, Sir W., Bart., Elmore Court, Gloucester. 
Gurney, W. Gerald, 12 Wellington Square, Cheltenham. 
Gwynn, Humphrey T. M. C, 3 All Saints Court, Bristol. 

Haigh, Rev. W. E., M.A., St. Paul's Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 

Haines, Basil John, Travancore, Pursey, Wilts. 

Hale, Maj.-Gen. Robert, Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge. 
*Hall, Rev. J. M., M.A., The Rectory, Harescombe, Stroud. 
*Hallett, J. G. P. Palmer, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hallett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hammersley, J. H., 9 Downleaze, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Handley, F. F., Eslington, Thirlestaine Road, Cheltenham. 

Harding, E. B , Chasefield, Upper Knowle, Bristol. 

Harding, Rev. Canon John Taylor, M.A., Pentwyn, Monmouth. 

Harland, Miss, Rosenho, Moorend Road, Cheltenham. 

Hartland, Ernest, M.A., F.S.A., Hardwicke Court, Chepstow (Hon. Member). 
*Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A., Highgarth, Gloucester. 

Harvard College, U.S.A., c/o Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. Ltd., 
Dryden House, 43 Gerrard Road, London, W. 
*Harvey, Alfred, M.B., Ewelme, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol. 

Harvey, Edward A., 26 Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 

Hawkesbury, The Right Hon. Lord, F.S.A., Kirkham Abbey, 
Yorkshire. 

Hawkins, J. G., Staunton Court, Gloucester. 

Hayes, C. A., Ashley Flouse, Ashley Down Road, Bristol. 

Hayward, The Venerable Archdeacon, M.A., College Green, Gloucester. 

Hayward, Col. Curtis, Quedgeley Hall, Gloucester. 

Healing, Saml. H., Lloyds Bank Chambers, Cheltenham. 

Heaven, Geo. H., 2 Greenway Road, Redland Park, Bristol. 

Heberden, Rev. H. B., Oddington Rectory, Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Helps, Arthur S., Barton Street Gloucester. 

Hemmons, G. E., 30 Woodstock Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Hemmons, W. Crofton, 

Herapath, Howard M., 2 St. John's Road, Clifton. 

Herbert, Arthur Grenville, 28 Elvaston Place, Queen's Gate, 
London, W. 

Herbert, W. Hawkins, Paradise House, Painswick, Glos. 
Hewitt, J. H., Manor House, Maugersbury, Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos. 
Hickman, Hubert, 19 Mortimer Road, Clifton, Bristol. < 
Higgins, Henry, Willsbridge House, near Bristol. 



9 



Hirst, Francis J., M.A., 12 Westbury Park, Durdham Down, Bristol. 

Hirst, H. C. M., A.R.I.B.A., 22 Duchess Road, Clifton. 

Hobbs, J. N., Concord, Moorend Grove, Cheltenham. 

Hodson, Rev. Thos., The Vicarage, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Holbrow, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Shaw Well, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 

Holford, Capt. G. L., C.V.O., c/o D. Lindsay, Esq., Estate Office, 
Tetbury, Glos. 

Holt, Rev. Vernon, M.A., The Cathedral, Bristol. 

Horder, P. Morley, 6 Hamilton Terrace, London, N.W. 

Hore, Mrs. A. H., 22 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Horner, John Richard, 5 Elton Road, Bishopston, Bristol. 

Household, W. H., College Court, Gloucester. 

Howard, Edward Stafford, 9 Egerton Place, London, S.W. 

Howell, Jas. H., 104 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Howell, Rev. W. C, M.A., 123 Regenti Park Road, London, N.W. 
*Hudd, Alfred E., F.S.A., 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Hughes, W. W., Downfield Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 

Huntley, Rev. O. C, Boxwell Court, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 

Hutton, Rev. W. H., The Great House, Burford, Oxon. 
*Hyett, F. A., B.A., Painswick House, Painswick, Stroud. 

Irving, D., M.I.C.E., Stapleton, near Bristol. 
Isacke, Miss, Stratford Abbey College, near Stroud. 

Jebb, Mrs., Oaklands, Brock worth, Gloucester. 

Jenkins, Frederick A., 58, St. John's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Jennings, Rev. A. C, M.A., King's Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse, 

Gloucestershire. 
Johnson, Miss H. T., Ellesmere Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 
Johnstone-Vaughan, W. J., The Old Rectory, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Joicey, James, Poulton Court, Fairford, Glos. 
Jose, W. W., 2 West Mall, Clifton. 

Judge, Frederick, 90 Richmond Road, Montpellier, Bristol. 

*Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham. 
*Keeling, George William, 10 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Kempthorn, Rev. P. H., Wick Rissington, Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos. 

Kennedy-Skipton, H. S., 11 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Ker, Miss Flora C., Fallowfield, St. Stephen's Road, Cheltenham. 

Kerr, Russell J., The Haie, Newnham-on-Severn. 

King", Miss, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

King, Percy L., 2 Worcester Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 

Knowles, Henry, Egerton House, The Spa, Gloucester. 

Landale, Dy. -Surgeon-General, Dunholme, The Park, Cheltenham. 
*Le Blanc, Arthur, The Hayes, Prestbury, near Cheltenham. 

Lefroy, Rev. F. A., Haresfield Vicarage, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Leigh, E. Egerton, D.L., Broadwell Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold. 
*Leigh, William, Woodchester Park, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Levy-Langfield, A., 14 Whiteladies Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Lewis, Archibald M., 3, Upper Byron Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Lewis, Rev. George, The Rectory, Icomb, Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos. 

Lewis, M. Barry, Bell Lane, Gloucester. 

Lighton, A. H. Digby, Crossley House, Winterbourne, near Bristol. 
Lincoln's Inn Library, London, W.C. 

Lippincott, R. C. Cann, Over Court, Almondsbury, Bristol. 
Little, E. Caruthers, Tracy House, Pittville Lawn, Cheltenham. 
Little, E. P., Lansdown, Stroud. 
Liverpool Free Library, Liverpool. 
Llewellin, John, C.E., Hazeland, Devizes, Wilts. 
Llewellin, W. M., C.E., 8 Cotham Lawn Road, Cotham, Bristol. 
London Library, 12 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 
Long, The Right Hon. Walter H., D.L., M.P., Rood Ashton, Trow- 
bridge, Wilts; and 11, Ennismore Gardens, London, S.W. 
Long, Col. William, Woodlands, Congresbury, R.S.O., East Somerset. 



io ■ 

Lowe. C. J.. 8 St. Stephen's Street, Bristol. 

Lynes, Rev. W., M.D., Cinderford Vicarage, Newnham. 

Lysons, Rev. Danl. Geo., The Vicarage, Rowsley, Derbyshire. 

Machen, C. E., Bicknor, Coleford, Gloucestershire. 
Madame, William Osborne, D.L., Kineton, Thornbury. 
Macpherson, J., 1425 Fifth Street, San Diego, California, U.S.A. 
Malleson, Miss, Dixton Manor, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Mallory, D., 27 Park Place, Cheltenham. 
Manchester Library (Charles W. Sutton, Sec), Manchester. 
Mar don, Heber, 2 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 
Margetson, William, Brightside, Stroud. 
Marling, Stanley, Stanley Park, Stroud. 

Marmont, B. P., Windso: Edge, Forest Green, Nailsworth, Glos. 
Marrs, Kingsmill, South Park, Saxonville, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 
Marshall, Mrs., The Red House, Newent. 
*Martin, A. T., M.A., F.S.A., The School House, Bath College, Bath. 
Martin, C. T., B.A., F.S.A , Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, London, 
W.C. 

Martin, Dr. J. M., 6 Whitehall, Stroud, Glos. 

Martin, B» B., M.P., Overbury Court, Tewkesbury, Glos. 

Master, Mrs. Chester, Knole Park. Almondsbury, R.S.O., Glos. 

Matthews, J. A., Lewishurst, The Spa, Gloucester. 

Maud, Rev. J. P., M.A., Redcliffe Vicarage, Bristol. 

May, Arthur C, Avon House, Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 
*McMurtrie, Jas., F.G.S., 5 Belvedere Road, Durdham Park, Bristol. 
*Medland, Henry, Clarence Street, Gloucester. 

Meredith, WY Lewis, 7 Midland Road, Gloucester. 

Metford, Col. F. K. Seymour, Whaddon Court, Gloucester. 

Middlemore-Whithard, Rev. T. M., M.A., Hawkesley, Exmouth, Devon. 

Miles, Rev. Henry Edmund, M. A., The Rectory, Huntley, near Gloucester. 

Miles, P. Napier, Kingsweston, near Bristol. 

Miller, Chas., Llanfoist House, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Mills, H. Hamilton, Sudgrove House, near Cirencester. 

Mills, J. Elliott, 21 Wellington Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Mitchell, A. C-, Highgrove, Tetbury, Glos. 

Mitchinson, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., Pembroke College, Oxford. 
Moffat t, H. C, Goodrich Court, Ross. 
Moline, William, 19 The Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 
Morgan, E. T. 91 Coronation Road, Bristol. 

Morgan, Miss, c/o Miss Balguy, The Highlands, S. Norwood Hill, London, 
S.E. 

Morris, R. Groves, 5 Beaufort Buildings, Spa, Gloucester. 
Moxley, W. S., 9 Elgin Park, Redland, Bristol. 
Mullings, John, Cirencester. 

New York Library, c/o B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, 

London, W.C. 
Newman, Miss Alice, 1 Pittville Lawn, Cheltenham. 
Noel, Col. W. F. N., Great House, North Nibley, Glos. 
Norman, George, 12 Brock Street, Bath. 
Norris, Herbert" E., The Market Place, Cirencester. 

Oatley, G. H., F.R.I.B.A., Church House, Clifton. 
Oman, C. W. C, M.A., F.S.A., All Souls' College, Oxford. 
Oman, Mrs., Ablington, Lansdown Road, Cheltenham. 
Ormerod, Miss, 2 Moorend Park Lawn, Cheltenham. 

Osborn, j. Lee., F.R. Hist. S., Elmcroft, Winterbourne Down, nr. Bristol. 

Osborne, H. B., Osborne Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 

Osburn, Miss, The Edge House, near Stroud. 

Overbury, Thos., 1 York Villas, Cheltenham. 

Page, Arthur W., 19 Northumberland Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Paine, A. E. W., Churcham Court, Gloucester. * 

Parker, Rev. Canon Charles J., M.A., Upton House, Bitton, Bristol. 



Parsons, H. F., M.R.C.S., The Heath, Sneyd Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Paul, J. E., Ferncliff, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. 

Paull, Rev. W. Major, 4 Duchess Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Pavey, Miss Alice, 29 Canynge Square, Clifton, Bristol. 

Pearson, George, Bannerleigh, Tyndall's Park, Clifton. 

Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia, U.S.A., c/o Messrs. B. F. 

Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W.C. 
Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Longwitton Hall, Morpeth, Northumberland. 
Percival, Mrs. L., 4 Pittville Crescent, Cheltenham. 
* Perkins, Vincent R., Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 
Peters, Geo., Southville Lawn, Brunswick Square, Gloucester. 
Phillimore, W. P. W., 124 Chancery Lane, London. 
Philp, Capt. J. Lamb, Pendoggett, Timsbury, Bath. 
Pippet, Rev. W. A., The Rectory, Clifford Chambers, Stratford -on-A von. 
Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, M.A., Bushey House, Monkton Combe, 

Bath. 

Pitt, Theophilus, 20 Clovelly Road, Ealing, W. 

Playne, Arthur T., Longfords, Minchinhampton. 

Pollock, Erskine, K.C., Avening Court, Avening, near Stroud, Glos. 

Ponting, C. E., F.S.A., Lockeridge, Marlborough, Wilts. 

Pope, Jno. R., Wotton Hill, Gloucester. 

Porter, Mrs., Hill House, Stroud, Glos. 

Power, Edward, F.S.A., 16 Southwell Gardens, London, S.W. 

Price, L. Ralph, Claverham House, near Yatton, Somerset. 

Prichard, Edgar A., 28 Berkeley Square, Clifton. 
*Pritchard, John E., F.S.A., 8 Cold Harbour Road, Redland, Bristol. 

(Hon. Secretary for Bristol). 
*Prothero, H.A., M. A. , 13 Promenade, Cheltenham. 

Pruen, G. G., Leconfield, College Road, Cheltenham. 

Pryce, Rev. B. Vaughan, M.A., LL.B., 20 York Crescent Road. Clifton. 

Purnell, Rev. R. H., M.A., The Old Vicarage, Staverton, nr. Cheltenham. 

Redesdale, Right Hon. Lord, Batsford Park, Moreton-in-Marsh. 
Reid, Walter, The Woodlands, Woodland Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Richards, Rev. C. H., Leighterton Rectory, Wotton-under-Edge, R.S.O., 
Glos. 

Richardson, Frank, Clift House, Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. 
Richmond, Miss Isabel, Holm Ray, Iron Acton, near Bristol. 
Ringer, Surgeon-General, 20 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Robbins, Rev. J. W. E., 25 Campden Hill Square, London, W. 
Robertson, J. L., 13 Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Robinson, W. G., Parklands, Stonehouse, Glos. 
Rogers, Joseph, Saltford, Bristol. 

Roper, Miss I. M., 4 Woodfield Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Routh, Col. W. R., 2 Oriel Villas, Cheltenham. 
Rowe, J. Brooking, F.S.A., Castle Barbican, Plympton, Devon. 
Roxby, Cyril M., The Rectory, 8 Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Rudge, C. K., L.R.C.P., 145 Whiteladies Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Sampson, Walter A., Delamere, Severn Road, Weston-super-Mare. 
Sawyer, John, Glevum Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham. 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, London, S.W. 
Scobell, Ven. Archdeacon E., M.A., Upton St. Leonard's Rectory, 
Gloucester. 

Scott, Charles, Beaufort House, Spa, Gloucester. 
Seacome, R. Owen, 2 Crescent Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Selwyn-Payne, Major J. H., Badg worth Court, near Cheltenham. 
Sessions, Frederick, F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S., The Brant, Kendal. 
Sessions, Herbert, Quedgeley Court, Gloucester. 
Sewell, Edward C, The Beeches, Cirencester. 
Shaw, J. E., M.B., 23 Caledonian Place, Clifton, Bristol. 
Sherborne, Rt. Hon. Lord, 9 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 
Shum, Frederick, F.S.A., 17 Norfolk Crescent, Bath. 
Shute, Mrs., 46 Prince's Gate, London, S.W. 



12 



Sibbald, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, Norton St. Philip, Bath. 
*Simpson, J. J., Osborne House, Cotham Park, Bristol. 

Sinclair, Rev. Canon J. S., M.A., The Vicarage, Cirencester. 

Siveter, W. A., The Sheephouse, Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Slater, Alfred, Horton Lawn, Gloucester. 
* Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies, Nailsworth. . 

Smith, J. Hudson, 42 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Smith, Richard Henry, The Chantry, Nailsworth, Glos. 

Smith, R. Shingleton, M.D., Deepholm, Clifton Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Smith, T. Sherwood, F.S.S., 22 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Smithin, J. A., Lloyd's Bank, Gloucester. 

Sneath, Rev. T. A., The Lawn, Woodchester, Stroud. 

Society of Merchant Venturers, The Worshipful the Master of the, Bristol. 

Soutar, J. G., M.B., Barnwood House, Gloucester. 

Soutar, Mrs., Barnwood House, Gloucester. 

Spence-Jones, Very Rev. H. D., Dean of Gloucester, The Deanery, 
Gloucester. 

Spofforth, Fairfax, 21 Belgrave Road, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Squire, W. W., M. Inst. C.E., 15 Eaton Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Stackhouse, Rev. Canon, The Vicarage, Berkeley. 

Stanton, Rev. Canon, M.A., Hasleton Rectory, Cheltenham. 

Stanton, Charles Holbrow, M.A., Field Place, Stroud. 

Stanton, J. Y., The Leaze, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 

Stanton, Rev. W. D., Toddington Vicarage, Winchcombe, Glos. 
*Stanton 5 Walter John, Stratford Lodge, Stroud. 

Stephen, Jno., The Lodge, Gloucester. 

Stephens, Albert J., 29 Denmark Road, Gloucester. 

Street, Ernest E., C.E., Leny, Clifton Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Stubs, Peter, Blaisdon, Longhope, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 

Sturge, Francis, Foster's Chambers, 17 Small Street, Bristol. 

Sturge, Theodore, 14 Hurle Crescent, Clifton. 

Sturgeon, Wentworth, 4 King's Bench Walk, Temple, London, W.C. 
Swann, E. J., D.L., The Gables, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 
Swayne, Miss, 129 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Swift, W. T., Churchdown, Cheltenham. 
*Symonds, Rev. W., M.A., Sherston Vicarage, Malmesbury. 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., 29 Collington Road, Edinburgh, N.B. 
Tag-art, Francis, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 
Tarr. F. J., Westaway, Yatton, R.S.O., Somerset. 

*Taylor,Rev. C. S., M.A., F.S. A.., Banwell Vicarage, Somerset, R.S.O. 
Taylor, Edmund J., Town Clerk, Council House, Bristol. 
Thompson, Mrs., Endcliffe, Henbury, near Bristol. 

Thorpe, Thomas, Osborne House, Frocester, nr. Stonehouse, Gloucester- 
shire. 

Tibbitts, John, 5 Theresa Place, Gloucester. 

Tidswell, R. T., Haresfield Court, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Tinson, C. J., The Cleevelands, Marie Hill, Cheltenham. 

Tombs, R. C, I.S.O., 37 Henleaze Gardens, Westbury-on-Trym, nr. Bristol. 

Tothill, Waring W., 1 Cambridge Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Townshend, C. W., Springfield, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Townsend, Charles, St. Mary's, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Trapnell, Alfred, Boscombe Hall, Wollstonecraft nr. Bournemouth. 

Trees, Mrs., Wager Court, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Trower, G. Oakeley, Meldon Lodge, Cheltenham. 

Tryon, Stephen, Hallen, near Bristol. 

Tubbs, Stanley W., Beaconsfield, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 
*Tuckett, Francis Fox, F.R.G.S., Frenchay, near Bristol. 
Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester. 

Vale, Hy., 16 Darlington Street, Wolverhampton. 
Vassall, R. L. Grant, Oldbury Court, Fishponds, Bristol. 
*Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar, Charlton Park, Cheltenham. < 



13 



Vaughan-Hughes, Gerald M., Wyelands, Chepstow. 
Veasey, Rev. A. H., The Vicarage, Kemble, Glos. 
Venner, Capt, The Reddings, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 
Vincent, Rev. Marshall Clarke, Sengora, Priory Parade, Cheltenham. 

Waddy, H. Edw., Rhossili, Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 

Wait, H. W. K., 2 Worcester Villas, Cliftpn. 

Waller, F. W., College Green, Gloucester. 

Walls, John, Chew Court, Chew Magna, near Bristol. 

Walters, Rev. C, M.A., The Vicarage, Forthampton, Tewkesbury. 

Ward, H. W., Frenchay, near Bristol. 

Wardell-Yerburgh, Rev. Canon O. P., The Abbey, Tewkesbury. 
Warren, Robert Hall, F.S.A., 9 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Waterman, A. N., M.A. Oxon., 4 Westmoreland Road, Durdham Park, 
Bristol. 

Watson, Edw. Jas., F.R. Hist. S., F.R.S.L., St. John's Arch, Bristol. 
Webb, W. E., Capital and Counties Bank, Bristol. 
Welch, Miss, Arle House, Cheltenham. 
Wells, Charles, F.J. I., 134 Cromwell Road, Bristol. 
Wells, C. Courtenay, Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 
Wenden, James Gordon, The Chantry, Dursley. 
*Were, Francis, Callingwood Hall, Tatenhill, nr. Burton-on-Trent, Staff. 
Whitcombe, George, The Wotton Elms, Gloucester. 
White, Sir George, Bart., Cotham House, Bristol. 
Whitfield, G. T., Tuffley, Gloucester. 
Whitwill, Mark, 69 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Wilkins, Rev. H. J., M.A., Westbury-on-Trym Vicarage, Redland Green, 
Bristol. 

Wilkinson, Rev. L., M.A., The Rectory, Micheldean, Glo'stershire. 
Willcox, Robt., Craigside, 31 Whiteladies Road, Clifton. 
Williams, Oliver, J. P., Ivydene, Hewlett Road, Cheltenham. 
Williams, P. Watson, M.D., 4 Clifton Park, Clifton. 
Williams, Thos. Webb, Bank Chambers, Corn Street, Bristol. 
W T ills, Sir Frederick, Bart., M.P., Manor Heath, Bournemouth. 
Wills, G. A., Burwalls, Leigh Woods, near Bristol. 
Wilson, Robert, M.B., Millbrook, Nailsworth. 
Winstone, Benjamin, 53 Russell Square, London, W.C. 
Wintle, Charles, 30 Baldwin Street, Bristol. 
*Wintle, Douglas J., Hill House, Newnham, Gloucestershire. 
Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., F.G.S., 11 Cavendish Crescent, Bath. 
Wise, William Henry, The Council House, Bristol. 
Witchell, E. Northam, Lansdown, Stroud. 

* Witts, Rev. F. E. Broome, M. A., Upper Slaughter Manor, Lower Slaughter, 

R.S.O., Glos. 

* Witts, G. B., C.E., Hill House, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. 
Wollaston, G. H., M.A. 

Wollaston, Mrs. S. C. 

Wood, Jos. Foster, 58 Lower Redland Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Wood, Walter B., 12 Queen Street, Gloucester. 

Woodward, Miss E. K., M.A., High School, College Green, 
Gloucester. 

Woollard, W. C, 13 Hughenden Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Woollright, Major, Junr. U.S. Club, Charles Street, London, S.W. 
Worsley, Capt. H. Mant, Lulworth House, Keynsham, near Bristol. 
Wright, Major, Hidcote House, Chipping Campden, Glos. 
Wright, Jno. Alfred, C.E., 122 Brynland Avenue, Bishopston, Bristol. 

Yabbicom, Col. T. H., C.E., Isleworth, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Young, C.E.B., Daylesford House, Chipping Norton, Oxon 
Young, Jas., M.D., Clouds Hill House, St. George, Bristol. 

Zachary, Henry, Bartonbury, Cirencester. 



Literary Societies exchanging Transactions with this Society : 



The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, National Museum of Antiquities, 
Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

The Royal Society of Antiquaries (Ireland), Dublin. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 20 
Hanover Square, London, W. 

The British Archaeological Association, 32 Sackville Street, London, W. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute, Archaeological Section, Birming- 
ham. 

The Cambrian Archaeological Society, 28 Great Ormond Street, London, 
W.C. 

The Clifton Antiquarian Club, Hon. Sec, A. E. Hudd, Esq., F.S.A., 94 
Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

The Royal Institute of Cornwall, Museum, Truro, Cornwall. 

The Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club, Hon. Sec, L. Richardson, Esq., 
F.G.S., 10 Oxford Parade, Cheltenham. 

The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Hon. Sec, 
Percy N. Currey, Esq., 3 Market Place, Derby. 

The Essex Archaeological Society, The Lawn, Coggeshall, Essex. 

The Kent Archaeological Society, Museum, Maidstone, Kent. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, The Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The Powys Land Club, Museum and Library, Welshpool. 

The William Salt Archaeological Society, Stafford, Hon. Sec, Major-Gen. 
The Hon. G. Wrottesley. 

The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, 
Taunton. 

The Shropshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Society, Hon. Sec, F. Goyne, 
Esq., Dogpole, Shrewsbury. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Hon. Sec, 
Rev. F. E. Warren, Bury St. Edmunds. 

The Surrey Archaeological Society, Castle Arch, Guildford. 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, Lewes, Sussex. 

The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Devizes, Wilts. 

The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association, Hon. 
Librarian, E. K. Clarke, Esq., 10 Park Street, Leeds. 

The Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S A 



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TERMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 



Those who are desirous of joining the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 

I. As Life Members for a Composition of £5, and an Admission 
Fee of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members upon payment of 10s. 6d. Entrance Fee, and 
an annual subscription of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gratuitously, the annual volume of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The Annual Subscription becomes due on the 1st of January, and the 
Hon. Treasurer, Mr. G. M. Currie, will be obliged if members 
will send their subscriptions to him at 26 Lansdown Place, 
Cheltenham. 

By order of the Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 



Application for admission as members to be made to one of the 
Hon. Local Secretaries, or to the 

REV. CANON WILLIAM BAZELEY, M.A., 
Matson Rectory, 

Gloucester, 

Hon. General Secretary. 



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